William Henry Sleeman
|Born||8 August 1788|
|Died||10 February 1856 (aged 67)|
At sea near Ceylon
|Occupation||Army officer, civil servant|
|Known for||Thuggee suppression|
Major-general Sir William Henry Sleeman KCB (8 August 1788 – 10 February 1856) was a British soldier and administrator in British India. He is best known for his work from the 1830s in suppressing the organized criminal gangs known as Thuggee.
Early life and career
In 1809 Sleeman joined the Bengal Army and later served in the Nepal War between 1814–1816. He contracted malaria in 1813, symptoms of which occasionally reappeared for the remainder of his life with sometimes debilitating intensity.
In 1820 he was selected for civil employ, and became junior assistant to the Governor-General's agent in the Saugor and Nerbudda territories. In 1822 he was placed in charge of Narsinghpur District, and would later describe his two years in the role as by far the most laborious of his life. He was gazetted to the rank of Captain in 1825, and in 1828 assumed charge of Jubbulpore District. In 1831 he transferred to Sagar district to cover for a colleague on leave. Upon his colleague's return, Sleeman continued with magisterial duties in Sagar until 1835. He displayed a facility for languages, becoming fluent in Hindi-Urdu and developing a working knowledge of many other languages of the subcontinent. Later in his life, Sleeman was described as "probably the only British officer to address the King of Oudh in correct Urdu and Persian." His 800-page report on Oudh is still highly regarded as among the most accurate and comprehensive studies of the kingdom during the 1800s.
Sleeman became the earliest discoverer of dinosaur fossils in Asia when in 1828, serving as a Captain in the Narmada valley region, he noticed several basaltic formations which he identified as having been "raised above the waters". By digging around in the Bara Simla Hills, part of the Lameta formation near Jabalpur, he unearthed several petrified trees, as well as some fragmentary dinosaur fossil specimens. Subsequently he sent these specimens to London and to the Indian Museum in Calcutta. In 1877 the genus was named Titanosaurus Indicus by Richard Lydekker, but the taxonomic position is in doubt. Sleeman wrote about wild children who had been raised by wolves with his notes on six cases. This was first published in the first volume of his Journey through the kingdom of Oude in 1848-1850 (1858) and reprinted in 1852 as An Account of Wolves Nurturing Children in Their Dens, by an Indian Official and in The Zoologist (1888 12(135):87-98). This caught the imagination of many and ultimately inspired Rudyard Kipling's Mowgli character in The Jungle Book.
While Sleeman maintained a chauvinistic belief in the superiority of British culture, he simultaneously held an insatiable curiosity about the people and cultures of India and demonstrated some uncommonly liberal views for a European of his time. Unlike the vast majority of British officers, he was never known to have used slurs like "niggers" or "blacks" to describe his Indian household servants or sepoy soldiers. When travelling, Sleeman made a point of meeting the local peoples in each city or district to understand their customs and opinions – including regarding British occupation. Sleeman also developed an abiding sympathy and respect for "respectable peasants" who he described as "some of the best men I have ever known".
Sleeman is best known for his work suppressing the Thuggee secret society. Dating back as early as the 1300s, Thugs were a secret criminal group, partly hereditary in membership, who specialized in the murder by strangulation of travelers as a prelude to theft. Thugs had been known to native rulers and occasionally to Europeans, but the scope of their crimes was not appreciated (later estimated at least in the tens of thousands of victims across India). In 1835, Sleeman captured "Feringhea" (also called Syeed Amir Ali, on whom the novel Confessions of a Thug is based) and got him to turn King's evidence. He took Sleeman to a grave with a hundred bodies, told the circumstances of the killings, and named the Thugs who had done it. After initial investigations confirmed what Feringhea had said, Sleeman started an extensive campaign, being appointed General Superintendent of the operations for the Suppression of Thuggee and in February 1839, he assumed charge of the office of Commissioner for the Suppression of Thuggee and Dacoity. During these operations, more than 1400 Thugs were hanged or transported for life. One of them, Bahram, confessed to having strangled 931 persons with his turban. Detection was only possible by means of informers, for whose protection from the vengeance of their associates a special prison was established at Jabalpur (at the time Jubbulpore). Sleeman had a Government Report made in 1839. Sleeman wrote three books about the Thugs: Ramaseeana, or a Vocabulary of the peculiar language used by Thugs; Report on the Depredations Committed by the Thug Gangs of Upper and Central India; and The Thugs or Phansigars of India.
