Wilton-Fijenoord shipyard in Schiedam in 1984
|Fate||Bought by Damen Group|
|Successor||Damen Shiprepair Rotterdam (DSR)|
|Founded||7 January 1854Rotterdamin|
|Products||Warships, Passenger ships, Tankships and Cargo ships|
- 1 Predecessors of Wilton-Fijenoord
- 2 Wilton-Fijenoord
- 3 Ships built
- 4 References
- 5 Notes
- 6 External links
Predecessors of Wilton-Fijenoord
Wilton-Fijenoord had two predecessors:
Wilton's Dok- en Werf Maatschappij NV
Wilton's Dok- en Werf Maatschappij was the biggest predecessor of Wilton-Fijenoord, the other was:
Maatschappij voor Scheeps- en Werktuigbouw Fijenoord
In 1823 the Nederlandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij (NSBM), a shipping line, was founded by Gerhard Mauritz Roentgen. The Shipping line first ordered some ships locally. It ordered their engines from Cockerill based on designs and advice from Roentgen. The NSBM wanted to prevent its knowledge from leaking away via Cockerill. A few years later the NSBM and Cockerill got into conflict about this. As a result the NSBM founded its own repair shop for steam engines in 1827. This repair shop became known as Etablissement Fijenoord
The Compound engine
Roentgen started some experiments. At his new shipyard he constructed the steam tugboat Hercules (1829-1830). Her engine had two high pressure cylinders and one low-pressure cylinder and was direct-acting. With it Roentgen (or his company) had invented a compound engine that could be used in ships. The invention could not be used for sea-going vessels, because it required fresh water to be injected in the condensers. The invention was of great significance for the company because it gave the NSBM a competetive advantage. Especially its steam tugboats were more powerful and yet more economical than those of the competition.
The second experiment by Roentgen was the modification (lengthening) of an existing war frigate for steam paddle propulsion. The frigate Rijn was towed out of the water at the Rijkswerf_Vlissingen in the late 1820s. It was cut in two in order to insert a section for a paddle wheel and engine by Cockerill. The experiment failed, but predates the conversion of HMS Penelope, which began in 1842 by about 15 years. The third experiment led to NSBM directing the construction of the Atlas; it was the world's biggest steam ship in 1828, but was not rigid enough for steam propulsion.
Ships for the NSBM lines
One of the main shipping lines of the NSBM was her line to London. For this line Fijenoord launched the screw ship Maasstroom in 1869, the steam paddle ship Batavier II in 1872, the screw ship Holland in 1874, and the screw ship Fijenoord in 1879.
The shipyard faced many challenges when it wanted to enter the market for ocean liners. Dutch shipping companies had insufficient confidence in the capabilities of the indigenous industry and therefore used to order their ocean going steamers in Great Britain. In turn this meant that the Dutch shipyards did not acquire any experience in building these ships. To break this deadlock the NSBM built a big ship at Fijenoord on speculation. (The idea was that if it would not get sold, the NSBM would use it for a line to the Dutch East Indies) On 27 April 1881 the Nederland of 98 m was launched. She sailed to Baltimore in September 1881, and with an efficient coal consumption of only 0.86 kg/hp/h she proved a complete success. In May 1882 the Nederland was sold to the Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoomvaartmaatschappij (NASM), who renamed her Leerdam. (The NASM used to name her ships for places ending on 'Dam', the NASM is now named Holland America Line, and continues this practice)
The fact that Fijenoord got an order for the second ocean liner, the Zaandam, meant that the gamble to construct the Nederland paid off: With the Nederland still on the slipway, the Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoomvaartmaatschappij ordered the comparable Zaandam without actual proof of the mechanical capabilities of the Nederland. The Zaandam was laid down in early May 1881, before the trial run of the Nederland in August. She was launched in May 1882, and in October 1882 she arrived in New York. However successful these two ships were, the NSBM lost money on them, because her costs were too high.
The order for a third ocean liner, the Edam, came about by an accident. In August 1881 a steamship Edam had been launched for the NASM in Dumbarton. On 1 January 1882 this ship left Rotterdam for New-York, and suffered so much damage in a storm, that she had to be saved by the Napier of captain Anderson. The Edam re-entered service, but on 21 September 1882 she was hit midships by SS Lepanto and sank in 20 minutes. In October 1882 the NASM then contracted with Fijenoord for a new Edam of comparable dimensions, but made of steel. The new Edam was launched on 30 August 1883.
In 1895 the name of the shipyard was changed to NV Maatschappij voor Scheeps- en Werktuigbouw Fijenoord. As such it would merge with NV Dok en Werf Maatschappij to become Wilton-Fijenoord.
World War 1
During the First World War Fijenoord made high profits.
The merger of Wilton and Fijenoord
By the mid 1920s the shipyards Wilton and Fijenoord had become rather similar. Wilton still had an advantage in ship repair, and Fijenoord was still ahead in ship construction, especially for the navy. The idea for a merger dated as far back as at least 1927. The rationale was that the still profitable Wilton company had a major overcapacity and was spread over two locations. The activities of Fijenoord could just as well be done in Schiedam. A concentration of the combined activities in Schiedam would lead to major cost savings. In 1929 talks led to an agreement for a financial merger between the companies. Shares in Wilton and shares in Fijenoord were exchanged for shares in a new united company: Dok- en Werf-Maatschappij Wilton-Fijenoord. The ratio between worth of Wilton and Fijenoord was 15.5 : 3.
