Asteroids are relatively new to astrology, having only been discovered in the 19th century. However, some of them (especially the largest of them), are believed by some astrologers to influence human affairs. Still though, they are often ignored within mainstream systems of astrology, especially in more traditional astrology systems like Vedic astrology or Hellenistic astrology. Their use has become significant to a few Western astrologers yet still only a minority of astrologers use the asteroids in chart interpretation.
The former planets
Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta (in order of discovery) were counted as planets from 1808 until 1845, when smaller asteroids began to be discovered. Astronomically the status of Ceres has changed again. In a proposed Resolution in 2006, it was suggested as one of 12 planets in our Solar System, but in the end was re-classified as a dwarf planet by the International Astronomical Union. Many astrologers believe that astronomical labels don't hold much weight in their practice as through history man's definitions and labels have changed, but the astrological significations of what are considered "astrological planets" (including the Sun, Moon and, for modern astrologers, Pluto) have not changed.
Ceres was the first asteroid discovered and now is labeled as a dwarf planet, taking up about 1/3 of the entire mass of the asteroid belt. (According to some astrologers, to get an understanding of the nature of a planet, astrologers may study the characteristics and positions of known planets at the time of discovery, observe the trend of significant events at the time, and evaluate over time what the newly discovered celestial body tends to relate to in the charts of living people.) In mythology Ceres was the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Demeter. She was the goddess of agriculture and when her daughter Persephone was kidnapped by Pluto in an attempt to force her to marry him, Demeter became so distraught looking for her daughter that she neglected the Earth which became cold and most plants died. This was the first autumn and winter season, which came back every year even after Persephone had been saved by Hermes because she had eaten a pomegranate that made her Pluto's wife forever, and he demanded she return to him once a year.  These myths, including the fact that Ceres is the roundest asteroid (it resembles the Moon) signify that in astrology the placement of Ceres in a birth chart is said to show what the native needs to feel loved and nurtured.
Often simply known as "Pallas," this is the second asteroid discovered and the third in mass. There are many Pallases in mythology. Some sources say Pallas was Triton's daughter and Athena's playmate who was killed and Athena mourned her by changing her name to Pallas and making a wooden statue of her, which Zeus dropped to the Land of Troy where a temple was built in its honor. Others say that Pallas was an old god who combined with Athena. In these respects, Pallas can be interpreted as an indicator of effort. Other astrologers interpret it as an indicator of wisdom, intelligence, healing (perhaps through effort) as the titan named Pallas was a god of these things. This asteroid, like Vesta, is also sometimes called an influencer of Virgo.
This asteroid was the 3rd to be discovered and is 9th in mass ranking (1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta, 10 Hygiea, 511 Davida, 704 Interamnia, 65 Cybele, 52 Europa are considerably bigger and more massive). In mythology Juno is the Roman equivalent of the Greek Hera. Hera was a very important goddess in both Greek and Roman culture. She was a wife of Zeus and hailed as the Queen of Gods and Zeus' main concubine (at least the myths imply that this was what she thought herself). She was the goddess of marriages, unions, and was also associated with finance and found cows and peacocks to be sacred. She was also very jealous and aggressive, especially when Zeus was involved with another woman; she would often kill the children Zeus and the other women or goddesses would create together, including attempts to kill Hercules and Dionysus—or the woman herself. For these reasons, Juno is used in astrology as an indicator of what a native requires to feel satisfied in love or romance, or what is one needs in order to feel their marriage is successful and satisfying. Because of Juno's association with relationships, money, cows and jealousy, it also appears to have an influence of the sign Taurus.
This asteroid is the second largest in mass, fourth to be discovered of which it is the fastest to travel the zodiac and the last asteroid to be counted as a planet. In mythology Vesta the virgin goddess, the Roman version of Hestia, though she was of higher importance to the Romans, was regarded as one of the most important goddesses of all, though ironically she never was depicted in any visual art (in Greece, some vases with her image however have been found), or at least none of it has ever been found. She was the goddess of hearth, when a baby was born she was the goddess they would ask to bless it and protect the home. In every city and home in Rome there was a sacred fire made to Vesta that was protected and not allowed to go out. Astrologers use Vesta to determine what it is that you are devoted to and how your sexuality will develop. Vesta, having been a protective virgin goddess is said by some to be an influencer of the sign Virgo, this is accepted by many in the astrological community, but many prefer to instead of calling the influence an outright rulership an "affinity" or simply do not support this claim. It also seems to bear influence over Scorpio.
After the first four asteroids were discovered, there wouldn't be another discovered for 38 years (Astraea). The first four gained popularity as full-fledged planets, but the rapid development of telescopes led to new asteroids being frequently discovered in what is now known as the main-belt. Some astronomers grouped the first 10 asteroids alongside the first four asteroids as planets until the reclassification that was decided upon after the discovery of Hygiea, the 10th known asteroid.
This asteroid was the 10th discovered and is fourth in mass ranking. In mythology Hygiea was the feminine part and the consort of Asclepios, the Greek god of medicine and a mythological healer strongly connected to the Solar cult of Apollo. It seems that Hygiea rules the health practices and is integrated into medical astrology, but in her negative side has something to bring in cases of depression and anxiety of a higher level than usual. The status of Hygiea is practically unknown at the moment in western astrology.
- E. V. Pitjeva, "Precise determination of the motion of planets and some astronomical constants from modern observations", 2004 International Astronomical Union, http://journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid=303499
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- http://astrologyclub.org/archetypal-astrology/asteroids/ July 2016