|Parent company||DC Comics|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Headquarters location||New York City|
|Publication types||Comic books|
|Fiction genres||Horror, fantasy|
DC Vertigo (originally simply Vertigo) is an imprint of the American comic book publisher DC Comics. It was created in 1993 to publish stories with more graphic or adult content that could not fit within the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, thus allowing more creative freedom than DC's main imprint. These comics were free to contain explicit violence, substance and drug abuse, sexuality, nudity, profanity, and other controversial subjects, similar to the content of R-rated films.
Although its initial publications were primarily in the horror and fantasy genres, it has also published works dealing with crime, social commentary, speculative fiction, biography, and other genres. Originally publishing a mix of company- and creator-owned work, its current focus is on the latter. It pioneered in North America an increasingly common publishing model, in which monthly series are periodically comprised into collected editions which are kept in print for bookstore sale.
Vertigo series have won the comics industry's Eisner Award, including the "best continuing series" of various years (The Sandman, Preacher, 100 Bullets, Y: The Last Man and Fables). Several of its publications have been adapted to film (such as Constantine, A History of Violence, Stardust, and V for Vendetta) and episodic television (such as Constantine, iZombie, Lucifer, and Preacher).
Vertigo originated in 1993 under the stewardship of Karen Berger, a former literature and art-history student, who had joined DC Comics in 1979 as an assistant editor. In the mid-1980s, Berger was editor of such DC titles as Wonder Woman and Amethyst, Princess of Gemworld, and began recruiting writers from the UK, including Neil Gaiman, Jamie Delano, Peter Milligan and Grant Morrison. She "found their sensibility and point of view to be refreshingly different, edgier and smarter" than those of most American comics writers, and worked with them and others on superhero/science fiction series Animal Man, Doom Patrol vol. 2, and Shade, the Changing Man vol. 2; Kid Eternity, Black Orchid (Gaiman's first work for DC) and The Books of Magic miniseries, fantasy series The Sandman vol. 2, and horror titles Hellblazer and The Saga of the Swamp Thing (written by Alan Moore, a British writer hired by previous editor Len Wein).
These six ongoing titles, all of which carried a "Suggested for Mature Readers" label on their covers, shared a sophistication-driven sensibility the fan press dubbed "the Bergerverse". In a 1992 editorial meeting, Levitz, DC publisher Jenette Kahn, and managing editor Dick Giordano, Berger was given the mandate to place these titles under an imprint that, as Berger described, would "do something different in comics and help the medium 'grow up'". Several DC titles bearing the age advisory, such as Green Arrow, Blackhawk and The Question (both cancelled before the launch of Vertigo), did not make the transition to the new imprint.
Several new Vertigo mini-series were originally developed for Disney Comics' aborted Touchmark Comics imprint – analogous to their mature-audiences Touchstone Pictures studio – announced before the so-called "Disney Implosion" of 1991, and subsequently abandoned. Touchmark Comics was to be run by former DC editor Art Young, but when it was canceled, both Young and the works were brought into the Vertigo fold, allowing Berger to expand the imprint's publishing plans. These titles included Enigma, Sebastian O, Mercy, and Shadows Fall.
Vertigo was launched in January 1993 with a mixture of existing ongoing series continued under the new imprint, new ongoing series, new mini-series, and single-volume collections or graphic novels. Their publishing plan for the first year involved two new titles – whether ongoing/limited series or one-shots – each month. The existing series (cover date March 1993) were Shade the Changing Man (starting with #33), The Sandman (#47), Hellblazer (#63), Animal Man (#57), Swamp Thing (#129), and Doom Patrol (#64, with new writer Rachel Pollack).
The first comic book published under the "Vertigo" imprint was the first issue of Death: The High Cost of Living, a 3-issue series by Neil Gaiman and Chris Bachalo. The second new title was Enigma, an 8-issue limited series initially planned to launch Touchmark, written by Peter Milligan (also author Shade, the Changing Man) and drawn by Duncan Fegredo, the artist from Grant Morrison's earlier Kid Eternity miniseries. The following month saw the debut of Sandman: Mystery Theatre by Matt Wagner and Steven T. Seagle, and illustrated primarily by Guy Davis, described as "playing the '30s with a '90s feel... haunting, film noir-ish...," and starring original Sandman Wesley Dodds in a title whose "sensibilities echo crime genre fiction." Joining it was J. M. DeMatteis and Paul Johnson's 64-page one-shot Mercy.
New series that began in the months that followed include Kid Eternity (ongoing) by Ann Nocenti and Sean Phillips (spun off from the earlier Morrison-penned miniseries), Grant Morrison and Steve Yeowell's 3-issue steampunk miniseries Sebastian O (another ex-Touchmark project), Skin Graft by Jerry Prosser and Warren Pleece, The Last One by DeMatteis and Dan Sweetman, Jonah Hex: Two-Gun Mojo by Tim Truman and Sam Glanzman, Black Orchid (ongoing) by Dick Foreman and Jill Thompson (spun off from the earlier Gaiman/McKean miniseries), The Extremist by Peter Milligan and Ted McKeever, Scarab by John Smith with Scot Eaton and Mike Barreiro, and The Children's Crusade, a crossover involving several of the imprint's ongoing series. Gaiman's The Books of Magic limited-series was relaunched as an ongoing series written by John Ney Rieber, and illustrated by Peter Gross (later also writer), Gary Amaro, and Peter Snejbjerg.
Although the books did not have a consistent "house style" of art, the cover designs of early Vertigo series featured a uniform trade dress with a vertical bar along the left side, which included the imprint logo, pricing, date, and issue numbers. The design layout continued with very little variation until issues cover-dated July 2002 (including Fables #1) which introduced an across-the-top layout ahead of 2003's "Vertigo X" 10th anniversary celebration. The "distinctive design" was designed to be used on "all Vertigo books except the hardcovers, trade paperbacks, and graphic novels." Berger noted that DC was "very" committed to line, having put a "lot of muscle behind" promoting it, including a promotional launch kit made available to "[r]etailers who order[ed] at least 25 copies of the February issue of Sandman [#47]," a "Platinum edition" variant cover for Death: The High Cost of Living #1 and a 75c Vertigo Preview comic featuring a specially written seven-page Sandman story by Gaiman and Kent Williams. In addition, a 16-page Vertigo Sampler was also produced and bundled with copies of Capital City Distribution's Advance Comics solicitation index.
Works previously published by DC under other imprints, but which fit the general character of Vertigo, have been reprinted under this imprint. This has included earlier issues of Vertigo's launch series, V for Vendetta, and books from discontinued imprints, such as Transmetropolitan (initially under DC's short-lived sci-fi Helix imprint), and A History of Violence (originally part of the Paradox Press line).
Cancellations and new series
Two of the new ongoing series did not last long; Kid Eternity was cancelled after 16 issues, and Black Orchid continued for only 22. Sandman Mystery Theatre and most of the pre-existing series continued for several years, including Sandman which reached its planned conclusion with #75. Hellblazer would be the last of the original ongoing series to be canceled, ceasing publication in February 2013 with #300.
As the imprint's initial ongoing series came to their ends, new series were launched to replace them, with varying degrees of success. The Sandman was replaced following its completion by The Dreaming (1996–2001) and The Sandman Presents, which featured stories about the characters from Neil Gaiman's series, written by other creators. Other long-running series have been The Invisibles by Grant Morrison and various artists (1994–2000); Preacher by Garth Ennis and Steve Dillon (1995–2000); Transmetropolitan by Warren Ellis and Darick Robertson (1997–2002); 100 Bullets by Brian Azzarello and Eduardo Risso (1999–2009); Lucifer by Mike Carey, Peter Gross, and Ryan Kelly (2000–2006); Y: The Last Man by Brian K. Vaughan and Pia Guerra (2002–2008); DMZ by Brian Wood and Riccardo Burchielli (2005–2012); and Fables by Bill Willingham, Mark Buckingham, and various other artists (2002–2015), which itself launched several spin-offs including Jack of Fables by Bill Willingham and Lilah Sturges (credited as "Matthew Sturges") and various artists (2006–2011).