A new Board of directors was formed by combining the Board of directors of Wilton with that of Fijenoord. It had seven members, of which three from the Wilton family. The merger had taken place by creating a new public company that got all the shares of the existing companies. This was a fast way to merge, but it also meant that the organisations themselves continued to exist from a legal as well as an organizational perspective. These had a rather different culture. Many Wilton employees thought the Fijenoord men to be too precise and arrogant. Fijenoord employees tended to look at the Wilton men as disorganized, improvising and rude.
The Great Depression
The Great Depression that started in November 1929 came at a very bad moment for Wilton-Fijenoord. Economic activity came to an almost complete standstill with regard to orders for new ships. Massive lay-offs reduced the number of employees at the company from 7,790 at the end of 1929 to 3,849 at the end of 1930, a decrease of 50%. In this crisis Wilton-Fijenoord faced a difficult decision. Should it radically concentrate all activity in Schiedam, and hope that the high cost for the move would be earned back by cost-savings? Or, should it evade the cost of the move by continuing at multiple locations? In 1932 the board decided to close down the Fijenoord location, and to move the activities on the Westkousdijk (Delfshaven) to Schiedam as much as possible.
Meanwhile the crisis grew ever darker. Dividend payments were stopped, reserves were shrinking, and even the payment of interest became doubtful. The costs of the move to Schiedam also proved higher than estimated. Of course cost cutting was somewhat effective, but it was not enough. In 1932 the order for HNLMS De Ruyter (1935) gave some air to the company. A few repair orders were also profitable. In 1935 the three floating dock were towed to Schiedam. Nevertheless, in 1935 the repair orders hit an absolute low, with 301 ships for 1,622,960 rtb. On 29 January 1936 the board then proposed to postpone the repayment of part of open bonds by 1 year. The department of defense intervened by giving advance payments on submarine mine layers. In the end a government guarantee of a private loan of 1,500,000 guilders finally saved the company.
The construction of tankers was the only kind of civilian construction that kept the large Dutch shipyards afloat. In November 1933 the Anglo-Saxon Petroleum company (part of Royal Dutch Shell) placed an order for three tankers of 12,000 tons capacity. One at NSM, one at RDM and one at Wilton-Fijenoord. The tanker at Wilton got the name Rapana In the whole year 1934, Wilton-Fijenoord did not receive any order for a new ship. At the end of 1934 the work on the Rapana was the only work on new merchant ships still ongoing. In early 1935 the Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij, another subsidiary of Shell, ordered 6 tankers for 6,000,000 guilders. The NSM would build the two largest of 12,100 ton. Wilton-Fijenoord would build two of the four ships of 9,250 ton capacity each. The order came in on 5 February 1935 and would permit Wilton to keep her slipways reasonably filled. In late 1935 Wilton-Fijenoord got another order for a 9,100 ton tanker. On 18 January 1936 the Eulota of 9,100 tons was launched. On 25 April 1936 the Elusa was launched. On 7 November 1936 the third 9,100 ton capacity ship Eulima was launched. In early November 1936 Wilton-Fijenoord got a new order for one tanker of 12,000 tons and one tanker of 9,000 tons.
The Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij was active in the Dutch East Indies. It was a subsidiary of Standard Oil Company of California, later (Chevron Corporation). In May 1936 it ordered a 12,000 tons tanker at Wilton-Fijenoord. In June 1936 the Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij then signed a contract for oil exploration in a big area of southern Sumatra. On 6 March 1937 this Tanker called Nederland was launched.
Gradual improvement of the situation (1936)
A notorious problem for the Dutch yards before the Second World War, was the lack of design capabilities. Accordingly, Wilton-Fijenoord had to buy the vessel designs from independent design companies and developed only the detailed structures. By a cartel agreement, four Dutch yards including Wilton-Fijenoord formed a joint design office in 1935. As a contractor, the yard contributed mainly its expertise in organizing the construction of ships.
End of Wilton-Fijenoord as an independent company
In 1999, Wilton-Fijenoord was integrated into Rotterdam United Shipyards. In 2003, the company was acquired by Damen Group.
