Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
Pandit in the Netherlands, 1965
|President of the United Nations General Assembly|
15 September 1953 – 21 September 1954
|Preceded by||Lester B. Pearson|
|Succeeded by||Eelco N. van Kleffens|
|7th Governor of Maharashtra|
28 November 1962 – 18 October 1964
|Preceded by||P. Subbarayan|
|Succeeded by||P. V. Cherian|
|Member of Parliament|
|Preceded by||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|Succeeded by||V. P. Singh|
|Born||18 August 1900|
Allahabad, North-Western Provinces, British India
|Died||1 December 1990 (aged 90)|
Dehradun, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
|Spouse(s)||Ranjit Sitaram Pandit|
Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (18 August 1900 – 1 December 1990) was an Indian diplomat and politician who was elected as the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. Hailing from a prominent political family, her brother Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of independent India, her niece Indira Gandhi the first female Prime Minister of India and her grand-nephew Rajiv Gandhi was the sixth Prime Minister of India. Pandit was sent to London as India's most important diplomat after serving as Nehru's envoy to the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Nations. Her time in London offers insights into the wider context of changes in Indo–British relations. Her High-Commissionership was a microcosm of inter-governmental relations.
Vijaya Lakshmi's father, Motilal Nehru (1861–1931), a wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress during the Independence Struggle. Her mother, Swaruprani Thussu (1868–1938), who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. She was the second of three children; Jawaharlal was eleven years her senior (b. 1889), while her younger sister Krishna Hutheesing (b. 1907) became a noted writer and authored several books on their brother.
In 1921, she was married to Ranjit Sitaram Pandit (1893–1944), a successful barrister from Kathiawar, Gujarat and classical scholar who translated Kalhana's epic history Rajatarangini into English from Sanskrit.Her husband was a Maharashtrian Saraswat brahmin, whose family hailed from village of Bambuli, on the Ratnagiri coast, in Maharashtra. He was arrested for his support of Indian independence and died in Lucknow prison in 1944, leaving behind his wife and their three daughters Chandralekha Mehta, Nayantara Sehgal and Rita Dar. She died in the year 1990.
Her daughter Chandralekha was married to Ashok Mehta and has three children. Her second daughter Nayantara Sahgal, who later settled in her mother's house in Dehradun, is a well-known novelist. She was married to Gautam Sahgal and had a daughter, Gita Sahgal. Nayantara married E. N. Mangat Rai after Gautam's death. Her third daughter was Rita who was married to Avatar Krishna Dhar and has two sons, including Gopaldhar. She worked in Redcross.
Pandit was the first Indian woman to hold a cabinet post in pre-independent India. In 1937, she was elected to the provincial legislature of the United Provinces and was designated minister of local self-government and public health. She held the latter post until 1938 and again from 1946 to 1947. In 1946, she was elected to the Constituent Assembly from the United Provinces.
Following India's freedom from British occupation in 1947 she entered the diplomatic service and became India's ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1947 to 1949, the United States and Mexico from 1949 to 1951, Ireland from 1955 to 1961 (during which time she was also the Indian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom), and Spain from 1958 to 1961. Between 1946 and 1968, she headed the Indian delegation to the United Nations. In 1953, she became the first woman President of the United Nations General Assembly (she was inducted as an honorary member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority in 1978 for this accomplishment).
In India, she served as Governor of Maharashtra from 1962 to 1964, after which she was elected to the Indian parliament's lower house, Lok Sabha, from Phulpur, her brother's former constituency from 1964 to 1968. Pandit was a harsh critic of Indira Gandhi's years as Prime Minister especially after her niece had declared the emergency.
Pandit retired from active politics after relations between them soured. On retiring, she moved to Dehradun in the Doon Valley in the Himalayan foothills. She came out of retirement in 1977 to campaign against Indira Gandhi and helped the Janata Party win the 1977 election. She was reported to have considered running for the presidency, but Neelam Sanjiva Reddy eventually ran and won the election unopposed.
In 1979, she was appointed the Indian representative to the UN Human Rights Commission, after which she retired from public life. Her writings include The Evolution of India (1958) and The Scope of Happiness: A Personal Memoir (1979).
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Rakesh Ankit, "Between Vanity and Sensitiveness: Indo–British Relations During Vijayalakshmi Pandit’s High-Commissioner (1954–61)." Contemporary British History 30.1 (2016): 20–39.
- Moraes, 2008 & 4.
- Zakaria, Rafiq A Study of Nehru, Times of India Press, 1960, p. 22
- Oxford Dictionaries, online. "Vijay Lakshmi Pandit". Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "Alpha Kappa Alpha 1978". Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Indira Gandhi's Aunt Says She Is 'Profoundly Troubled' at Direction India Is Taking, NY Times, 31 October 1976
- Sister Burnishes Nehru's Image, Lest India Forget, NY Times, 22 May 1989
- Nehru's Sister Campaigning for Presidency of India, NY Times,
- Batori (10 December 2015). "Nayantara Sahgal delivers 6th K P Singh Memorial Lecture". Batori. Batori.in. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Ankit, Rakesh. "Between Vanity and Sensitiveness: Indo–British Relations During Vijayalakshmi Pandit's High-Commissionership (1954–61)". Contemporary British History 30:1 (2016): 20–39. doi:10.1080/13619462.2015.1049262.
- Gupta, Indra (2004). India's 50 Most Illustrious Women. New Delhi: Icon Publications. ISBN 8188086193. OCLC 858639936.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit.|
- A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Mme. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit" is available at the Internet Archive
| Indian Ambassador to the United States
Gaganvihari Lallubhai Mehta
Lester B. Pearson
| President of the United Nations General Assembly
Eelco N. van Kleffens
| Ambassador of India to the Soviet Union
B. G. Kher
| High Commission of India to the United Kingdom
M. C. Chagla
| Governor of Maharashtra
P. V. Cherian