Combined coat of arms of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex
|Date||19 May 2018|
|Venue||St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle|
|Location||Windsor, Berkshire, England|
The wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle was held on 19 May 2018 in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in the United Kingdom. The groom, Prince Harry, is a member of the British royal family; the bride, Meghan Markle, is a former American actress.[note 1] On the morning of the wedding, Prince Harry's grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, conferred upon him the titles of Duke of Sussex, Earl of Dumbarton and Baron Kilkeel. On her marriage, Markle became Duchess of Sussex. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, officiated at the wedding using the standard Anglican church service for Holy Matrimony published in Common Worship, the liturgical text of the Church of England. The traditional ceremony was noted for the inclusion of African American culture.
- 1 Announcement of engagement
- 2 Wedding
- 3 Coverage
- 4 Titles
- 5 Reactions
- 6 Honeymoon
- 7 Footnotes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Announcement of engagement
Prince Harry is the second son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. He and Meghan Markle, an American actress best known for her role in the Canadian-American legal-drama television series Suits, have been in a relationship since 2016, having first met in July 2016. The relationship was officially acknowledged on 8 November 2016, when a statement was released from the royal family's communications secretary addressing the "wave of abuse and harassment" directed toward Markle.
On 27 November 2017, Clarence House announced that Prince Harry would marry Markle in the spring of 2018. They were engaged earlier the same month in London, with the Prince giving Markle a bespoke engagement ring made by Cleave and Company, the court jewellers and medalists to the Queen, consisting of a large central diamond from Botswana, with two smaller diamonds from his mother's jewellery collection. At the same time, it was announced that they would live at Nottingham Cottage in the grounds of Kensington Palace following their marriage.
The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh expressed their delight at the news, while congratulations came in from various political leaders, including the British Prime Minister, Theresa May, and the Leader of the Opposition, Jeremy Corbyn. After the announcement, the couple gave an exclusive interview to Mishal Husain of BBC News.
During the public announcement of the engagement at Kensington Palace's Sunken Gardens, Markle wore a bottle knee-length emerald green dress with bow detailing at the cinched waist by Italian label P.A.R.O.S.H and a white trench coat by Canadian brand Line the Label. Hours after the announcement, the website of Line the Label crashed down due to the number of people who were trying to order the coat.
Markle is the second American[note 2] and the first person of mixed race heritage to marry into the British royal family. The engagement announcement prompted much comment about the possible social significance of Markle becoming a proudly mixed-race royal.
Under the terms of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, the first six persons in the line of succession require the Sovereign's consent in order to marry. Harry was fifth in line at the time of his engagement. The Queen's consent was declared to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom on 14 March 2018.
Although Markle attended a private Catholic school in her early years, she is not Roman Catholic. On 6 March 2018, she was baptised and confirmed into the Church of England by the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby at St. James's Palace. Although Markle was divorced, the Anglican Church has permitted marriage to divorced persons with a living former spouse since 2002. After the engagement, Markle began the years-long process of becoming a British citizen. She will retain her U.S. citizenship during the process, but Kensington Palace have indicated that the decision on whether she will retain dual nationality has not yet been made. Retaining U.S. citizenship is expected to create tax complications. The couple was invited to celebrate Christmas 2017 with the royal family at the Queen's Sandringham estate. The official engagement photographs were taken by Alexi Lubomirski (a former assistant to Mario Testino) at Frogmore House, and were issued by Kensington Palace on 21 December 2017.
To mark the wedding of Harry and Meghan, the Royal Mint produced an official UK £5 coin, showing the couple in profile. In May, a set of commemorative postage stamps, featuring the couple's official engagement photographs, was issued by Royal Mail.
Unlike the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, the wedding day of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle was not declared a bank holiday. The wedding was on the same date as the FA Cup Final, which Prince Harry's brother William normally attends in his role as President of the Football Association. Holding the royal wedding on a weekend is a break with the royal tradition of having weddings on a weekday. On 12 February 2018, Kensington Palace announced that the ceremony would commence at 12:00 Midday BST.
The wedding took place on Saturday, 19 May 2018, at St George's Chapel, Windsor. The chapel had previously been the venue for the weddings of Prince Harry's uncle, the Earl of Wessex, as well as that of his cousin, Peter Phillips, and for the blessing of the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall, Harry's stepmother.
The royal family announced that they would pay for the wedding. The costs for the cake, the florist, and the catering had been estimated to be £50,000, ��110,000, and £286,000 respectively, and the overall cost was expected to be around £32 million. The security costs were expected to be lower than those of the 2011 wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. By the end of May, it was estimated that the security costs were "between £2 million and £4 million". The police and crime commissioner could also apply for special funding if the costs were to exceed 1% of the Thames Valley Police force's annual budget, but at the time the cost was "well below the £4 million required to make a claim". The Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead reportedly spent £2.6 million on cleaning the town and roads. It was predicted that the wedding would trigger a tourism boom and boost the economy by up to £500 million.