- Passenger liners:
- Maasstroom, launched in 1869 for NSBM London line
- Batavier II, launched in 1872 for NSBM London line
- Holland, launched in 1874 for NSBM London line
- Fijenoord, launched in 1879 for NSBM London line
- Leerdam, launched in 1881 launched as Nederland for NSBM, sold May 1882 to Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoomvaartmaatschappij, renamed Leerdam
- Zaandam, launched in 1882 for Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoomvaartmaatschappij
- Edam, launched in 1883 for Nederlandsch-Amerikaansche Stoomvaartmaatschappij
- Fairstar, launched in 1964 for Sitmar Line
- Maasdam, launched in 1952 for Holland America Line
- Statendam, launched in 1956 for Holland America Line
- Whaling factory:
- J.B. Aug. Kessler, launched in 1902 and 29 others built for Shell Royal Dutch
- Rapana, for Anglo-Saxon Petroleum
- Eulota, launched in 1936 for Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij
- Elusa, launched in 1936 for Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij
- Eulima, launched in 1936 for Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij
- Nederland, launched in 1937 for Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (Standard Oil of California)
- Poitou, launched in 1954 for Société Française de Transports Pétroliers
- Cargo/passenger ships:
- Camphuys, launched in 1949 for Koninklijke Java China Paketvaart Lijnen
- HNLMS De Ruyter (1935), a unique cruiser launched in 1935
- HNLMS De Ruyter, a De Zeven Provinciën class cruiser launched in 1944
- German destroyer T61, a Flottentorpedoboot 1940 class destroyer
- HNLMS Gelderland (D811), a Holland class destroyer
- HNLMS Overijssel (D815), a Friesland class destroyer
- HNLMS O 19, an O 19 class submarine
- HNLMS O 20, an O 19 class submarine
- HNLMS O 25, an O 21 class submarine
- HNLMS Potvis (S804), a Potvis class submarine
- HNLMS Tonijn (S805), a Potvis class submarine
- Hai Lung, ROC Navy
- Hai Hu, ROC Navy
- HNLMS Philips van Almonde (F823), a Kortenaer class frigate
- HNLMS Bloys van Treslong (F824), a Kortenaer class frigate
- KRI Fatahillah (361), a Fatahillah-class frigate for the Indonesian Navy
- KRI Malahayati (362), a Fatahillah-class frigate for the Indonesian Navy
- KRI Nala (363), a Fatahillah-class frigate for the Indonesian Navy
- Elli (ΕΛΛΗ) (F450) and Limnos (ΛΗΜΝΟΣ) (F451) – frigates for the Greek Navy
- HNLMS Dokkum, a Dokkum-class minesweeper
- HNLMS Overijssel, a Dokkum-class minesweeper
- HNLMS Roermond, a Dokkum-class minesweeper
- Lintsen, H.W. (1993), Geschiedenis van de techniek in Nederland. De wording van een moderne samenleving 1800-1890. Deel IV
- Lintsen, H.W. (1994), Geschiedenis van de techniek in Nederland. De wording van een moderne samenleving 1800-1890. Deel V
- Westerman, M. (1829), De Nederlandsche Hermes, Tijdschrift voor Koophandel, Zeevaart en Nijverheid (vierde jaargang n1)
- Nationaal Archief (1966), INVENTARIS VAN HET ARCHIEF VAN WILTON FIJENOORD
- West, van, S. (1954), "Jubileumnummer 7 Januari 1954", Wilton Fijenoord Nieuws
- "Inventaris van het het archief van Wilton-Fijenoord 1875–1985" (PDF) (in Dutch). Archief Gemeente Schiedam. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- Nedships.nl (in Dutch)
- Westerman 1829, p. 42.
- Lintsen 1993, p. 75.
- Lintsen 1994, p. 230.
- Lintsen 1993, p. 78.
- Lintsen 1993, p. 95.
- Lintsen 1993, p. 96.
- "Binnenland". De Maasbode. 3 May 1881.
- "Stoomvaart-Berichten". Algemeen Handelsblad. 14 August 1881.
- "Binnenland". De Standaard. 27 September 1882.
- "Gemengd Nieuws". De Standaard. 31 August 1883.
- West, van 1954, p. 20.
- "Wilton-Fijenoord de Fusievoorstellen". De Maasbode. 1 July 1929.
- West, van 1954, p. 21.
- West, van 1954, p. 24.
- "Tankschepen voor de Anglo-Saxon". Algemeen Handelsblad. 18 November 1933.
- "Scheepsbouw". Algemeen Handelsblad. 10 November 1934.
- "Dok- en Werf-Mij. Wilton-Fijenoord". Algemeen Handelsblad. 23 March 1935.
- "Werk voor de scheepswerven". De Tĳd. 4 February 1935.
- "Werk voor de scheepsbouwers". Eindhovensch dagblad. 11 December 1935.
- "Het nieuwe tankschip voor de Shell". De grondwet. 21 January 1936.
- "Motortankschip Eulima te water gelaten". Het Vaderland. 10 November 1936.
- "Groote bestelling van tankschepen". Haagsche courant. 3 November 1936.
- "In Enkele Regels". De Grondwet. 19 May 1936.
- "Opsporingsvergunning over 600.000 H.A." De Sumatra post. 13 June 1936.
- Gerbrand Moeyes, Networks in Dutch Shipping and Shipbuilding, 1900–1940, in: L. U. Scholl, D. M. Williams, Crisis and Transition. Maritime Sectors in the North Sea Region 1790–1940, 8th North Sea History Conference Bremerhaven 2005. Bremen: Hauschild 2008, pp.196–215.
- Whittaker, Wayne (June 1955). "Whaler to Double as Super Tanker". Popular Mechanics. 106 (6): 97. ISSN 0032-4558. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- J.B. August Kessler helderline.nl, Retrieved l6 May 2015