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|Voiced velar stop|
Some languages have the voiced pre-velar stop, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiced palatal stop.
Conversely, some languages have the voiced post-velar stop, which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiced uvular stop.
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɡ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-storey G , but the double-storey G is considered an acceptable alternative. The Unicode character U+0067 g LATIN SMALL LETTER G renders as either a single-storey G or a double-storey G depending on font; the character U+0261 ɡ LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G is always a single-storey G, but it is generally available only in fonts with the IPA Extensions Unicode character block.
Features of the voiced velar stop:
- Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
- Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the soft palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Of the six stops that would be expected from the most common pattern worldwide—that is, three places of articulation plus voicing ([p b, t d, k ɡ])—[p] and [ɡ] are the most frequently missing, being absent in about 10% of languages that otherwise have this pattern. Absent stop [p] is an areal feature (see also Voiceless bilabial stop). Missing [ɡ], on the other hand, is widely scattered around the world, for example /ɡ/ is not a native phoneme of Dutch, Czech, Finnish or Slovak and occurs only in borrowed words in those languages. A few languages, such as Modern Standard Arabic and urban Levantine dialects, are missing both, although most Modern Arabic dialects have /ɡ/ in their native phonemic systems as a reflex of ⟨ق⟩ or less commonly of ⟨ج⟩.
It seems that [ɡ] is somewhat more difficult to articulate than the other basic stops. Ian Maddieson speculates that this may be due to a physical difficulty in voicing velars: Voicing requires that air flow into the mouth cavity, and the relatively small space allowed by the position of velar consonants means that it will fill up with air quickly, making voicing difficult to maintain in [ɡ] for as long as it is in [d] or [b]. This could have two effects: [ɡ] and [k] might become confused, and the distinction is lost, or perhaps a [ɡ] never develops when a language first starts making voicing distinctions. With uvulars, where there is even less space between the glottis and tongue for airflow, the imbalance is more extreme: Voiced [ɢ] is much rarer than voiceless [q].
|Abkhaz||ажыга||[aˈʐəɡa]||'shovel'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Adyghe||Shapsug||гьэгуалъэ||[ɡʲaɡʷaːɬa] (help·info)||'toy'||Dialectal. Corresponds to [d͡ʒ] in other dialects.|
|Temirgoy||чъыгы||[t͡ʂəɡə] (help·info)||'tree'||Dialectal. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other dialects.|
|Tunisian||ڨفصة||[ɡɑfsˤɑ]||'Gafsa'||⟨ڨ⟩ is also used in Algeria|
|Hejazi||قمر||[ɡamar]||'moon'||Corresponds to [q] in Classical and Modern Standard Arabic.|
|Yemeni||قال||[gæːl]||'(he) said'||Pronunciation of ⟨ق⟩ in San'ani dialect in the North and Center and Hadhrami in the East|
|جمل||[gæmæl]||'camel'||Pronunciation of ⟨ج⟩ in Ta'izzi-Adeni dialects in the South and Tihami in the West|
|Egyptian||راجل||[ˈɾɑːɡel]||'man'||Standard pronunciation of ⟨ج⟩ in Egypt and corresponds to /dʒ/, /ʒ/ or /ɟ/ in other pronunciations.|
|Assyrian Neo-Aramaic||ɡana||[ɡaːna]||'self'||Used predominantly in Iraqi Koine. Corresponds to [dʒ] in Urmia, some Tyari and Jilu dialects.|
|Bengali||গান||[ɡan]||'song'||Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology|
|Bulgarian||гора||[ɡora]||'wood'||See Bulgarian phonology|
|Catalan||gros||[ɡɾɔs]||'large'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Southern Min||我||[ɡua]||'I'||Only in colloquial speech.|
|Czech||gram||[ɡram]||'gram'||See Czech phonology|
|Dutch||All dialects||zakdoek||[ˈzɑɡduk] (help·info)||'handkerchief'||Allophone of /k/, occurring only before voiced consonants in native words. See Dutch phonology|