In December 2012, Karen Berger announced that she would be leaving the company the following March. Berger's position at the head of Vertigo was filled by Shelly Bond, who had begun editing for the imprint in 1993. However, in 2016, DC "restructured" Vertigo, eliminating Bond's position, and oversight of Vertigo was placed under Jamie S. Rich until May 2017 when Mark Doyle became the new editor. In 2018 the publisher "relaunched" the imprint as DC Vertigo. At this time eleven new monthly series were announced.
Current ongoing series
This article needs to be updated.(June 2018)
With Hellblazer's February 2013 cancellation none of the series which existed before the formation of Vertigo are still ongoing.
- Deathbed by Joshua Williamson and Riley Rossmo (2018)
- Motherlands by Si Spurrier and Rachel Stott (2018)
- Books Of Magic by Kat Howard and Tom Fowler
- The Dreaming by Si Spurrier and Bilquis Evely
- House of Whispers by Nalo Hopkinson and Dominike Stanton
- Lucifer by Dan Watters, Max Fiumara and Sebastian Fiumara
Seven new series were announced in June 2018, four of them being monthly titles for that year, three being due for 2019:
- American Carnage by Bryan Hill and Leandro Fernandez
- Border Town by Eric Esquivel and Ramon Villalobos
- Goddess Mode by Zoe Quinn and Robbi Rodriguez
- Hex Wives by Ben Blacker and Mirka Andolfo
- High Level by Rob Sheridan and Barnaby Bagenda
- Safe Sex by Tina Horn and Mike Dowling
- Second Coming by Mark Russell and Richard Pace
- 100 Bullets by Brian Azzarello and Eduardo Risso (1999–2009)
- Air by G. Willow Wilson and M. K. Perker (2008–2010)
- American Century by Howard Chaykin, David Tischman and various artists (2001–2003)
- American Vampire by Scott Snyder, Stephen King, Rafael Albuquerque and Mateus Santolouco (2010-2016)
- American Virgin by Steven T. Seagle and Becky Cloonan (2006–2008)
- Animal Man by Grant Morrison and various writers and artists (1988–1995) [Note 1]
- Army@Love by Rick Veitch and Gary Erskine (2007–2009)
- Art Ops by Shawn Simon, Michael Allred and Eduardo Risso (2015-2016)
- Astro City by Kurt Busiek and Brent Anderson (2013-2018). [Note 2]
- Bite Club by Howard Chaykin and David Tischman (2004–2006)
- Black Orchid by Neil Gaiman, Dick Foreman, Dave McKean, Jill Thompson and Rebecca Guay (1988–1989, 1993–1995)[Note 1]
- The Books of Magic by Neil Gaiman, John Ney Rieber, Bronwyn Carlton, Peter Gross, Dylan Horrocks, Si Spencer and various artists (1990–1991, 1994–2000)[Note 1]
- Chiaroscuro: The Private Lives of Leonardo da Vinci by Pat McGreal, David Rawson and Chaz Truog (1995–1996)
- Clean Room by Gail Simone and Jon Davis-Hunt (2015-2017)
- Codename: Knockout by Robert Rodi and various artists (2001–2003)
- Crossing Midnight by Mike Carey, Jim Fern and Eric Nguyen (2007–2008)
- Crusades by Steven T. Seagle and Kelley Jones (2001–2002)
- The Dark and Bloody by Shawn Aldridge and Scott Godlewski (2016)
- Daytripper by Fábio Moon and Gabriel Bá (2010)
- Deadenders by Ed Brubaker and Warren Pleece (2000–2001)
- Deadman by Bruce Jones, John Watkiss and Ron Wimberly (2006–2007)
- Doom Patrol (vol.2) by Paul Kupperberg, Grant Morrison, Rachel Pollack and various artists (1987–1995) [Note 1]
- DMZ by Brian Wood and Riccardo Burchielli (2005–2012)
- The Dreaming by various writers and artists (1996–2001)
- Effigy by Tim Seeley and Marley Zarcone (2015)
- Enigma by Peter Milligan and Duncan Fegredo (1993)
- The Exterminators by Simon Oliver and Tony Moore (2006–2008)
- Fables by Bill Willingham, Mark Buckingham, Lan Medina and various artists. Fables has included various mini-series, graphic novels, the spin-off titles Jack of Fables and Fairest, and the prose novel Peter & Max (2002–2015)
- Fairest by Bill Willingham and various artists (2012–2015)
- Flinch by Various Authors and Artists (1999–2001)
- Greek Street by Peter Milligan and Davide Gianfelice (2009–2010)
- Hellblazer by various writers and artists (1988–2013) [Note 1]
- Hinterkind by Ian Edginton and Francesco Trfogli (2013–2015).
- House of Mystery by Bill Willingham, Matthew Sturges, Luca Rossi and various artists (2008–2011)
- House of Secrets by Steven T. Seagle and Teddy Kristiansen (1996–1998, 2001)
- Human Target by Peter Milligan, Edvin Biuković, Javier Pulido and Cliff Chiang (1999, 2002–2005)
- Imaginary Fiends by Tim Seeley and Stephen Molnar (2017-2018)
- The Invisibles by Grant Morrison and various artists (1994–2000)
- iZombie by Chris Roberson and Michael Allred (2010–2012)
- Jacked by Eric Kripke and John Higgins. Six issue miniseries
- Jack of Fables by Bill Willingham, Matthew Sturges and various artists (2006–2011)
- Kid Eternity by Grant Morrison, Ann Nocenti, Duncan Fegredo and Sean Phillips (1991, 1993–1994) [Note 1]
- Last Gang in Town by Simon Oliver and Rufus Dayglo. Seven issue miniseries
- The Losers by Andy Diggle, Jock and various artists (2003–2006)
- Loveless by Brian Azzarello, Marcelo Frusin, Danijel Zezelj and Werther Dell'edera (2005–2008)
- Lucifer by Mike Carey, Holly Black and various artists (1999–2006, 2015-2017)
- Madame Xanadu by Matt Wagner and various artists (2008–2011)
- The New Deadwardians by Dan Abnett and I.N.J. Culbard (2012)
- New Romancer by Peter Milligan and Brett Parson Six issue miniseries.
- Northlanders by Brian Wood and various artists (2008–2012)
- Outlaw Nation by Jamie Delano, Goran Sudzuka and Goran Parlov (2000–2002)
- Preacher by Garth Ennis and Steve Dillon (1995–2000)
- Red Thorn by David Baillie and Meghan Hetrick (2015-2016)
- The Sandman by Neil Gaiman and various artists (1989–1996) [Note 1]
- Sandman Mystery Theatre by Matt Wagner, Steven T. Seagle, Guy Davis and various artists (1993–1999)
- Saucer Country by Paul Cornell and Ryan Kelly (2012–2013)
- Savage Things by Justin Jordan and Ibrahim Moustafa (2017)
- Scalped by Jason Aaron and R. M. Guéra (2007–2012)
- Seekers into the Mystery by J.M. DeMatteis and various artists (1996–1997)
- Shade, the Changing Man by Peter Milligan and Chris Bachalo (1990–1996) [Note 1]
- Sheriff of Babylon by Tom King and Mitch Gerads. (2015–) Twelve issue miniseries.