Bride and bridesmaids
The wedding dress was designed by the British designer Clare Waight Keller under the aegis of the fashion house Givenchy. It was made of "double-bonded silk cady cushioned by an underskirt in triple silk organza" and had a boat neckline, long sleeves and sweeping train. The silk veil was 16 feet (4.9 m) long and was embroidered with 55 flowers, representing the 53 countries of the Commonwealth, as well as Wintersweet, which grows in front of Nottingham Cottage, where she and Harry live, and the California Poppy, the state flower of California. It was secured by a diamond bandeau tiara, made in 1932 for Queen Mary and lent to Markle by Queen Elizabeth II. The centre brooch had been a wedding gift from the County of Lincoln in 1893. The tiara is a platinum band, made up of eleven sections, a detachable centre brooch with interlaced opals and diamonds. The shoes were also from Givenchy, and had a pointed couture design.
Other ensembles worn by the bride included white gold and diamond earrings and bracelet made by Cartier. Markle's hair was rolled up with "face-framing fringe tucked behind her ears", and was done by Serge Normant. Dior make-up artist Daniel Martin did Markle's makeup for the occasion. The look was described as "a soft brown eyeshadow" with minimal makeup on the face. Her nails were painted in a "neutral pink-y beige" for the ceremony. The bride's bouquet, designed by Philippa Craddock, contained "forget-me-nots, scented sweet peas, lily of the valley, astilbe, jasmine and astrantia, and sprigs of myrtle". The flowers were chosen by the groom who handpicked forget-me-nots in honour of his late mother Diana, Princess of Wales. After the wedding the bridal bouquet was placed on the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior at Westminster Abbey, following royal tradition that began with the Queen Mother. For the customary bridal themes of "Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue", Markle had her gown and veil (the "new"), the Queen's tiara (the "borrowed"), sprigs of myrtle taken from "a plant grown from the myrtle used in the Queen's wedding bouquet" and a piece of fabric from Diana, Princess of Wales's wedding gown (the "old"), and finally a piece of fabric from the dress she wore on their first date stitched in the veil (the "blue"). The young bridesmaids also wore high-waisted silk dresses designed by Clare Waight Keller which had puff sleeves.
Groom, best man and page boys
Prince Harry and the Duke of Cambridge wore the frock coat uniform of the Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) in which both were commissioned,[note 3] and Prince Harry served for 10 years, including in combat in Afghanistan. The uniforms were made by Dege & Skinner, gentleman's tailors and uniform makers, of Savile Row, London. The groom asked for and received the Queen's permission to keep his beard, as beards are only permitted under exceptional circumstances in the British Army. Prince Harry wore the rank of major with the star of the Royal Victorian Order, of which he is a Knight Commander, along with the ribbons of the Royal Victorian Order, Operational Service Medal for Afghanistan, Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal and Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, and Army Air Corps wings. Prince William, also with the rank of major, had EIIR cyphers on his shoulder straps and gold aiguillettes on his right shoulder (indicating his position as an aide-de-camp to the Queen), and wore the star of the Order of the Garter, the ribbons of the two jubilee medals, and his RAF wings. The pageboys wore uniforms by Dege & Skinner that resembled the uniform of the Blues and Royals worn by the groom and best man. Each page boy had his initials on the shoulders in place of rank badges.
On 26 April 2018, Kensington Palace announced that Prince Harry had selected his older brother, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, as his best man. There was initially no confirmation as to whether Prince William would miss the FA Cup Final, which he would normally attend in his role as President of The Football Association, or if he would be able to attend both the wedding and the football. A statement from Kensington Palace that the timing of the wedding would not clash with the match was released in December 2017. However, it was confirmed in March that the Duke would not be attending the final that day.
There were suggestions that the bride's friend Jessica Mulroney would be her maid of honour. In early May 2018, there was confirmation that there would be no maid of honour, and that the bridesmaids and page boys would all be children. A total of ten bridesmaids and page boys were chosen, with the bride and groom each selecting five: two of Markle's godchildren, seven-year old Rylan Ritt and her six-year-old sister Remi, as well as Brian, John and Ivy Mulroney, the three children of her friend Jessica Mulroney (and grand-children of Canada’s former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney), were chosen by the bride, while Prince Harry's nephew and niece, Prince George and Princess Charlotte of Cambridge, as well as his godchildren Florence van Cutsem, Zalie Warren and Jasper Dyer, were selected by the groom.
On 18 May 2018, Kensington Palace announced Prince Charles would accompany Markle down the aisle, after she confirmed her father, Thomas Markle Sr., would not be attending the wedding due to his recent heart surgery. The bride spent the night before the wedding at Cliveden House along with her mother, while the groom stayed at Coworth Park Hotel with his brother. Markle made her way to the church accompanied by her mother.