|Many speakers||goal||[ɡoːɫ] (help·info)||'goal'||Only in loanwords. Some speakers may realize it as [ɣ] ~ [ʝ] ~ [χ] ~ [x] (like a normal Dutch ⟨g⟩), or as [k].|
|English||gaggle||[ˈɡ��ɡɫ̩]||'gaggle'||See English phonology|
|Esperanto||bongusta||[bonˈgusta]||'tasty'||See Esperanto phonology|
|French||gain||[ɡæ̃]||'earnings'||See French phonology|
|German||Lüge||[ˈlyːɡə]||'lie'||See Standard German phonology|
|Greek||γκάρισμα/gkárisma||[ˈɡɐɾizmɐ]||'donkey's bray'||See Modern Greek phonology|
|Gujarati||ગાવું/gāvu||[needs IPA]||'to sing'||See Gujarati phonology|
|Hebrew||גב||[ɡav]||'back'||See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Hindustani||गाना / گانا||[ɡɑːnɑː]||'song'||Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology|
|Hungarian||engedély||[ɛŋɡɛdeːj]||'permission'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish||gaineamh||[ˈɡanʲəw]||'sand'||See Irish phonology|
|Italian||gare||[ˈɡäːre]||'competitions'||See Italian phonology|
|Japanese||外套/gaitō||[ɡaitoː]||'overcoat'||See Japanese phonology|
|Kabardian||Baslaney||гьанэ||[ɡʲaːna] (help·info)||'shirt'||Dialectal. Corresponds to [d��] in other dialects.|
|Korean||메기/megi||[meɡi]||'catfish'||See Korean phonology|
|Lithuanian||garai||[ɡɐrɐɪ̯ˑ]||'steam'||See Lithuanian phonology|
|More often voiceless [k]. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Macedonian||гром||[ɡrɔm]||'thunder'||See Macedonian phonology|
|Marathi||गवत||[ɡəʋət]||'grass'||See Marathi phonology|
|Norwegian||gull||[ɡʉl]||'gold'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Polish||gmin||[ɡmʲin̪] (help·info)||'plebs'||See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||língua||[ˈɫĩɡwɐ]||'tongue'||See Portuguese phonology|
|Romanian||gând||[ɡɨnd]||'thought'||See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||голова||[ɡəɫɐˈva] (help·info)||'head'||See Russian phonology|
|Slovak||miazga||[ˈmjäzɡä]||'lymph'||See Slovak phonology|
|Somali||gaabi||[ɡaːbi]||'to shorten'||See Somali phonology|
|Spanish||gato||[ˈɡät̪o̞]||'cat'||See Spanish phonology|
|Swahili||giza||[ˈɡīzɑ]||'darkness'||See Swahili phonology|
|Swedish||god||[ɡuːd̪]||'tasty'||May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology|
|Turkish||salgın||[säɫˈɡɯn]||'epidemic'||See Turkish phonology|
|Ukrainian||ґанок||[ˈɡɑ.n̪ok]||'steps'||See Ukrainian phonology|
|West Frisian||gasp||[ɡɔsp]||'buckle' (n.)||See West Frisian phonology|
|Zapotec||Tilquiapan||gan||[ɡaŋ]||'will be able'||Depending on speaker and carefulness of speech, [ɡ] may be lenited to [ɣ]|
- Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
- Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
- WALS Online : Chapter 5 – Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems
- Watson (2002), pp. 16–17.
- Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
- Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
- Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
- Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
- Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
- Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
- Okada (1991), p. 94.
- Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
- Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
- Jassem (2003), p. 103.
- Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
- DEX Online : 
- Padgett (2003), p. 42.
- Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
- Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
- Merrill (2008), p. 108.
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- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
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- Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296
- Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
- Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
- Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
- Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
- Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press