- Spaceman by Brian Azzarello and Eduardo Risso (2011–2012)
- Suiciders by Lee Bermejo. (2015)
- Survivor's Club by Lauren Beukes, Dale Halvorsen, and Ryan Kelly (2015-2016)
- Swamp Thing (Saga of the ..., vol. 2, vol. 3 and vol. 4) by Alan Moore and various writers and artists (1982–1996, 2000–2001, 2004–2006)[Note 1]
- Sweet Tooth by Jeff Lemire (2009–2013)
- Testament by Douglas Rushkoff and Liam Sharp (2006–2008)
- Transmetropolitan by Warren Ellis and Darick Robertson (1997–2002) [Note 3]
- Unknown Soldier by Joshua Dysart and various artists (2008–2010)
- The Unwritten by Mike Carey and Peter Gross (2009–2014)
- The Un-Men by John Whalen and Mike Hawthorne (2007–2008)
- Unfollow by Rob Williams and Mike Dowling (2015–2017)
- The Vinyl Underground by Si Spencer and Simon Gane (2007–2008)
- The Wolf Moon by Cullen Bunn and Jeremy Haun (2014–2015)
- Y: The Last Man by Brian K. Vaughan and Pia Guerra (2002–2008)
- Young Liars by David Lapham (2008–2009)
- Coffin Hill by Caitlin Kittredge and Inaki Miranda (2013–2015)
- FBP: Federal Bureau of Physics by Simon Oliver and Robbi Rodriguez (2013–2015).
- The Sandman: Overture by Neil Gaiman and JH Williams III. Six-part mini-series (2014–2015).
Original graphic novels
This article needs to be updated.(June 2018)
- The Heart of the Beast, written by Dean Motter and Judith Dupré. Art by Sean Phillips, 1994
- The Tragical Comedy or Comical Tragedy of Mr. Punch, written by Neil Gaiman. Art by Dave McKean, 1994
- The Mystery Play, written by Grant Morrison. Art by John J. Muth, 1995
- You Are Here, written by Kyle Baker. Art by Kyle Baker, 1998
- The House on the Borderland, written by William Hope Hodgson and Simon Revelstroke. Art by Richard Corben, 2000
- Sandman: The Dream Hunters, written by Neil Gaiman. Art by Yoshitaka Amano, 2000
- I, Paparazzi, written by Pat McGreal, 2001
- The Little Endless Storybook, written by Jill Thompson. Art by Jill Thompson, 2001
- Bigg Time, written by Ty Templeton. Art by Ty Templeton, 2002
- Human Target: Final Cut, written by Peter Milligan. Art by Javier Pulido, 2002
- In the Shadow of Edgar Allan Poe, written by Jonathon Scott Fuqua. Art by Stephen John Phillips, 2002
- King David, written by Kyle Baker. Art by Kyle Baker, 2002
- The Sandman Presents: The Furies, written by Mike Carey. Art by John Bolton, 2002
- Barnum!: In Secret Service to the USA, written by David Tischman and Howard Chaykin. Art by Niko Henrichon, 2003
- Death: At Death's Door, written by Jill Thompson. Art by Jill Thompson, 2003
- The House on the Borderland, written by Simon Revelstroke. Art by Richard Corben, 2003
- Lovecraft, written by Hans Rodionoff and Keith Giffen. Art by Enrique Breccia, 2003
- Orbiter, written by Warren Ellis. Art by Colleen Doran, 2003
- The Sandman: Endless Nights, written by Neil Gaiman. Art by Barron Storey, Bill Sienkiewicz, Dave McKean, Frank Quitely, Glenn Fabry, Miguelanxo Prado, Milo Manara, and P. Craig Russell, 2003
- Sgt. Rock: Between Hell and a Hard Place, written by Brian Azzarello. Art by Joe Kubert, 2003
- Undercover Genie, written by Kyle Baker. Art by Kyle Baker, 2003
- It's a Bird, written by Steven T. Seagle. Art by Teddy Kristiansen, 2004
- The Originals, written by Dave Gibbons. Art by Dave Gibbons, 2004
- The Dead Boy Detectives, written by Jill Thompson. Art by Jill Thompson, 2005
- The Fountain, written by Darren Aronofsky. Art by Kent Williams, 2005
- Hellblazer: All His Engines, written by Mike Carey. Art by Leonardo Manco, 2005
- The Quitter, written by Harvey Pekar. Art by Dean Haspiel, 2005
- Can't Get No, written by Rick Veitch. Art by Rick Veitch, 2006
- Fables: 1001 Nights of Snowfall, written by Bill Willingham. Art by Brian Bolland, Charles Vess, Derek Kirk Kim, Esao Andrews, James Jean, Jill Thompson, John Bolton, Mark Buckingham, Mark Wheatley, Michael William Kaluta and Tara McPherson, 2006
- Pride of Baghdad, written by Brian K. Vaughan. Art by Niko Henrichon, 2006
- Sloth, written by Gilbert Hernandez. Art by Gilbert Hernandez, 2006
- Cairo, written by G. Willow Wilson. Art by M. K. Perker, 2007
- God Save the Queen, written by Mike Carey. Art by John Bolton, 2007
- Silverfish, written by David Lapham. Art by David Lapham, 2007
- The Alcoholic, written by Jonathan Ames. Art by Dean Haspiel, 2008
- Incognegro, written by Mat Johnson. Art by Warren Pleece, 2008
- Sentences: The Life of M.F. Grimm, written by Percy Carey. Art by Ronald Wimberly, 2008
- Dark Entries by Ian Rankin and Werther Dell'Edera,(Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2009
- Filthy Rich by Brian Azzarello and Victor Santos, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2009
- Luna Park, written by Kevin Baker. Art by Danijel Zezelj, 2009
- The Nobody, written by Jeff Lemire. Art by Jeff Lemire, 2009
- A Sickness in the Family by Denise Mina and Antonio Fuso, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2010
- Area 10 by Christos N. Gage and Chris Samnee, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2010
- The Bronx Kill by Peter Milligan and James Romberger, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2010
- The Chill by Jason Starr and Mick Bertilorenzi, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2010
- Cuba: My Revolution, written by Inverna Lockpez. Art by Dean Haspiel, 2010
- Dark Rain: A New Orleans Story, written by Mat Johnson. Art by Simon Gane, 2010
- The Executor by Jon Evans and Andrea Mutti, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2010
- Fogtown by Andersen Gabrych and Brad Rader, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2010
- The Green Woman, written by Peter Straub. Art by John Bolton, 2010
- Hellblazer: Pandemonium, written by Jamie Delano. Art by Jock, 2010
- How to Understand Israel in 60 Days or Less, written by Sarah Glidden. Art by Sarah Glidden, 2010
- Neil Young's Greendale, written by Joshua Dysart. Art by Cliff Chiang, 2010
- Other Lives, written by Peter Bagge. Art by Peter Bagge, 2010
- Revolver, written by Matt Kindt. Art by Matt Kindt, 2010
- 99 Days by Matteo Casali and Kristian Donaldson, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2011
- Aaron and Ahmed, written by Jay Cantor. Art by James Romberger, 2011
- Cowboys by Gary Philips and Brian Hurtt, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2011
- Delirium's Party: A Little Endless Storybook, written by Jill Thompson. Art by Jill Thompson, 2011
- Flight of Angels, written by Alisa Kwitney, Bill Willingham, Holly Black, Louise Hawes and Todd Mitchell. Art by Rebecca Guay, 2011
- Marzi: A Memoir, written by Marzena Sowa. Art by Sylvain Savoia, 2011
- Noche Roja by Simon Oliver and Jason Latour, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2011
- Rat Catcher by Andy Diggle and Victor Ibanez, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2011
- Return to Perdition by Max Allan Collins, (Vertigo Crime subimprint), 2011
- A.D.D., written by Douglas Rushkoff. Art by Goran Sudzuka, 2012
- Get Jiro!, written by Anthony Bourdain and Joel Rose. Art by Langdon Foss, 2012
- Gone to Amerikay, written by Derek McCulloch. Art by Colleen Doran, 2012
- Prince of Cats, written by Ronald Wimberly. Art by Ronald Wimberly, 2012
- Right State, written by Mat Johnson. Art by Andrea Mutti, 2012
- Shooters, written by Brandon Jerwa and Eric Trautmann. Art by Steve Lieber, 2012
- Dark Night: A True Batman Story, written by Paul Dini. Art by Eduardo Risso, 2016.