- Members of the Household Cavalry formed a staircase party at the chapel, and also rode as escort.[note 4]
- Street liners came from:
From 8.00 am, the public started to arrive at the grounds of Windsor Castle. The main congregation and the guests all started to arrive at the chapel at 9.30 am, followed by members of the Royal Family. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh were the last members of the Royal Family to depart for the ceremony, as is tradition, arriving at the chapel at 11.52 am. Shortly after, Markle arrived with the party of junior attendants. She proceeded down the aisle followed by the attendants, where the Prince of Wales met her to escort her through the quire of the chapel. He accompanied her to the altar, where Prince Harry was standing.
Prince Harry's maternal aunt, Baroness Fellowes, read a scripture lesson from The Song of Solomon in the Christian Bible. The Dean of Windsor, David Conner, conducted the service with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, performing the marriage ceremony. The sermon was delivered by The Most Reverend Michael Curry, presiding bishop and primate of the Episcopal Church (the American member church of the Anglican Communion). Curry's 14-minute address, which quoted Martin Luther King Jr., emphasised the redemptive property of love; its unexpected length caused the service to overrun by eight minutes. Chaplain to the Queen The Reverend Prebendary Rose Hudson-Wilkin and Coptic Orthodox Archbishop of London Anba Angaelos offered the prayers.
The marriage vows were those published in Common Worship, and included the promise to "to love and to cherish" each other. This was sealed by the exchange of rings. The wedding rings were created by Cleave and Company, with Markle's ring being fashioned out of Welsh gold and the Prince's ring made of platinum. After the signing of the registers, Harry and Markle together with the guests sang the national anthem. The couple paused briefly to bow and curtsey to the Queen before walking down the aisle. They were followed in procession by other members of the bridal party, and their families. The couple shared a kiss on the steps outside the chapel.
Hymns sung at the wedding included Lord of All Hopefulness and Guide Me, O Thou Great Redeemer. Prince Harry was seen wiping away a tear during the congregational singing of the latter, which was a favourite of his mother, Diana, Princess of Wales, and was sung at her funeral in 1997; it was also the opening hymn to William's wedding in 2011.
Two choirs, an orchestra, the chapel organ and fanfare trumpeters provided music for the service. The orchestra was made up of musicians from the BBC National Orchestra of Wales, the English Chamber Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra. In addition to the Choir of St George's Chapel, the Kingdom Choir, a gospel group led by Karen Gibson, sang "Stand By Me" in what was described as "an incredible and powerful moment", as the couple were sitting down. The State Trumpeters of the Household Cavalry, who played a fanfare, included Kate Sandford, the first female state trumpeter at a British royal wedding. The music was under the overall direction of James Vivian, the chapel's Organist and Director of Music; and the orchestra was conducted by Christopher Warren-Green.
The bride walked down the aisle to "Eternal source of light divine" (from the Ode for the Birthday of Queen Anne) by Handel, sung by soprano Elin Manahan Thomas, with the trumpet obbligato performed by David Blackadder. Other music during the service included the motet "If Ye Love Me" by Thomas Tallis; the song "Stand by Me" by Jerry Leiber, Mike Stoller and Ben E. King, arranged for choir by Mark Delisser; and "The Lord bless you and keep you" by John Rutter. During the signing of the register, 19-year-old cellist Sheku Kanneh-Mason and the orchestra played Sicilienne attributed to Maria Theresia von Paradis, Fauré's Après un rêve, and an arrangement for cello and orchestra of Schubert's Ave Maria. For the procession, the musicians performed the Allegro from the Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major by William Boyce and "This Little Light of Mine" by Etta James, Jester Hairston and Harry Dixon Loes.
Following the ceremony, there was a carriage procession through Windsor. Two receptions were held; the first, for those attending the ceremony, was hosted by the Queen and took place in St George's Hall after the carriage procession. Singer Elton John performed for the guests and the groom and the Prince of Wales each gave a speech. A second reception at Frogmore House, for family and close friends and hosted by the Prince of Wales, occurred later in the day. Harry drove his new wife to the reception at Frogmore in a silver blue Jaguar E-Type Concept Zero, with left-hand drive. For the evening reception, the Duchess of Sussex wore a halter-neck, open back dress by Stella McCartney and an emerald cut Aquamarine ring formerly belonging to Diana, Princess of Wales. George Northwood was her hairstylist for the private party. In a break with tradition, the bride made a speech at the event. The Duke of Cambridge also gave a best man's speech. DJ Idris Elba and The Atlantic Soul Orchestra performed at the event. The event ended with small fireworks displayed above Frogmore House.
Three official wedding photos were released. They were taken by photographer Alexi Lubomirski at Windsor Castle following the ceremony.
In April 2018, it was announced that an "official list" of domestic and international political leaders was not required for the wedding and that Prime Minister Theresa May, Leader of the Opposition Jeremy Corbyn, and other leaders would not attend the ceremony. President of the United States Donald Trump and former president Barack Obama were also not invited. This was in contrast to the wedding of Prince Harry's elder brother, which had a large number of such guests due to his position as a future monarch. The decision not to invite political leaders to the wedding was taken in part because of the limitations of the venue, and also took into account Prince Harry's position as sixth in line to the throne. The only politician invited was the former Prime Minister Sir John Major as he previously was "a special guardian on legal matters to Princes William and Harry after the death of their mother".
