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|Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative|
|Voiceless alveolar lateral approximant|
|IPA Number||155 402A|
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral fricatives is [ɬ], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
K. The symbol [ɬ] is called "belted l" and is distinct from "l with tilde", [ɫ], which transcribes a different sound, the velarized alveolar lateral approximant.
Some scholars also posit the voiceless alveolar lateral approximant distinct from the fricative. The approximant may be represented in the IPA as ⟨l̥⟩. The distinction is not recognized by the International Phonetic Association.
Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
The sound is fairly common among indigenous languages of the Americas such as Nahuatl and Navajo; and in North Caucasian languages, such as Avar. It is also found in African languages including Zulu; Asian languages such as Chukchi and some Yue dialects like Taishanese; and several Formosan languages and dialects in Taiwan.
Rare among European languages outside the Caucasus, it is found notably in Welsh, in which it is written ⟨ll⟩). Several Welsh names beginning with this sound (e.g. Llwyd [ɬʊɨd], Llywelyn [ɬəˈwɛlɨn]) have been borrowed into English, where they either retain the Welsh ⟨ll⟩ spelling but are pronounced with an /l/ (Lloyd, Llewellyn), or are substituted with ⟨fl⟩ (pronounced /fl/) (Floyd, Fluellen).
The phoneme /ɬ/ was also found in the most ancient Hebrew speech of the Ancient Israelites. Biblical Hebrew orthography, however, did not directly indicate the phoneme /ɬ/ since this and several other phonemes of Ancient Hebrew did not have a grapheme of their own. The phoneme /ɬ/, however, is clearly attested by later developments: /ɬ/ was written with ⟨ש⟩, but this letter was also used for the sound /ʃ/; later /ɬ/ merged with /s/, a sound which was previously written only with ⟨ס⟩. As a result, three etymologically distinct modern Hebrew phonemes can be distinguished: /s/ written ⟨ס⟩, /ʃ/ written ⟨ש⟩ (with later niqqud pointing שׂ), and /s/ which evolved from /ɬ/ and is written ⟨ש⟩ (with later niqqud pointing שׁ). The specific pronunciation of ⟨ש⟩ as /s/ evolved from [ɬ] is known based on comparative evidence, since /ɬ/ is the corresponding Proto-Semitic phoneme and /ɬ/ is still attested in Modern South Arabian languages as well as early borrowings from Ancient Hebrew (e.g. balsam < Greek balsamon < Hebrew baśam). The phoneme /ɬ/ began merging with /s/ in Late Biblical Hebrew, as indicated by interchange of orthographic ⟨ש⟩ and ⟨ס⟩, possibly under the influence of Aramaic, and this became the rule in Mishnaic Hebrew. In all Jewish reading traditions /ɬ/ and /s/ have merged completely; however in Samaritan Hebrew /ɬ/ has instead merged with /ʃ/.
The [ɬ] sound is also found in two of the constructed languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien, Sindarin (inspired by Welsh) and Quenya (inspired by Finnish, Ancient Greek, and Latin). In Sindarin it is written as ⟨lh⟩ initially and ⟨ll⟩ medially and finally; in Quenya it only appears initially and is written ⟨hl⟩.
Dental or denti-alveolar
|Mapudungun||kagüḻ||[kɜˈɣɘɬ̪]||'phlegm that is spit'||Interdental; possible utterance-final allophone of /l̪/.|
|Norwegian||Trondheim dialect||sælt||[s̪aɬ̪t̪]||'sold'||Laminal denti-alveolar; allophone of /l/. Also described as an approximant. See Norwegian phonology|
|Turkish||yol||[ˈjo̞ɫ̪̊]||'way'||Devoiced allophone of velarized dental /ɫ/, frequent finally and before voiceless consonants. See Turkish phonology|
|Berber||Ait Seghrouchen||altu||[æˈɬʊw]||'not yet'||Allophone of /lt/|
|Bura||[example needed]||Contrasts with [ɮ] and [ʎ̝̊].|
|Cherokee||Some speakers||ᎥᏝ||[ə̃ʔɬa]||'no'||Corresponds to [tɬ] in the speech of most speakers|
|Chickasaw||lhinko||[ɬiŋko]||'to be fat'|
|Chinese||Taishanese||三||[ɬam˧]||'three'||Corresponds to [s] in Standard Cantonese|
|Creek (Mvskoke)||rakkē||[ɬakkiː]||'big'||Historically transcribed thl or tl by English speakers|
|Danish||Standard||plads||[ˈpl̥æs]||'square'||Before /l/, aspiration of /p, t, k/ is realized as devoicing of /l/. See Danish phonology|
|Estonian||mahl||[mɑ̝hːl̥]||'juice'||Word-final allophone of /l/ after /t, s, h/. See Estonian phonology|
|Forest Nenets||хару||[xaɬʲu]||'rain'||Forest Nenets has both plain /ɬ/ and palatalized /ɬʲ/|
|Greenlandic||illu||[iɬːu]||'house'||Realization of geminated /l/|