The (financial) success of many Vertigo titles relies not on monthly issue sales, but on the subsequent "trade paperback" editions that reprint the monthly comics in volumes which are sold not merely in comic shops, but in all bookshops. Vertigo's success in popularizing the trade paperback collection led to a wider take-up in the American comics industry of routinely reprinting monthly series in this format. Limited series (ideal for later collection) and original graphic novels make up the majority of the imprint's output, with TPB sales accounting for a substantial segment of the imprint's sales.
Sub-imprints and brandings
Over its fifteen-year history, the Vertigo imprint has experimented with a number of different branding, sub-imprint and business practices—some more popular and successful than others. The only "crossover" between Vertigo titles—1993-4's The Children's Crusade event—"did not yield smashing results" or garner many positive reviews, in large part due to its "gimmicky" nature, which ran counter to Vertigo's quirky, non-mainstream appeal and customer-base. The event was defended as "no marketing ploy" by one of the event's editors, Lou Stathis, who wrote of his dislike of the often "crass manipulation" of crossover events, defending The Children's Crusade as having come not from marketing, but the writers' minds, and therefore being "story-driven" rather than manipulative. The crossover did not become an annual event, however — indeed, annuals linked to Vertigo series rarely reappeared since this event.
Marked on the right-hand side of the cover by the Vertigo Visions "eye" logo, the six (to date) one-shots released under this sub-imprint have little in common other than introducing formerly DC Universe characters into the Vertigo line. All six characters span the gap between the universes and have appeared in comics from both imprints. Prez Rickard for example, debuted in Prez, a short-lived early-1970s series by Joe Simon (who also co-created Brother Power the Geek and Captain America) and artist Jerry Grandenetti, but then drifted into obscurity before being spotlighted in Gaiman's Sandman #54. Ed Brubaker's one-shot dealt with Prez's supposed son seeking out his supposed father.
- Vertigo Visions: The Geek (June 1993) by Rachel Pollack and Mike Allred
- Vertigo Visions: Phantom Stranger (October 1993) by Alisa Kwitney and Guy Davis
- Vertigo Visions: Doctor Occult (July 1994) by Dave Louapre and Dan Sweetman
- Vertigo Visions: Prez (September 1995) by Ed Brubaker and Eric Shanower
- Vertigo Visions: Tomahawk (July 1998) by Rachel Pollack and Tom Yeates
- Vertigo Visions: Doctor Thirteen (September 1998) by Matt Howarth and Michael Avon Oeming
Vertigo Visions was also the title of a 2000 collection of artwork from various Vertigo titles. Scripted by Alisa Kwitney, Vertigo Visions: Artwork from the Cutting Edge of Comics (ISBN 0-8230-5603-1) featured sections on:
- The founding Vertigo "Cornerstones" (Swamp Thing, The Sandman, The Dreaming and The Books of Magic),
- "Metafiction" in Vertigo titles (Animal Man; Doom Patrol; Shade, the Changing Man; The Invisibles),
- The (other) "Cult Favorite" titles (Sandman Mystery Theatre, House of Secrets, Transmetropolitan, Jonah Hex, Moonshadow, etc.)
- The "Skewed Reality" of such titles as Chiaroscuro & Preacher et al., and
- The "Alternate Realities" of such titles as Goddess, Terminal City & Stardust et al.
The Vertigo Voices sub-imprint was an early attempt by Vertigo to allow its creators freedom in producing creator-owned "distinctive one-shot stories." Under a specially designed issue-header (along the top, rather than the normal Vertigo side-banner), the Vertigo Voices specials were owned by their creators, and released as an initial three (or four: see below), with The Eaters following separately. (Tainted was to be "the third of the three original... specials," but became the second after Kill Your Boyfriend was delayed.) The published four were:
- Face (Jan 1995) by Peter Milligan & Duncan Fegredo
- Tainted (Feb 1995) by Jamie Delano and Al Davison
- Kill Your Boyfriend (June 1995) by Grant Morrison and Philip Bond (with D'Israeli)
- The Eaters (?Nov 1995) by Milligan and Dean Ormston
Milligan and Fegredo's Face was a horror story involving plastic surgery, while Delano and Davison's Tainted — described by one fan/critic as a "psychological masterpiece"—was a Kafkaesque tale set in England about a straight-laced gentlemen turned peeping tom, caught up in a tale involving repressed memories, blackmail and murder. Grant Morrison and Philip Bond's Kill Your Boyfriend deals with themes of repression, excess and corruptive influences, and purports to transform a "real" character into a mythical one by having the main female take on the persona projected by her new, murderous, bad-boy boyfriend — a transformation she uses within the confines of the story to justify, excuse and explain her excessive behaviour. Peter Milligan and Dean Ormston's The Eaters was a black comedy dealing with a family of cannibals caught up in a tale of revenge and American "family values" on a deeply satirical road trip.
Four titles were initially solicited in the Vertigo Voices range, the three which formed the initial release and a fourth title: Bizarre Boys. Announced as part of the initial line-up, but subsequently not released (and then replaced by The Eaters), Bizarre Boys was to have been a collaboration between Grant Morrison, Peter Milligan and Jamie Hewlett. This title would have seen metafictional authors "Morrigan" and "Millison" on a quest to find their titular creations, and "[e]choing James Joyce's Bloomsday, whatever events happen on Bizarre Boys Day [would] also [have] happen[ed] in the comic."
In 1996, several comics titles (two one-shots and three miniseries) were collectively released under the sub-imprint Vertigo Vérité. The short-lived "Vérité" line, evoking the realism of Cinéma vérité from the French for "truth", "was a 1996–98 attempt to promote new Vertigo projects devoid of the supernatural qualities that had gotten to define the publisher."
The five titles released under the "Vérité" banner were:
- Seven Miles a Second (May 1996) by David Wojnarowicz and James Romberger
- The System #1–3 (May–July 1996) by Peter Kuper
- Girl #1–3 (July–Sep 1996) by Peter Milligan and Duncan Fegredo
- The Unseen Hand #1–4 (September–December 1996) by Terry LaBan & Ilya
- Hell Eternal (April 1998) by Jamie Delano and Sean Phillips
Seven Miles a Second (the title comes from "the speed which an object needs to achieve to break free of the Earth's gravity") was published after Wojnarowicz' death from AIDS, and covered his experiences of living with that disease. Peter Kuper's The System dealt wordlessly with "class warfare in the big city," while Milligan & Fegredo's Girl is a hyper-realistic tale of a disaffected teenage girl prone to "all-consuming daydreams... needed to cope with life itself" caught up in a tale of murder and mundanity. The Unseen Hand features a college student caught up in an Illuminati-like conspiracy, with 1998's Hell Eternal.
The System was subsequently collected in a TPB.
On the eve of 2000, Vertigo released several titles under the "Fifth-week event" brand V2K (Vertigo 2000), to "celebrate... the (faux) millennium". Fifth-week events, which infrequently take advantage of a month having five comics-shipping-days (usually Wednesday/Thursday) are typically designed to fill in the extra day in the normal four-weekly schedule. The "events" tend to see the release of stand-alone one-shot titles, usually with a cogent theme. V2K, by contrast, was a "much hyped concept" whose titles were designed to "usher... in the new millennium," and as such several of them were miniseries rather than one-shots.
Under the slogan "Future's Here... Start Screaming", the five V2K titles were:
- Brave Old World #1–4 (February–May 2000) by William Messner-Loebs, Guy Davis and Phil Hester
- The Four Horsemen #1–4 (February–May 2000) by Robert Rodi and Esad Ribić
- I Die at Midnight by Kyle Baker
- Pulp Fantastic #1–3 (February–April 2000) by Howard Chaykin & David Tischman and Rick Burchett
- Totems by Tom Peyer with Richard Case, Duncan Fegredo and Dean Ormston
Pulp Fantastic was initially solicited (and the first issue labelled) as a four-issue miniseries, but it was swiftly revised as a three-issue mini.
