In the Catholic Church, the Vicegerent is an auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Rome, who is granted the personal title of archbishop and serves as the chief assistant to the Cardinal Vicar of Rome.
Church of England
Early in 1535, closely following the passing of Parliament's Act of Supremacy formally creating the Church of England, King Henry VIII appointed his chief minister Thomas Cromwell "Vice-Gerent in spirituals", effectively acting as the king's deputy in church matters and taking precedence over the two archbishops; this was a necessary step as Cromwell, as an unordained layman, otherwise had no jurisdiction within the Church. The office was not continued after Cromwell's execution in 1540. Cromwell's earlier appointment, that of Vicar General, had different responsibilities: under this title he directed the royal commissions into monastic affairs.
Patih or Pepatih is a regent title equivalent to vicegerent which was traditionally used among Austronesian polities of insular Southeast Asia, in particular those of Java and the Malay world. In the first place it denoted the chief minister of a kingdom or (in the case of Java) a traditional regency. Lesser ministers could also be known by the title. In some cases the headmen of local communities could be termed Patih, for example on 16th-century Java and in Banjarmasin in southeastern Kalimantan.
In his capacity of chief minister in a realm, the Patih was the right hand and representative of the ruler. The commands of the ruler were transferred to the regional or local chiefs via the Patih. In the Javanese kingdoms the Patih had his own palace, the Pepatihan, and carried a particular name; in Yogyakarta his name as regent was Danurejo, in Surakarta (Solo) it was Joyonegoro.
- King John I of England became vicegerent under the Pope of Rome.
- Thomas Cromwell, Vicegerent of Henry VIII, appointed 1535.
- The Byzantine Emperors held as a title "God's Vicegerent on Earth".
- Milton, in his work Paradise Lost, titles the Son "The Vicegerent", in Book 10.
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- Random House Dictionary (2009 ed.)
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- Rev. Thomas F. Knox (1876), "Studies in Biography - No V. The Last Survivor of the Ancient English Hierarchy, part II", The Month and Catholic Review (February ed.), Simpkin, Marshall, XXVI: 139, retrieved 9 March 2014
- MacCulloch, Diarmaid (27 September 2018). Thomas Cromwell : a life. pp. 268–9, 533. ISBN 9781846144295.
- Burnet, Gilbert (1753). The History of the Reformation of the Church of England. 1 (1850 ed.). London: William S Orr & Co. p. 135.
- A. Cortesão (1944), The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires, Vol. I-II. London: Hakluyt Society; J.J. Ras (1968), Hikajat Bandjar; A Study in Malay Histiography. The Hague: M. Nijhoff.
- G.F.E. Gonggrijp (1934), Geïllustreerde Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië. Leiden: Leidsche Uitgeversmaatschappij, p. 1154.
- Browning, Charles Henry (1898). The Magna charta barons and their American descendants with the pedigrees of the founders of the Order of Runnemede deduced from the sureties for the enforcement of the statutes of the Magna charta of King John. Philadelphia. p. 14.
- Littlewood, Anthony R. (16 March 1988). Maguire, Henry (ed.). Byzantine court culture from 829 to 1204. Harvard University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780884022428.
- W. L. Olthof (1987), Babad Tanah Djawi. Dordrecht: Foris.
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