With a smaller ceremony and reception at St George's Hall, the guest list included approximately 600 people, most of whom have a "direct relationship" with the couple. Also, 200 close friends of the couple were invited to attend the evening reception at Frogmore House. Approximately 1,200 members of the public were invited to greet the couple outside the chapel in the grounds of Windsor Castle. The invitees outside the chapel were "people from charities, Windsor Castle community members, people from the royal households and the Crown Estate, and local school children".
Sarah, Duchess of York, the former wife of Prince Andrew, was invited to the wedding even though she had not been invited to the weddings of Prince William and Catherine Middleton in 2011, Peter Phillips and Autumn Kelly in 2008, or Zara Phillips and Mike Tindall in 2011. However, she was not invited to the evening reception at Frogmore House hosted by Prince Charles and was reportedly "deeply upset" by her omission.
Amongst the non-royal guests were Markle's Suits co-stars Patrick J. Adams (with wife Troian Bellisario), Gabriel Macht (with wife Jacinda Barrett), Sarah Rafferty, Rick Hoffman, Gina Torres and Abigail Spencer, actors George Clooney (with wife Amal Clooney), Idris Elba and Tom Hardy, actresses Oprah Winfrey, Priyanka Chopra and Carey Mulligan (with husband Marcus Mumford), television host James Corden, tennis player Serena Williams (with husband Alexis Ohanian), David and Victoria Beckham, musicians Sir Elton John (with husband David Furnish), James Blunt, Joss Stone, and rugby players Jonny Wilkinson and James Haskell. Megan's close friend, stylist Jessica Mulroney (with husband Ben Mulroney) and Harry's ex-girlfriends Cressida Bonas and Chelsy Davy were also in attendance. Other guests were members of the Middleton family.
The only foreign royal guests at the wedding were Prince Harry's friend Prince Seeiso of Lesotho, with whom he co-founded, after the death of both of their mothers, the Sentebale foundation to help AIDS-stricken orphans in Lesotho, and his wife Princess Mabereng.
Gifts for guests
The 2,640 members of the public invited to Windsor Castle for the wedding were gifted gift bags to commemorate the event. The bag had the initials of the couple, date and venue location printed on the exterior. Inside was an order of service booklet for the wedding, a gold chocolate coin, a bottle of water, a fridge magnet, a 20% off voucher for the Windsor Castle gift shop and a tube of handbag shortbread.
In April 2018, the couple requested that, rather than sending wedding gifts, people should make a donation to one of seven charitable organisations, none of which they had a formal association with:
- CHIVA (Children's HIV Association): The small charity supports more than 1,000 young people living with HIV in the UK and Ireland.
- Crisis: The national homeless body works with thousands of people a year to help rebuild their lives.
- The Myna Mahila Foundation: The organisation, based in Mumbai, helps empower women through offering stable employment and breaking cultural taboos around menstrual hygiene. Myna Mahila also teaches women life skills such as maths, English and self-defence.
- Scotty's Little Soldiers: The charity supports children who have lost a parent while serving in the British Armed Forces.
- StreetGames: The organisation uses sport to help young people and communities become healthier and safer.
- Surfers Against Sewage: The national marine conservation body works to protect oceans, beaches, waves and wildlife.
- The Wilderness Foundation UK: Vulnerable teenagers from urban communities are taught about the great outdoors and rural employment opportunities.
Peak viewing figures of 18 million were reported in the UK. About 29 million were reported to have watched in the United States, up from the 23 million Americans who watched the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton. The global audience was estimated to be in the hundreds of millions.
Coverage of the royal wedding in the UK was shown on BBC One, ITV, Sky News, CNN (International) and E! (Europe)  The wedding was also streamed live online on YouTube via the British Monarchy's official The Royal Channel. Huw Edwards hosted coverage for BBC TV with Desert Island Discs host Kirsty Young and BBC Radio 2 DJ Dermot O'Leary. The BBC Radio coverage was co-hosted by Chris Evans and Scarlett Moffatt. Phillip Schofield and Julie Etchingham hosted coverage for ITV. Kay Burley, Anna Botting and Alastair Bruce, among others, hosted coverage for Sky.
CBC broadcast the wedding in Canada with Adrienne Arsenault and retired broadcaster Peter Mansbridge presented live coverage that was simulcast on CBC Television, CBC Radio One and CBC News Network. TVNZ screened it in New Zealand along with SBS and Nine in Australia. The wedding received 4 million views in Australia.
In the United States coverage aired on CBS, NBC, ABC, E!, PBS, BBC America, TLC, FOX, and HBO. CBS's coverage began at 4 a.m. EDT with CBS Presents "The Royal Wedding" and Gayle King provided commentary during the broadcast. ABC began its coverage at 5 a.m. EDT with a special edition of Good Morning America. NBC aired the ceremony at 4:30 a.m. EDT with a special edition of The Today Show. The pay subscription network HBO hosted a live broadcast titled "The Royal Wedding Live with Cord and Tish!" starting at 7:30 a.m. EDT. The parody hosts were Cord Hosenbeck and Tish Cattigan, the alter egos of former Saturday Night Live actors Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon. BBC America provided a live simulcast of BBC One's coverage, albeit with limited commercial breaks.