The Vertigo Pop miniseries were designed "to be about pop culture around the globe in some vaguely defined way." Indeed, along with middling sales-figures, one critic noted that "[a]side from vague notions of foreign cities and pop culture, it was never entirely clear what they were supposed to have in common in the first place."
- Vertigo Pop: Tokyo #1–4 (September–December 2002) by Jonathan Vankin and Seth Fisher
- Vertigo Pop: London #1–4 (January–April 2003) by Peter Milligan and Philip Bond
- Vertigo Pop: Bangkok #1–4 (July–October 2003) by Vankin and Giuseppe Camuncoli
The first (four-issue) miniseries, Vertigo Pop: Tokyo was in the words of one reviewer "a broad comedy about cosplay fans and the mafia (yakuza)," revolving around an American who moves to Tokyo's famous Akihabara district and attempts to deal with the differences between the two cultures before getting caught up in a "wild adventure involving kidnapping, extortion, gangsters, and rock stars." The second miniseries, Vertigo Pop: London, told the tale of "Rocky Lamont, lead singer in 1960s rock band" who "[r]ather than burning out the way he'd hoped... [went] into a slow and dull decline with a trophy wife and a series of dreary albums." Given the chance to relive his life by switching bodies with "a talentless 20 year-old wannabe rock star with all the looks and charm Rocky used to have," the series deals with the subsequent soul-searching and reflection over such a decision.
The third (and final) miniseries, Vertigo Pop: Bangkok was an altogether "darker affair," dealing in part with the sleazy underbelly of Bangkok from the perspective of a number of different Western tourists. Featuring several unlikable and unsympathetic protagonists, the miniseries "capture[d] the city in a dirty and unflattering — yet realistic — light" serving as a backdrop to a tale of the Thai sex trade and sex tourism.
In 2003, the Vertigo imprint celebrated "Ten years on the edge" by branding their books cover-dated April 2003 to February 2004 (i.e. released between February and December 2003)—Vertigo's tenth anniversary—with the legend Vertigo X. This special subtitle was debuted on the Vertigo X Anniversary Preview (Apr 2003), a 48-page special previewing Vertigo's up-coming projects and featuring a short Shade, the Changing Man story by the "Ecstatic" team of Peter Milligan and Mike Allred (a pun on their then-current Marvel project together: X-Statix). Projects highlighted included Death: At Death's Door, Jill Thompson's first manga-ized version of the "Season of Mists" storyline, retold from the point of view of the Sandman's elder-sister Death and Gaiman's own return to the mythos with the hardcover Sandman: Endless Nights all-star collection of short stories spotlighting the seven members of the Endless. (An 8-page Endless Nights Preview issue was also released before the hardcover). Also highlighted and previewed were two original graphic novels: Lovecraft (based on a screenplay by Hans Rodionoff and adapted by Keith Giffen with art by Enrique Breccia) took the conceit that H. P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu mythos creatures were real, to paint a highly fictionalized biographic portrait of the titular author, while Howard Chaykin & David Tischman's Barnum! (with art by Niko Henrichon) similarly drifted in the realms of fictionalized biography, but did not stray into the horror/supernatural world. The tale of P. T. Barnum: secret agent saw the celebrated showman saving the life of President Grover Cleveland and (with his circus charges, including original siamese twins Chang and Eng) and matching wits against the "evil" Nikola Tesla. Also previewed as a 2003 release from Vertigo was Brett Lewis and John Paul Leon's The Winter Men, which ultimately saw its first issue released in September 2005 through WildStorm's "Signature Series" imprint.
- Ongoing series
- Graphic novels
- Barnum!: In Secret Service to the USA (June/August) by Howard Chaykin, David Tischman and Niko Henrichon
- Death: At Death's Door (July/September) by Jill Thompson
- Sandman: Endless Nights (October/December) by Neil Gaiman with P. Craig Russell, Milo Manara, Miguelanxo Prado, Barron Storey & Dave McKean, Bill Sienkiewicz and Frank Quitely
The final Vertigo Pop! miniseries, and the eighth-and-final issue of Garth Ennis' War Story series of one-shots were released in their entirety during the year and featured the logo:
- Vertigo Pop: Bangkok #1–4 (July–October 2003) by Vankin and Giuseppe Camuncoli
- War Story: Archangel (April) by Garth Ennis and Gary Erskine
Similarly, two other graphic novels were released during the year, but not specifically highlighted in the preview as Anniversary titles:
- Orbiter (June/August) by Warren Ellis and Colleen Doran
- Sgt. Rock: Between Hell & A Hard Place (July/September) by Joe Kubert
The following ongoing series had issues released during Vertigo's anniversary year and those issues carried the "Vertigo X" branding:
- 100 Bullets #42–48 (April–February 2004) by Brian Azzarello and Eduardo Risso
- Fables #10–20 (April–February 2004) by Bill Willingham and Mark Buckingham; with Lan Medina, Linda Medley and Bryan Talbot
- Lucifer #35–45 (April���February 2004) by Mike Carey, Peter Gross and Dean Ormston; with David Hahn & Ted Naifeh
- Y: The Last Man #8–17 (April–February 2004) by Brian K. Vaughan and Pia Guerra; with Paul Chadwick.
The following series and miniseries finished during the year, with the final issues featuring the "Vertigo X" logo:
- American Century #23–27 (April–October) by Howard Chaykin, David Tischman and Lan Medina; with Luke Ross & John Severin
- Codename: Knockout #21–23 (April–June) by Robert Rodi and John Lucas
- Fight for Tomorrow #6 (April) by Brian Wood and Denys Cowan
- The Filth #9–13 (April–October) by Grant Morrison and Chris Weston
- Hellblazer Special: Lady Constantine #3–4 (April–May) by Andy Diggle and Goran Sudzuka
- Hunter: The Age of Magic #20–25 (April–September) by Dylan Horrocks and Richard Case
- Sandman Presents: Bast #2–3 (April–May) by Caitlin R. Kiernan and Joe Bennett
- Vertigo Pop: London #4 (April) by Peter Milligan and Philip Bond
Paul Pope's 100% #5 was cover-dated July 2003, but was not branded a "Vertigo X" title.
Originally previewed as a "Vertigo X" title, Brett Lewis and John Paul Leon's The Winter Men was ultimately put back to September 2005, when it was released—under the WildStorm Signature Series label.
At the 2008 Comic-Con International Karen Berger outlined plans for a new "sub-imprint" called Vertigo Crime: "it's a line of graphic novels, in black and white, hardcover". It was launched in 2009 with two titles: Brian Azzarello's Filthy Rich and Ian Rankin's Dark Entries, the latter featuring John Constantine. Each volume features a cover illustration by Lee Bermejo. Vertigo Crime was ended as a sub-imprint in 2011.