|Icelandic||siglt||[sɪɬt]||'have sailed'||Allophone of /l̥/. See Icelandic phonology.|
|Inuktitut||akłak||[akɬak]||'grizzly bear'||See Inuit phonology|
|Mapudungun||kaül||[kɜˈɘɬ]||'a different song'||Possible utterance-final allophone of /l/.|
|Mongolian||лхагва||[ɬaʁʷ]||'Wednesday'||Only in loanwords from Tibetan; here from ལྷག་པ (lhag-pa)|
|Nahuatl||āltepētl||[aːɬˈtɛpɛːt͡ɬ]||'city'||Allophone of /l/|
|Navajo||łaʼ||[ɬaʔ]||'some'||See Navajo phonology|
|Norwegian||Trøndersk||tatl / tasl||[tʰɑɬ]||'sissiness'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Sawi||ɬo||[ɬo]||'three'||Developed out of the earlier tr consonant clusters|
|Shuswap||ɬept||[ɬept]||'fire is out'|
|Sotho||ho hlahloba||[ho ɬɑɬɔbɑ]||'to examine'||See Sotho phonology|
|Swedish||Jämtlandic||kallt||[kaɬt]||'cold'||See Swedish phonology|
|Taos||łiwéna||[ɬìˈwēnæ]||'wife'||See Taos phonology|
|Ukrainian||смисл||[s̪mɪs̪l̥]||'sense'||Word-final allophone of /l/ after voiceless consonants. See Ukrainian phonology|
|Welsh||llall||[ɬaːɬ]||'(the) other'||See Welsh phonology|
|Xumi||Lower||[RPʁul̥o]||'head'||Described as an approximant. Contrasts with the voiced /l/.|
|Upper||[EPbəl̥ɐ]||'to open a lock'|
Since the IPA letter "ɬ" has been adopted into the standard orthographies for many native North American languages, a capital letter L with belt "Ɬ" was requested by academics and added to the Unicode Standard version 7.0 in 2014 at U+A7AD.
- Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives
- Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
- Index of phonetics articles
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 326.
- McDonough, Joyce (2003). The Navajo Sound System. Cambridge: Kluwer. ISBN 1-4020-1351-5.
- Laver, John (1994). Principles of Phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 0-521-45655-X.
- Henry Y., Chang (2000). 噶瑪蘭語參考語法 [Kavalan Grammar]. Taipei: 遠流 (Yuan-Liou). pp. 43–45. ISBN 9573238985.
- Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 203.
- Blau (2010:77) harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFBlau2010 (help)
- Blau (2010:69) harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFBlau2010 (help)
- Rendsburg (1997:73) harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFRendsburg1997 (help)
- Helge, Fauskanger. "Sindarin – the Noble Tongue". Ardalambion. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Helge, Fauskanger. "Quenya Course". Ardalambion. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Sadowsky et al. (2013), pp. 88, 91.
- Kristoffersen (2000), p. 79.
- Vanvik (1979), p. 36.
- Zimmer & Orgun (1999), pp. 154–155.
- Grønnum (2005), pp. 154–155.
- Taishanese Dictionary & Resources
- Basbøll (2005), pp. 65–66.
- Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
- Wilde, Christopher P. (2016). "Gamale Kham phonology revisited, with Devanagari-based orthography and lexicon". Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. ISSN 1836-6821.
- Svantesson et al. (2005), pp. 30–33.
- Liljegren, Henrik (2009). "The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush". Acta Orientalia (70): 7–62.
- Tench (2007), p. 228.
- Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 10.
- Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
- Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.
- Howe, Darin (2003). Segmental Phonology. University of Calgary. p. 22.
- Joshua M Jensen, Karl Pentzlin, 2012-02-08, Proposal to encode a Latin Capital Letter L with Belt
- "Unicode Character 'LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH BELT' (U+A7AD)". www.fileformat.info. FileFormat.Info. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
- Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
- Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
- Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
- Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
- Svantesson, Jan-Olof; Tsendina, Anna; Mukhanova Karlsson, Anastasia; Franzen, Vivan (2005), The phonology of Mongolian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199260176
- Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
- Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Beth am y llall? John Wells's phonetic blog, 1 July 2009. (How the British phonetician John Wells would teach the sound [ɬ].)
- A chance to share more than just some sounds of languages walesonline.co.uk, 3 May 2012 (Article by Dr Paul Tench including information on transcribing [ɬ] in Chadic languages.)