Traditionally, royal princes have been awarded peerages prior to their marriages; this occurred with both of Prince Harry's uncles, the Duke of York and the Earl of Wessex, as well as his elder brother, the Duke of Cambridge. Hours before the wedding, Prince Harry was granted the titles Duke of Sussex, Earl of Dumbarton, and Baron Kilkeel, and Markle assumed the style "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Sussex" upon marriage.
The wedding was widely reported as being significant for its departure from tradition typically associated with the royal family and for its inclusion of African-American culture in the service. It was described as a "landmark for African Americans", for Black British, black and mixed-race women, and for the royal family itself. Other reports cited more limited impact, including that "Markle being biracial as opposed to African American impeded black people embracing her as one of their own".
The wedding, particularly Markle's choice of dress, as well as the cake and flowers, influenced the choices of other British brides for their weddings.
The couple did not leave for their honeymoon the day after their marriage, and were both scheduled to carry out public engagements in the week after the wedding. The location of the honeymoon has been kept secret, although the press speculated that they might be headed to locations such as Namibia, Rwanda, and Botswana.
- On official statements and wedding invitations, the couple were referred to as His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales and Ms. Meghan Markle.
- American Wallis Simpson married Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, in 1937, after his abdication, becoming the Duchess of Windsor, but without the style 'Royal Highness'.
- The Duke of Cambridge was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the British Army in December 2006 before joining the Blues and Royals as a troop commander. In January 2009, he transferred his commission to the Royal Air Force.
- Prince Harry served as an officer in the Blues and Royals.
- Prince Harry served with these units in Afghanistan.
- Two officers of the Royal Gurkha Rifles, Major Prakash Gurung MVO and Major Chandrabahadur Pun, served at the steps of the chapel as door openers. Major Pun served with Prince Harry during his first tour of Afghanistan; Major Gurung was the Prince's guide and escort during an official visit to Nepal in 2016.
- Prince Harry holds the appointment of Commodore-in-Chief, Small Ships and Diving.
- Prince Harry holds the appointment of Captain General Royal Marines.
- Prince Harry holds the appointment of Honorary Air Commandant, RAF Honington.
- "Prince Harry and Ms. Meghan Markle: Announcement of Titles". The Royal Family. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Ruffini, Karen (2018). "Who's Officiating The Royal Wedding? Justin Welby Is The Archbishop Of Canterbury". Elite Daily. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "What time does the royal wedding start: Full order of service". CNN. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Prince Harry, duke of Sussex - Biography, Facts, & Wedding". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- Kashner, Sam (October 2017). "Meghan Markle, Wild About Harry!". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- Vallance, Adam (8 November 2016). "A Statement by the Communications Secretary to Prince Harry". The Royal Family. Archived from the original on 27 September 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
- Clarence House [@ClarenceHouse] (27 November 2017). "The Prince of Wales is delighted to announce the engagement of Prince Harry to Ms. Meghan Markle. pic.twitter.com/zdaHR4mcY6" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017 – via Twitter.
- Furness, Hannah; Boyle, Danny (27 November 2017). "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle engaged: Royal knew fiancee was 'the one' from 'very first time we met'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- Siddique, Haroon; Watt, Holly; Booth, Robert (27 November 2017). "Prince Harry to marry Meghan Markle". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- Wallace, Francesca (28 November 2017). "All the details on Meghan Markle's engagement outfit". Vogue Australia. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- Newbold, Alice (27 November 2017). "Prince Harry And Meghan Markle Are Engaged". British Vogue. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- Sutcliffe, Laura (27 November 2017). "Meghan Markle's engagement look- how it differs from Duchess Kate". Hello! Fashion. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- "Palace: Prince Harry and Meghan Markle announce engagement". USA Today. 27 November 2017. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- Markle, Meghan (17 August 2015). "I'm More Than An 'Other'". Elle UK. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
My dad is Caucasian and my mom is African American ... I have come to embrace [this and] say who I am, to share where I'm from, to voice my pride in being a strong, confident, mixed-race woman.
- DeNeen L. Brown (27 November 2017). "Britain's black queen: Will Meghan Markle really be the first mixed-race royal?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- Gregory Katz, Associated Press (27 November 2017). "Britain not fazed by mixed-race fiancee for Prince Harry". ABC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- James Rodger (27 November 2017). "Mixed-race Meghan Markle tells of family encounters with racism". Birmingham Mail. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- Elaine Musiwa (28 November 2017). "The Problem With Calling Meghan Markle the 'First Black Princess'". Vogue. Archived from the original on 28 November 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- Luckel, Madeleine (15 February 2017). "Why Prince Harry Would Have to Get the Queen's Permission to Propose to Meghan Markle". Vogue. Archived from the original on 24 July 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "Instrument of Consent". Official Website of the British Royal Family. Royal Household, Buckingham Palace. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "The Queen Just Officially Gave Her Consent to Harry and Meghan — Using Their Real Names!".