The following original graphic novels have been published under the Vertigo Crime imprint (in order of publication):
- Filthy Rich by Brian Azzarello and Victor Santos, 2009
- Dark Entries by Ian Rankin and Werther Dell'Edera, 2009
- The Chill by Jason Starr and Mick Bertilorenzi, 2010
- The Bronx Kill by Peter Milligan and James Romberger, 2010
- Area 10 by Christos N. Gage and Chris Samnee, 2010
- The Executor by Jon Evans and Andrea Mutti, 2010
- Fogtown by Andersen Gabrych and Brad Rader, 2010
- A Sickness in the Family by Denise Mina and Antonio Fuso, 2010
- Rat Catcher by Andy Diggle and Victor Ibanez, 2011
- Noche Roja by Simon Oliver and Jason Latour, 2011
- 99 Days by Matteo Casali and Kristian Donaldson, 2011
- Cowboys by Gary Philips and Brian Hurtt, 2011
- Return to Perdition by Max Allan Collins, 2011
In addition to founding editor (and the driving force behind Vertigo) Karen Berger, several other editors have become intrinsically linked to the imprint. Berger herself was editing proto-Vertigo titles from the start of her time with DC, beginning in 1981 with House of Mystery. She took over editorship of Alan Moore's Swamp Thing run from Swamp Thing co-creator Len Wein in 1984, and in 1986 "became DC's British liaison," bringing to DC's pre-Vertigo titles the individuals who would be instrumental in the creation and evolution of Vertigo seven years later. From 1988, her Swamp Thing and other DC titles were joined by Gaiman and McKean's Black Orchid miniseries and Hellblazer as well as the odd miniseries The Weird. Editing Doug Moench's The Wanderers, Berger was joined on issue #5 (Oct 1988) by co-editor Art Young, who would also later be instrumental in the formation of Vertigo. Grant Morrison's Animal Man and the ultra-dark Arkham Asylum OGN were swiftly joined on Berger's slate by The Sandman, Skreemer, The Books of Magic, The Nazz and Shade, the Changing Man. Berger continued with The Sandman and Shade during 1992, and saw the pre-Vertigo titles as "all [having] some basis in reality."
By the early 1990s, "[t]he core Vertigo titles had already become their own little enclave," so when Berger returned from maternity leave, she spoke with DC President Jenette Kahn and Executive Editor Dick Giordano, the outcome being a separate imprint to "actively expand [the] sensibility" of the titles she had been editing. Berger included in the initial Vertigo line-up the five titles she had had some hand in creating or editing (Swamp Thing, Hellblazer, Animal Man, Sandman and Shade) as well as Doom Patrol which she "decided to include... because Grant Morrison was working on it and the sensibility was very much like the other series." Berger has since overseen the entire Vertigo line, and was promoted to the position of "Senior Vice President — Executive Editor, Vertigo" in July 2006. Berger's promotion came as Vertigo was said to be equivalent to "the fourth largest American comic book publisher" in 2005, with Paul Levitz praising her personally as having "built Vertigo into an imprint which is simultaneously one of comics' leading creative and commercial successes." In addition, Berger won Eisner Awards for her editing in 1992, 1994 and 1995 for her work on the proto- and early Vertigo titles Sandman, Shade, Kid Eternity, Books of Magic, Death: The High Cost of Living and Sandman Mystery Theatre.
Art Young joined Karen Berger to edit pre-Vertigo issues of Animal Man (from issue #3), Hellblazer and Swamp Thing on issues cover-dated November 1988. Two months later, Young also took on the initial issues of The Sandman, before in mid-1990 moving to Doom Patrol, which with Animal Man he edited until early 1991 (also over-seeing the original Books of Magic miniseries along the way). He then left DC to work for Disney in setting up Touchmark, before returning with those projects to Vertigo in early 1993, when he edited debut title Enigma, and later miniseries and one-shots such as Sebastian O, The Extremist, Mercy, Rogan Gosh, The Mystery Play, and Tank Girl: The Moovy. He edited all four of the "Vertigo Voices" titles in 1995, as well as Shadows Fall, Ghostdancing, Egypt, Millennium Fever and both Tank Girl miniseries. Young's last editorial credit for Vertigo was Flex Mentallo #1 (June 1996).
Shelly Bond is a Vertigo Group Editor. Like Young, she has overseen a large number of notable projects during her (almost-)exclusive time working with Vertigo since April 1993. Roeberg took over editorial duties on the second Vertigo issues of both The Sandman and Shade, the Changing Man from Lisa Guastella — then Lisa Aufenanger — editing those two titles until their respective final issues; she also edited the first 36 issues of the "ahead of its time" crime/noir series Sandman Mystery Theatre. Between 1993 and 2000, she edited titles exclusively for Vertigo (with one exception — the nine issues of Peter Bagge and Gilbert Hernandez's Yeah! (1999–2000) for DC's imprint Homage), including relatively little known titles and one-shots such as Skin Graft, The Last One, The Heart of the Beast (1994), Mobfire, Terminal City, Menz Insana, The Girl Who Would Be Death, Heavy Liquid, Pulp Fantastic and Accelerate. She also edited the first Vertigo works of Bill Willingham and Ed Brubaker in Proposition Player and Scene of the Crime, and the higher-profile series Moonshadow, Girl, Seekers into the Mystery, The Minx and all issues of House of Secrets (with Jennifer Lee from issue #11).
She (co-)edited the final 25 issues of The Dreaming between 1999 and 2001, initially as Shelly Roeberg, and latterly as Shelly Bond (after marrying artist Philip Bond), and most of the Sandman Presents... miniseries and one-shots. From 2000, she has continued to edit most of the highest-profile Vertigo titles, including almost all of Mike Carey's Lucifer (with Mariah Huehner) and the entirety of Ed Brubaker's Deadenders, Howard Chaykin & David Tischman's American Century, Jonathan Vankin's The Witching, Si Spencer's Books of Magick: Life During Wartime, Steven T. Seagle and Kelley Jones' The Crusades and Bill Willingham's Fables (to date). She oversaw the first fourteen issues of American Virgin, the first eleven of Jack of Fables, the first two Vertigo Pop! miniseries, Paul Dini's Zatanna: Everyday Magic and the innovative Vertical one-shot. She helped shepherd the OGNs Barnum!, Confessions of a Blabbermouth, 1001 Nights of Snowfall, God Save the Queen, The Little Endless Storybook, Re-Gifters, Sandman: Endless Nights and Silverfish as well as both Bite Club miniseries, Faker, Grip: The Strange World of Men, My Faith in Frankie and House of Secrets: Facade. From 2007, she has also been heavily involved in the new DC imprint "Minx", but is still editing titles for Vertigo, including the new 2007/8 series House of Mystery, Vinyl Underground and Young Liars.
Tom Peyer was, by 1990 editing (with Karen Berger) what would become the pillars of Vertigo: Hellblazer, Sandman (taking over from Art Young), Swamp Thing and Shade, the Changing Man. He soon left Swamp Thing to Stuart Moore, however with issue #100, and Moore would edit and co-edit the remaining 71 issues of that title, including the switch from DC to Vertigo. Peyer moved to Doom Patrol and Animal Man, which he edited during the transition from DC to Vertigo, before moving to edit the initial issues of Kid Eternity and Black Orchid as well as two "Vertigo Visions" one-shots. Peyer left editing behind in 1994, returning to DC as a writer. Moore edited a wide range of Vertigo titles between 1993 and 2000, including the transitional issues of Hellblazer as well as Swamp Thing, the first fifteen issues of The Invisibles, the first seventeen issues of Preacher and the first thirty issues of Transmetropolitan. In 1996, Moore won the Eisner Award for best editor, for his work on Swamp Thing, Invisibles and Preacher. He edited the first issues of Books of Magic, and both Books of Faerie miniseries (with Cliff Chiang), and returned to the main Books of Magic title for a further 20+ issues with Chiang in 1998. He also edited several miniseries for both Vertigo and Vertigo's sister imprint Helix.
Axel Alonso (who would later move to Marvel Comics) began his editorial career at Vertigo on Animal Man, Black Orchid, Doom Patrol and Hellblazer, and also edited the opening issues of Brian Azzarello and Eduardo Risso's 100 Bullets and the final issues of Garth Ennis and Steve Dillon's Preacher.
Will Dennis was promoted from assistant editor to editor upon Alonso's departure. He took over the editing of 100 Bullets and later assumed the reins of Vertigo's biggest hit series since Preacher, Brian K. Vaughan and Pia Guerra's Y: The Last Man. Dennis has been responsible for bringing writers Brian Wood (DMZ) and Jason Aaron (Scalped) to Vertigo. He teamed writer Andy Diggle and artist Jock on their breakout series The Losers. Dennis edited Vaughan's commercially successful graphic novel "Pride of Baghdad". He is the editor presiding over the ongoing Vertigo Crime line of graphic novels.
