|Voiceless bilabial affricate|
A voiceless bilabial affricate ([p͡ɸ] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [p] and released as a voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.
Features of the voiceless bilabial affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Dutch||Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect||up||[ʊp͡ɸ]||'up, onto'||Optional pre-pausal allophone of /p/.|
|English||Broad Cockney||up||[ˈɐʔp͡ɸ]||'up'||Allophone of /p/, occurs mainly word-finally. See English phonology|
|Received Pronunciation||Rare allophone of /p/. See English phonology|
|North Wales||[ˈəp͡ɸ]||Word-initial and word-final allophone of /p/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [pʰ]. See English phonology|
|Scouse||[ˈʊp͡ɸ]||Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /p/. See English phonology|
|German||Some speakers||tropfen||[ˈtʁ̥ɔp͡ɸn̩]||'to drop'||Allophone of /p͡f/. See Standard German phonology|
|Kaingang||fy||[ˈp͡ɸɤ]||'seed'||Possible word-initial allophone of /ɸ/.|
|Northern Tiwa||Taos dialect||[ˌp͡ɸìˑˈwɛ̈̄ːnǣ]||'daughter'||Allophone of /pʰ/, in free variation with [ph] and [ɸ]. See Taos phonology|
- Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
- Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685
- Penhallurick, Robert (2004), "Welsh English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 98–112, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
- Peters, Jörg (2010), "The Flemish–Brabant dialect of Orsmaal–Gussenhoven", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 239–246, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000083
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. i–xx, 279–466). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128540-2 .