- Kingsley, Patrick (28 November 2017). "Royal Engagement Seen as Symbol of Change, With Asterisks". Archived from the original on 1 January 2018 – via The New York Times.
- Walter, Stephen (8 March 2018). "Meghan Markle 'baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury ahead of wedding to Prince Harry'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- "Divorce in Christianity". BBC Religions. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- "From Wallis Simpson to Meghan Markle: How the Royals Came to Accept a Divorced Fiancée". Archived from the original on 16 December 2017.
- "Is Meghan Markle Jewish? Actress is getting baptized to marry Prince Harry". 28 November 2017. Archived from the original on 20 December 2017.
- "Prince Harry, Meghan Markle wedding date set for May 19". Archived from the original on 24 December 2017.
- Konish, Lorie (28 April 2018). "Meghan Markle's tax bill will get a lot more complicated after royal wedding".
- Reuters. "Britain's Prince Harry and Meghan Markle to marry on May 19".
- "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle engagement photos released". BBC News. 21 December 2017. Archived from the original on 21 December 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- "Royal Wedding 2018 UK £5 Brilliant Uncirculated Coin". The Royal Mint. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Pearl, Diana (17 May 2018). "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle Are Getting Two Commemorative Stamps in Honor of Their Wedding". People. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Prince Harry and Meghan: No wedding bank holiday planned". BBC. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Harry and Meghan to marry on 19 May 2018". BBC. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
- TimeInc. "Prince Harry And Meghan Markle's Wedding Date Conflicts With FA Cup". Rumble.
- "Royal Wedding". St George's Chapel. 28 November 2017. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017.
- "This Is What Royal Weddings at Windsor Are Really Like". Town & Country. 25 January 2018. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Adam Whitty. "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle to wed at Windsor Castle in May". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
The Royal Family will pay for the wedding, including the service, music, flowers and reception
- "Royal wedding 2018: Who's paying?". BBC. 17 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- McGoogan, Cara (9 May 2018). "How much will Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's Royal wedding cost?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Petroff, Alanna (17 May 2018). "The Royal Wedding: Who's picking up the tab?". CNN. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Grant 'may cover cost of policing'". BBC. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- "Prince Harry's wedding to Meghan Markle 'set to boost UK economy'". Reuters. 3 January 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "See Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's wedding invitations". NBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "The Wedding Dress, Bridesmaids' Dresses and Page Boys' Uniforms". The Royal Family. 19 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Meghan Markle's Givenchy dress in detail". BBC. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Friedman, Vanessa (19 May 2018). "Meghan Markle's Wedding Dress Was Made for a Person, Not a Princess". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Petit, Stephanie (19 May 2018). "Meghan Markle's 16-Foot Wedding Veil Has a Surprise Connection to the Commonwealth". People. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "The Wedding Dress, Bridesmaids' Dresses and Page Boys' Uniforms". The Royal Household. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- Engel Bromwich, Jonah (19 May 2018). "Meghan Markle's Tiara: It's Sparkly". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Meghan Markle's Wedding Tiara: Everything You Need to Know". brides. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- DeMarco, Anthony. "Meghan Markle's Royal Wedding Jewelry". Forbes. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Shunatona, Brooke (19 May 2018). "4 Ways Meghan Markle's Wedding Hair and Makeup Is Totally Different From Princess Diana and Kate's". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Meghan Markle's hair at her wedding had the internet freaking out". AOL Lifestyle. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Rosenstein, Jenna (19 May 2018). "How Meghan Markle's Royal Wedding Makeup Was Different From Kate Middleton's". Harper's Bazaar. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Nussbaum, Rachel; Schallon, Lindsay (19 May 2018). "Meghan Markle Followed the Queen's Nail Polish Rule for the Royal Wedding". Glamour. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Pearl, Diana (19 May 2018). "Prince Harry Picked Flowers for Meghan Markle's Bouquet — Plus, the Sweet Tribute to Princess Diana". People. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Bouquet laid on tomb of unknown warrior". BBC News. 20 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Abraham, Tamara (20 May 2018). "Meghan Markle's Old, New, Borrowed and Blue Wedding Details". Harper's Bazaar. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- Royce-Greensill, Sarah (21 May 2018). "Meghan Markle wears Diana's Asprey ring to her evening reception – a 'something blue' gift from Prince Harry". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- "Meghan's first date dress was her 'something blue'". BBC. 23 September 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- Mackintosh, Eliza (19 May 2018). "Meet Meghan's adorable bridal party". CNN. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Prince Harry and Meghan married at Windsor". BBC. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "I made Prince Harry's wedding outfit". Henley Standard. 28 May 2018. Archived from the original on 28 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Prince Harry wears frock-coat uniform of the Blues and Royals, Reuters, 19 May 2018
- Bruner, Raisa (19 May 2018). "Everything to Know About Prince Harry and Prince William's Matching Royal Wedding Outfits". Time. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Wedding Princes: Harry and William Wear Military Uniforms". The New York Times. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Revenge is sweet, says best man William". BBC News. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- Kensington Palace [@KensingtonRoyal] (26 April 2018). "Prince Harry has asked his brother The Duke of Cambridge to be his Best Man at his wedding to Ms. Meghan Markle" (Tweet). Retrieved 9 May 2018 – via Twitter.