Jonathan Vankin was hired as an editor at Vertigo in 2004 after previously writing two of the line's Vertigo Pop miniseries and several entries in the Paradox Press "Big Book" series as well as several other non-comics works . His contributions to the line as an editor have included the series, The Exterminators and Testament. For the latter, he brought media theorist Douglas Rushkoff to Vertigo. Taking over editing of Hellblazer from Will Dennis, he hired acclaimed Scottish crime novelist Denise Mina to write the title for 13 issues. He brought Harvey Pekar to Vertigo, where Pekar published the graphic novel The Quitter as well as eight issues of Pekar's long-running American Splendor autobiographical series. Vankin also edited the graphic novels Incognegro by Mat Johnson and The Alcoholic by novelist and essayist Jonathan Ames.
Although the "mature reader" works of Alan Moore, Grant Morrison (with Jamie Delano and Neil Gaiman) under the DC imprint paved the way for Vertigo's launch, neither author was part of the initial line-up. Indeed, Moore never produced work for the Vertigo imprint — having refused to work for parent company DC in the late 1980s — although his DC-published Swamp Thing work and V for Vendetta reprint-maxiseries were subsequently collected as Vertigo-issued TPBs, while the Hellblazer solo title dealt with the character co-created by Moore, but never written by him.
Grant Morrison, whose pre-Vertigo work on Animal Man and Doom Patrol was similarly retroactively branded as "Vertigo" when collected, also wrote two issues of Hellblazer pre-Vertigo, which are collected in a 2005 trade paperback. Wrote three volumes of The Invisibles between 1994 and 2000. In addition, he has produced a number of miniseries including Sebastian O (1993), the Doom Patrol spin-off Flex Mentallo (1996), Seaguy (2004), Vimanarama (2005), We3 (2004–2005) and "Joe The Barbarian" (2010) as well as the longer miniseries The Filth (2002–2003). He collaborated with writer Mark Millar on five issues of Swamp Thing in 1994, produced two one-shots — The Mystery Play (1994) and Kill Your Boyfriend (1995) — and contributed to several anthologies.
Of the eight debut Vertigo titles, half of them were the work of two authors. Neil Gaiman, who went on to become a New York Times best-selling novelist, came to prominence four years pre-Vertigo with the launch of The Sandman for DC Comics, a title that became the backbone of the initial Vertigo line-up. Gaiman's work on the first The Books of Magic miniseries (also released as a DC title, 1990–91) lay the groundwork for that long-running Vertigo Universe series, which features young wizard Timothy Hunter.
Peter Milligan, who began his career at 2000 AD, before working briefly for both Pacific Comics and Eclipse Comics, contributed two titles (one quarter of the initial line-up; the same as Gaiman) to the Vertigo launch. His Shade, the Changing Man was launched by DC and ran 70 issues (July 1990) – #70 (April 1996), by which time it was under the Vertigo imprint. He also wrote the creator-owned eight-issue miniseries Enigma (1993). Milligan and Brett Ewins's Skreemer, written for DC pre-Vertigo (1989) was subsequently collected by Vertigo, while his work on the DC character Human Target was released entirely by Vertigo as a four-issue miniseries (1999), an original graphic novel (2002), and an ongoing series (2003–2005). Milligan also produced the one-shots The Eaters and Face in 1995 for the "Vertigo Voices" sub-imprint, and a number of other miniseries, including The Extremist (1993), Tank Girl: The Odyssey (1995), Egypt (1995–1996), Girl (1996), The Minx (1998–1999), and Vertigo Pop!: London (2003).
Garth Ennis (Hellblazer) and Jamie Delano (Animal Man) were two other launch authors who went on to great success with Vertigo and elsewhere. Ennis' best-known Vertigo work was his and artist Steve Dillon's creator-owned Preacher, which ran for 66 issues and six spin-off specials between 1995 and 2000, while Ennis' prolific work on Hellblazer rivals initial-series author Delano. Ennis has also written several miniseries for Vertigo, including Goddess (1995–1996), Pride & Joy (1997), Unknown Soldier (1997), and Adventures in the Rifle Brigade (2001–2002), as well as eight one-shot War Stories between 2001 and 2003. Two of his pre-Vertigo works — True Faith (serialized in Crisis) and the four-issue DC/Helix miniseries Bloody Mary (1996–1197) — have had collections released under the Vertigo label. Alan Moore, co-creator of the jaded, chain-smoking, modern-day British wizard John Constantine in Swamp Thing, hand-picked Jamie Delano to continue Constantine's adventures as star of the DC title Hellblazer (1988–2013), but Delano left that series in 1991 before the launch of Vertigo. Delano did write Vertigo's Animal Man#51–79 (1992–1995), and produced 19 issues of Outlaw Nation (2000–02) and the 12-issue miniseries 2020 Visions (1997–1998), plus two Hellblazer miniseries — The Horrorist (1995–1996) and Hellblazer Special: Bad Blood (2000). He also wrote the one-shot titles Tainted (1995) and Hell Eternal (1998), the miniseries Ghostdancing (1995) and Cruel and Unusual (1999), contributed to anthology titles, and with Gaiman and Kwitney wrote The Children's Crusade #2.
Rachel Pollack, who was writing Doom Patrol when Vertigo launched, continued on that title until #87 (Feb. 1995), the final issues. She also penned two "Vertigo Visions" specials — 1993's The Geek and 1998's Tomahawk. Nancy A. Collins, who wrote Swamp Thing #110–138 (Aug. 1991 ��� Dec. 1993), also wrote the 1996 one-shot Dhampire: Stillborn.
John Ney Reiber has produced most of his output for Vertigo, working exclusively for the company between 1994 and 2000. Reiber wrote the first fifty issues of the first ongoing The Books of Magic series (May 94 – July 98), as well as a number of miniseries, mostly set in the wider Vertigo universe (and particularly the Sandman/Books of Magic sections) – Mythos: The Final Tour (1996–7), Hellblazer/The Books of Magic (1997–8), The Trenchcoat Brigade (1999), The Books of Faerie: Molly's Story (1999). Reiber's Shadows Fall (with artist John Van Fleet) was a self-created horror story grounded in a reality which made the tale "all the more creepy than if the story was played out in the realm and scope of superheroes." Reiber's Tell Me Dark, produced for DC, was collected in softcover by Vertigo, and he also contributed to various anthologies.
J. M. DeMatteis began his comics career on DC's House of Mystery title over a decade before the formation of Vertigo, and later became one of the earliest Vertigo creators thanks in large part to his proposed Touchmark projects. DeMatteis' Mercy (1993) one-shot and miniseries The Last One both debuted in 1993, with reprints of two creator-owned Epic Comics projects following in subsequent years: his 1985-7 creator-owned maxiseries Moonshadow was reprinted between 1994–5, with the miniseries Blood: A Tale seeing print again in 1996-7. DeMatteis also wrote fifteen issues of Seekers into the Mystery (1996–7) for Vertigo.
Mike Carey, having started his American comics career with Caliber Comics in the mid-1990s catapulted to prominence in March 1999 with the first issue of his Sandman spin-off miniseries Sandman Presents: Lucifer, which would lead to an ongoing series a year later and considerable praise and projects for Carey. A second Sandman miniseries, Sandman Presents: Petrefax (2000), soon followed, before the June 2000 debut of Lucifer. Neil Gaiman's preferred Sandman spin-off had not had an easy time being published, due to its title and main character, but Carey was able to helm it for a Sandman-equalling 75 issues (and a 2002 one-shot: Nirvana) for 6 years. During this time, Carey also wrote the hardcover OGN Sandman Presents: The Furies (2002), over 40 issues of Hellblazer between 2002 and 2006 and a 2005 Hellblazer original graphic novel, All His Engines. He also wrote a non-Sandman miniseries, My Faith in Frankie (2004), the comicbook adaptation of Neil Gaiman's Neverwhere (2005–6) and the OGN God Save the Queen (2007). In 2007 he launched the ongoing series Crossing Midnight (2007–8) and the miniseries Faker (2007–8).
