|Voiceless labialized velar approximant|
The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʍ⟩ (a rotated lowercase letter ⟨w⟩) or ⟨w��⟩.
[ʍ] is generally called a "fricative" for historical reasons, but in English, the language for which the letter ⟨ʍ⟩ is primarily used, it is a voiceless approximant, equivalent to [w̥] or [hw̥]. The symbol is rarely appropriated for a labialized voiceless velar fricative, [xʷ], in other languages.
Features of the voiceless labial-velar approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is labialized velar, which means it is articulated with the back part of the tongue raised toward the soft palate (the velum) while rounding the lips.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Chinese||Taiwanese Hokkien||沃花/ak-hue||[ʔak̚˥ʔ ʍeː˥]||'(to) water flowers'|
|English||American Theater Standard||whine||[ʍaɪ̯n]||'whine'||Commonly transcribed as /hw/ for simplicity; contrasts with /w/. In General American and New Zealand English only some speakers maintain the distinction; in Europe, mostly heard in Irish and Scottish accents. See English phonology and phonological history of wh.|
|Conservative Received Pronunciation|
|Cultivated South African|
|Conservative General American|
|Hupa||tł'iwh||[t͡ɬʼiʍ]||'snake'||Contrasts with /w/ and /xʷ/|
|Italian||Tuscan||la qualifica||[lä ʍäˈliːfihä]||'the qualification'||Intervocalic allophone of /kw/. See Italian phonology|
|Nahuatl||Cuauhtēmallān||[kʷaʍteːmalːaːn]||'Guatemala'||Allophone of /w/ before voiceless consonants|
|Slovene||vse||[ˈʍsɛ]||'everything'||Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable onset before voiceless consonants, in free variation with a vowel [u]. Voiced [w] before voiced consonants. See Slovene phonology|
|Washo||Wáʔi||[ˈw̥aʔi]||'he's the one who's doing it'|
- Skinner (1990), p. 335.
- Rogers (2000), p. 120.
- Rogers (2000), p. 117.
- "Australian English and New Zealand English" (PDF). p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
- "Received Pronunciation Phonology".
- Lass (2002), p. 121.
- "North American English: General Accents" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
- Wells (1982), p. 432.
- "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). pp. 4 and 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
- McMahon (2002), p. 31.
- Wells (1982), p. 408.
- "Scottish Standard English and Scots" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006).
- Wells (1982), p. 610.
- Hall (1944:75)
- Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
- Greenberg (2006:18)
- Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas
- Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72–82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860.
- Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
- Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
- McMahon, April (2002), An Introduction to English Phonology, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, ISBN 0 7486 1252 1
- Rogers, Henry (2000), The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 978-0-582-38182-7
- Skinner, Edith; Timothy Monich; Lilene Mansell (ed.) (1990). Speak with distinction (Second ed.). New York: Applause Theatre Book Publishers. ISBN 1-55783-047-9.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 1: An Introduction (pp. i–xx, 1–278), Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129719-2 , 0-52128541-0 .