- Flanagan, Aaron (18 December 2017). "Why Prince William will leave Harry's wedding early – despite brothers being incredibly close". The Mirror. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- Ship, Chris (27 March 2018). "Prince William will miss the FA Cup final to attend Harry and Meghan's wedding". ITV News. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- Szklarski, Cassandra (3 May 2018). "The royal wedding coronation of Jessica Mulroney". The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- Kindelan, Katie; Durand, Carolyn (5 April 2018). "Everything to know about Meghan Markle's stylist, close friend and wedding planner Jessica Mulroney". ABC News. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Meghan Markle's father to walk her down aisle". BBC News. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Princess Charlotte to be bridesmaid". BBC News. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- Furness, Hannah (16 May 2018). "Who are the bridesmaids and pageboys at the royal wedding? From Prince George to the Mulroneys". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Boyle, Danny; Furness, Hannah (18 May 2018). "Royal wedding live updates: Prince Charles to walk Meghan Markle down aisle but not give her away to Prince Harry". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Kensington Palace [@KensingtonRoyal] (17 May 2018). "A statement from Ms. Meghan Markle" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Royal wedding: Where will Meghan and Harry spend night before?". BBC. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Harry greets fans, Meghan arrives at hotel". BBC. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Princes Harry and William meet Windsor crowds". BBC. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "The Military at Prince Harry and Ms Meghan Markle's Wedding". royal.uk. 15 March 2018. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Royal Wedding support by the Brigade of Gurkhas". Brigade of Gurkhas. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Ali, Taz. "RAF personnel prepare for special Royal wedding ceremonial duties".
- Nwobodo, Beatrice (19 May 2018). "Guests arrive as Prince Harry and Meghan Markle set to marry – Fellow Press". Fellow Press. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: All you need to know". BBC. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- CNN, Max Foster and Judith Vonberg,. "Meghan Markle will begin bridal procession alone, in bold feminist statement". CNN. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Kensington Palace [@KensingtonRoyal] (18 May 2018). "An update on the Royal Wedding" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Harry and Meghan reveal wedding plans". 12 February 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Bishop Michael Bruce Curry to give sermon at royal wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle".
- "Royal wedding preacher: Who is Michael Curry?". BBC. 19 May 2018.
- on YouTube
- "Frock star". The Sun. 21 May 2018.
- Reporters, Telegraph (19 May 2018). "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's royal wedding: the order of service in full". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Order of service". BBC. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Sciarretto, Amy. "Meghan Markle's Wedding Jewelry Was Both A Nod To Tradition & A Break From It". Bustle. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Shahid, Sharnaz (19 May 2018). "Did Prince Harry and Meghan Markle forget to curtsy to the Queen?". Hello!. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Prince Harry and Meghan's first kiss". BBC. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Giddins, Kathy (19 May 2018). "Royal Wedding hymns – Lord Of All Hopefulness and Guide Me, O Thou Great Redeemer lyrics". The Sun. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Michael, Tom (20 May 2018). "Prince Harry appeared to wipe away tear as Diana's favourite hymn was played during Royal Wedding". The Sun. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "This Gospel Choir Singing 'Stand By Me' Was an Incredible and Powerful Moment at the Royal Wedding". 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Furness, Hannah (13 May 2018). "Harry and Meghan to include first female state trumpeter at a Royal Wedding as she stands by her husband's side" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "Music at the St George's Chapel Wedding Service". royal.gov.uk. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Teenage cellist and gospel choir to perform". BBC News. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Reporters, Telegraph (19 May 2018). "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's royal wedding: the order of service in full". Retrieved 20 May 2018 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "The Marriage of His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales with Ms Meghan Markle – Order of Service" (PDF). St.George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Meghan's evening dress revealed". BBC. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Fernandez, Alexia (19 May 2018). "Meghan Markle Honors Princess Diana by Wearing Her Aquamarine Ring for Wedding Reception". People. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Horton, Helena; Ward, Victoria (22 May 2018). "Meghan Markle and Prince Harry wedding speeches: The most moving lines and best jokes". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- Adams, Callum; Sawer, Patrick; Evans, Martin (22 May 2018). "Inside the royal wedding evening reception: Idris Elba turned DJ as Prince Harry and Meghan Markle danced to 1980s hits and R&B". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- "Meghan Markle Streamed This 'Chill' Spotify Playlist While Getting Ready for the Royal Wedding". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- "Reception fireworks above Frogmore House kicks off party". The Daily Telegraph. 20 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Sandringham elderflower cordial used in royal wedding cake". BBC. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Prince Harry and Meghan Markle choose cake". BBC. 20 March 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Harry and Meghan release wedding photos". BBC News. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Trump and Obama not attending". CNN. 10 April 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Barack Obama and Donald Trump not among guests". bbc.co.uk. 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "World leaders to miss union of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle". The Guardian. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's wedding reception venue revealed". Hello!. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Windsor Castle invitation for public". BBC. 2 March 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Brean, Joseph (10 May 2018). "Sarah, Duchess of York 'deeply upset' over snub from 'inner sanctum' royal wedding party". National Post.
