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- For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus II (disambiguation)
|Duke of Bohemia|
|Reign||1140 – 1158|
|King of Bohemia|
|Reign||1158 – 1172|
|Died||18 January 1174 (aged 63–64)|
|Spouse||Gertrude of Babenberg|
Judith of Thuringia
|Frederick, Duke of Bohemia|
Adalbert III, Archbishop of Salzburg
Ottokar I, King of Bohemia
Vladislaus III, Duke of Bohemia
|Father||Vladislaus I, Duke of Bohemia|
|Mother||Richeza of Berg|
Vladislaus II or Vladislaus I (king) (Czech: Vladislav II./I., c.1110 – 18 January 1174) was the second King of Bohemia from 1158. Before that, he had been Duke of Bohemia from 1140. When he abdicated in 1172, the royal title was not yet hereditary.
He was an adventurous youth. Having no expectation of reaching the throne during the reign of his uncle Soběslav I, he moved to Bavaria. He returned at the death of Soběslav in 1140 and, with the help of his brother-in-law, the king of Germany, Conrad III, he was elected Duke of Bohemia by the Bohemian nobility.
At first, Vladislav had to contend with the claims of his cousin, the son of Soběslav who was also named Vladislav. At Soběslav's request, Emperor Lothair II recognised the rights of his son at the Diet of Bamberg in May 1138. Then, in June, the nobility affirmed them at Sadská. Another diet at Bamberg confirmed the succession of the son of Vladislav, however, in April 1140. The local dukes Conrad II of Znojmo, Vratislaus II of Brno, and Otto III of Olomouc, gave him trouble. They were excommunicated by Jindřich Zdík, bishop of Olomouc, who was then driven out of his diocese. The territorial dukes then defeated Vladislav through treason at Vysoká on 22 April 1142, but their siege of Prague failed. Vladislav kept his throne with the assistance of Conrad III of Germany, whose half-sister Gertrude of Babenberg he married.
The second king of Bohemia
In 1147, Vladislav accompanied Conrad on the Second Crusade, but halted his march at Constantinople and subsequently returned. On his way back to Bohemia, he passed through Kiev and Kraków. In return for military support against free northern Italian cities (especially Milan) for the emperor Frederick Barbarossa (Conrad's successor), Vladislav was elected king of Bohemia on 11 January 1158. He thus became the second Bohemian king to boast the royal dignity after Vratislaus II.
He was also invested with Upper Lusatia at Regensburg and his coronation was celebrated in a second ceremony at Milan on 8 September. Vladislav was a firm ally of the emperor Frederick. He duly accompanied him to Milan in 1158. During the Italian expeditions of 1161, 1162, and 1167, Vladislav entrusted the command of the Czech contingent to his brother Duke Děpold I of Jamnitz and his son Frederick.
After the revolt of the Moravian dukes, Vladislav gradually took control of the strongholds of Moravia: Brno with the death of Vratislaus II in 1156, Olomouc with the death of Otto III (in spite of the claims of Soběslav, the son of Duke Soběslav, who was imprisoned), and finally Znojmo with the death of Conrad II. Vladislav also intervened in Hungary in 1163 on behalf of the emperor. He married his second son, Sviatopluk, to a Hungarian princess and had diplomatic contact with Emperor Manuel I Comnenus of Byzantium.
In 1167, Daniel I, bishop of Prague since 1148 and Vladislav's greatest advisor, died. As a result, relations between the kings of Bohemia and Germany were strained. When his son Adalbert (Vojtěch) III became archbishop of Salzburg in 1169, the emperor suspected him of supporting Pope Alexander III.
Eager to impose his son Frederick on the throne of the still-elective duchy of Bohemia, he abdicated without either the consensus of the Bohemian noblemen or the emperor's permission. Frederick kept the throne for less than one year before yielding his place to Soběslav II, the elder son of Soběslav I.
Vladislav lived in Thuringia in the lands of his second wife, where he died in January 1174. He was buried in the Cathedral of Meissen. His reign was marked by the founding of numerous Premonstratensian and Cistercian abbeys in Bohemia, as well as the construction of a stone bridge across the Vltava River in Prague: the construct was named the Judith Bridge in honour of Vladislav's second wife. The bridge was destroyed in a flood in 1342 and the Charles Bridge was built in its place.
Family and children
By his first wife, Gertrude of Babenberg (died 4 August 1150), he had the following issue:
- a daughter (Richeza?), married Yaroslav II of Kiev
- Frederick, successor
- Sviatopluk, married a daughter of Géza II of Hungary
- Vojtěch, Archbishop of Salzburg as Adalbert III of Bohemia
- Agnes (died 7 June 1228), abbess of St George of Prague
- Ottokar, later king of Bohemia, the first of a hereditary line
- Vladislaus, later duke of Bohemia as Vladislaus III
- Richeza (died 19 April 1182), married Henry I, Duke of Mödling, son of Henry II, Duke of Austria and had one son, Henry the Younger
|Ancestors of Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia|
- Mahoney, William (2011). The History of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0313363061.
| Duke of Bohemia
Title next held byFrederick
Title last held byVratislaus II
| King of Bohemia
Title next held byOttokar I