British Resident and later life
Sleeman served as Resident at Gwalior from 1843 to 1849, and at Lucknow from 1849 to 1856. Whilst Resident at Lucknow he survived three assassination attempts. He was also opposed to the annexation of Oudh by Lord Dalhousie, but his advice was disregarded. Sleeman believed that British authorities should annex only regions of India that were plagued by violence, unjust leadership or poor infrastructure and thus maintained that native leadership should be left in place when their rule was even-handed.
Whilst in Jubbulpore, he married Amélie Josephine, the daughter of Count Blondin de Fontenne, a French nobleman. They had seven children. His second daughter, Henrietta, was married to William Alexander Ross, an uncle of Sir Ronald Ross. A grandson of Sleeman, Colonel Sir James Lewis Sleeman, who also wrote about thuggee and shikar (big game hunting), became a pioneer of wildlife photography in India.
In popular culture
Sleeman is featured in the novel The Strangler Vine by Miranda Carter (2015)
- "Pedigree Chart for Major General William Henry Sleeman: Geneagraphie - Families all over the world". Geneagraphie. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Dash, p. 113
- Dash, p. 114-115
- Dash, Mike. Thug: the true story of India's murderous cult ISBN 1-86207-604-9, 2005, p 115
- William Sleeman. "Rambles and Recollections of an Indian official" (PDF). p. 127. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Sahni, Ashok (2001). Dinosaurs of India. National Book Trust, New Delhi. ISBN 81-237-3109-4.
- "Background". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
-  Archived 4 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Sleeman, W.H. (1858). A journey through the kingdom of Oude in 1849-1850. Volume 1. London: Richard Bentley. pp. 206–222.
- Zingg, Robert M. (1940). "Feral Man and Extreme Cases of Isolation". The American Journal of Psychology. 53 (4): 487–517. doi:10.2307/1417630.
- Hotchkiss, Jane (2001). "The jungle of Eden: Kipling, wolf boys, and the colonial imagination". Victorian Literature and Culture. 29 (2): 435–449. doi:10.1017/s1060150301002108.
- Dash, p. 115
- Twain, Mark; Produced by David Widger (18 August 2006). "Following the Equator" (ASCII). EBook. Project Gutenberg. p. Chapter xlvi. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
This file should be named 2895.txt or 2895.zip
- Masters, John. 1952. The Deceivers. The Viking Press, 237 pages
- Dash, p. 115
- Bates, Crispin (1995). "Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry". In Robb, Peter (ed.). The Concept of Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-19-563767-0. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- Dash, Mike Thug: the true story of India's murderous cult ISBN 1-86207-604-9, 2005, page ?
- Ross, Ronald (1923). Memoirs with a full account of the Great Malaria Problem and its solution. London: John Murray. p. 7.
- Martine van Woerkens; Catherine Tihanyi (2002). The Strangled Traveler: Colonial Imaginings and the Thugs of India. University of Chicago Press. p. 263.
- Sleeman, Sir James L. (1947). From Rifle to Camera. The reformation of a big game hunter. London: Jarrolds.
- This entry incorporates public domain text originally from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Brown, Mark (2003). "Ethnology and Colonial Administration in Nineteenth-Century British India: The Question of Native Crime and Criminality". The British Journal for the History of Science. 36 (2): 201–219. JSTOR 4028233.