- "Royal Wedding 2018: Pictures of the guests, from Oprah to Elton John". BBC. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Delap, Leanne (19 May 2018). "Gabriel Macht suits up for the royal wedding". The Star. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "All the Celebrities at Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's Royal Wedding". Elle. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "Royal Wedding: Sports stars Serena Williams & David Beckham among guests". 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- "People Are Confused By Ben Mulroney's Front-Row Seat At Royal Wedding". HuffPost Canada. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- Hughes, Roxanne (19 May 2018). "Royal Wedding 2018: Was Princess 'secretly sleeping' – TV viewers are in stitches".
- "Royal wedding guests sell gift bags online". BBC News. 21 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding: Harry and Meghan ask for charity donations". BBC. 9 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Royal Wedding Charitable Donations". The Royal Household. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- White, Peter (20 May 2018). "Royal Wedding Ratings: 18M Watch Prince Harry & Meghan Markle's Big Day In The UK". Deadline. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Patten, Dominic; Ramos, Dino-Ray (20 May 2018). "America's Mad About Harry and Meghan; Nearly 30M Watch Royal Wedding Live". Deadline. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- Waterson, Jim (20 May 2018). "Royal wedding confirmed as year's biggest UK TV event". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Spocchia, Gino (16 May 2018). "How to watch Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's royal wedding this Saturday". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- "The Royal Wedding of Prince Harry and Ms. Meghan Markle online". The Royal Family. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "BBC announces coverage for the Royal Wedding across TV and radio". BBC. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- "ITV announces Royal Wedding coverage plans". ITV. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
- Mills, Rhiannon (8 May 2018). "World first for Sky News UHD royal wedding coverage". Sky News. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- How to watch the royal wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle on CBC
- "Where to watch the Royal Wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle in Australia". 9Honey. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- Petski, Denise (15 May 2018). "How To Watch The Royal Wedding Of Prince Harry & Meghan Markle". Deadline. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- "How to watch the royal wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle". CBS News. 11 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- Kindelan, Katie; Durand, Carolyn (14 May 2018). "Everything you need to know about Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's royal wedding". ABC. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- Kim, Eun Kyung (11 April 2018). "TODAY is heading to Windsor for live coverage of royal wedding". The Today Show. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- "The Royal Wedding Live with Cord and Tish!". Home Box Office. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Everything You Need to Know About Royal Wedding Week on BBC America". BBC America. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "WATCH: What people on the streets of Dublin think of the royal wedding and RTÉ's decision to show it – Independent.ie".
- "Posh British commentator on royal wedding coverage was actually Tommy from New York". Stuff (Fairfax). 2 June 2018.
- "Essential Guide to the Peerage – Dukes". Debrett's. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- Boyle, Laura King, Christina. "A royal wedding for the 21st century: Prince Harry weds Meghan Markle amid calls for social justice". latimes.com. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Davies, Caroline (20 May 2018). "'It really was a black service': world reaction to royal wedding". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Foster, Angela (19 May 2018). "The diversity of this royal wedding reveals a Britain far removed from 1981". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Royal wedding 2018: Black bishop makes history, mentions slavery in American-style sermon". USA TODAY. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "African-Americans hail royal wedding's nod to black history, culture". Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Pitner, Barrett Holmes (20 May 2018). "Wedding 'landmark' for African Americans". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "What Meghan Markle means to black Brits". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Helmore, Edward; Wallace, Shenelle (12 May 2018). "The Markle effect: black women see the royal wedding as workplace inspiration". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Hazarika, Ayesha. "A woman of color joining the royal family is a big moment for Britain". CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- "Meghan Markle's potential impact – or lack of – on black Britain". Sky News. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Carroll, Rory (18 May 2018). "'It ain't no biggie': LA's black community responds to royal wedding". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
- Gillett, Francesca (25 June 2018). "Will British brides be influenced by Meghan?". BBC News. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Boyle, Danny (22 May 2018). "Royal wedding latest news: Meghan Markle and Prince Harry delay honeymoon to go straight back to work". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- Jacobs, Sherelle (21 May 2018). "Royal honeymoon: Where will the Duke and Duchess of Sussex go?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- Hardingham-Gill, Tamara (19 May 2018). "Where will Prince Harry and Meghan spend their honeymoon?". CNN. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- Mackelden, Amy (19 May 2018). "Where Will Meghan Markle and Prince Harry Honeymoon?". Harper's Bazaar. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.|