Brian K. Vaughan's first Vertigo work was a short story in 2000's Winter's Edge #3 anthology, which led to him relaunching Swamp Thing (Vol. 3) (2000–01) which lasted for 20 issues. In September 2002, his (and Pia Guerra's) Y: The Last Man launched. It would ultimately run for 60 issues until March 2008. Vaughan also wrote the 2006 OGN Pride of Baghdad for Vertigo.
Ed Brubaker's first Vertigo work was on the "Vertigo Visions" Prez one-shot (1995), and intermittent contributions to a couple of anthology titles preceded his Scene of the Crime (1999), effectively laying the groundwork for his later crime comics. His next Vertigo project, the post-apocalyptic series Deadenders (2000–01), ran for 16 issues while Brubaker wrote for both Batman and Detective Comics for parent-company DC. His 2001 miniseries Sandman Presents: The Dead Boy Detectives told the story of some incidental Sandman characters, and was later retold by Jill Thompson in manga form (2005). Brubaker subsequently took his Vertigo/crime sensibility to work from WildStorm, Icon and the mainstream DC and Marvel universes.
Bill Willingham came to Vertigo after a plethora of small press work in 1999 to launch his poker miniseries Proposition Player (1999–2000), and contribute to the Sandman universe with a one-shot spy-spoof, Sandman Presents: Merv Pumpkinhead, Agent of D.R.E.A.M. (2000), and a single issue contribution to The Dreaming on-going series. A second Sandman one-shot, The Sandman Presents: Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Dreams... (2001), also led to a 4-issue miniseries, Sandman Presents: The Thessaliad (2002). Willingham's best-known work soon followed, with the July 2001 debut of Fables (with artist Lan Medina). In 2004, he returned to the world of the Sandman with Sandman Presents: Thessaly: Witch for Hire, and 2006 saw the debut of the Vertigo-esque magical — but mainstream DCU title — Shadowpact and Fables companion series Jack of Fables. In July 2008, with Fables nearing a major turning point in its run, Willingham relaunched House of Mystery as a Vertigo title with Matthew Sturges.
Several artists have also produced a large amount of notable work for Vertigo, several (Steve Dillon, Pia Guerra, Eduardo Risso and Darick Robertson) mainly producing lengthy runs on individual creator-owned titles (in Guerra's case, Y: The Last Man makes up around 80% of her output to date), but others on a number of titles. Vertigo's main Universe titles, The Sandman, Hellblazer and Swamp Thing, have been particularly artistically diverse, and home to many talents, while the large number of creator-owned miniseries has seen large numbers of individuals producing work for Vertigo.
Peter Gross worked on a pre-Vertigo issue of Swamp Thing and an early Vertigo issue of Shade the Changing Man (#36, June 1993) before penciling & inking a story featuring Timothy Hunter in the "Children's Crusade" crossover Arcana Annual (Jan. 1994). This led to a regular inking role on the newly launched Books of Magic series, taking over as regular penciler and inker with #6; he would stay with the title for most of its run, writing as well as drawing its final 25 issues (1998–2000). Gross also inked Reiber's Mythos one-shot, and provided full artwork on the first Books of Faerie miniseries (1997) and pencils on the following year's The Books of Faerie: Auberon's Tale (1998). After Books of Magic, Gross moved to Lucifer (beginning with #5, Oct. 2000) and penciled 56 of the remaining issues, as well as inking a handful. He also co-penciled 2005's Constantine: The Official Movie Adaptation and several issues of Douglas Rushkoff's Testament from 2006 to 2007.
Dean Ormston has similarly produced a disproportionate amount of his artwork for Vertigo titles, including the lion's share of the alternate reality Books of Magick: Life During Wartime series (2004–5). His first Vertigo work was as one of several pencilers in the pages of Sandman #62 (Aug 1994), and in 1995 he penciled and inked Peter Milligan's The Eaters one-shot. His artwork appears in most (14) of the non-Peter Gross issues of Mike Carey's Lucifer, and he also handled art duties for Caitlin R. Kiernan's 4-issue The Girl who would be Death (1998–9). In addition, he has worked on a number of single (and jam) issues of other Vertigo titles, including The Crusades, House of Mystery, The Invisibles, Mythos, Sandman Mystery Theatre, Swamp Thing and Testament between 1994 and 2007.
Duncan Fegredo's first major American work was on the 1991 Kid Eternity miniseries with Grant Morrison. A 1992 cover for Doom Patrol similarly fell in Vertigo territory pre-Vertigo, while Fegredo's first "true" Vertigo work was also on the joint-first new series released by the imprint: Peter Milligan's Enigma. Immediately after the end of the 8-issue series, Fegredo took over as cover artist on Milligan's long-running Shade, the Changing Man (issues #42–50), collaborated with Milligan on 1995's one-shot Face (Jan) and then returned to cover duties on Shade, producing all but one of the remaining pieces of art. He produced pencils and inks for the miniseries Millennium Fever (1995) and (with Milligan) for Girl (1996). Between 1997 and 2002, he contributed artwork on fill-in issues (or to jam issues) of Crusades, The Dreaming, Flinch, House of Secrets, The Sandman Presents: Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Dreams..., Totems, Weird War Tales and Weird Western Tales. In addition, his cover work graced the 1999 miniseries Sandman Presents: Love Street, six issues of The Books of Magick: Life During Wartime and the first fifteen issues of Mike Carey's Lucifer.
Jill Thompson, although primarily known as an artist, has also produced scripts for Vertigo, producing as writer-artist three Sandman tie-ins: The Little Endless Storybook (2001) and two manga retellings of storylines: Death: At Death's Door (2003) and The Dead Boy Detectives (2005). Between 1993 and 1994, she penciled the first six issues of the ongoing Black Orchid series and the 4-issue miniseries Finals (1999). She has contributed ten issues each to the high-profile Vertigo series Sandman (penciling the complete "Brief Lives" storyline, part 7 of which was the first Vertigo issue) and The Invisibles, and penciled four of the last five issues of Seekers into the Mystery. She has produced fill-in issues of Books of Magic, The Dreaming and Swamp Thing and contributed artwork to the anthology comics Fables #59 (in addition to a story in the hardcover OGN 1001 Nights of Snowfall) and Transmetropolitan: Filth of the City.
Jon J Muth, a painter, has produced several lavish volumes for Vertigo, including writing, penciling, inking and coloring the 1998 one-shot Swamp Thing: Roots. Primarily, his Vertigo output has been in collaboration with JM DeMatteis, an issue of Blood: A Tale, the maxiseries Moonshadow (and its coda, Farewell, Moonshadow (1997)) and three issues of Seekers into the Mystery. Muth painted Grant Morrison's The Mystery Play (1994) and the 2002 Lucifer: Nirvana special for Mike Carey. His work also effectively ended Neil Gaiman's Sandman series, Muth painting issue #74, the final issue of The Wake storyline, and second-to-last main issue.
The artwork of Charles Vess has infrequently but notably accompanied the words of Neil Gaiman on Vertigo projects, including the 4-issue Stardust (1997–8) miniseries, later reprinted as an illustrated hardcover book. Vess' work can also be seen in the two Shakespeare adaptations in the pages of The Sandman, the first of which (pre-Vertigo) won the comic and duo the World Fantasy Award for Best Short Story, and the last of which was also the final (75th) issue of the series. Vess also contributed a story to the Fables OGN 1001 Nights of Snowfall, illustrated a Books of Magic cover and produced an issue of The Dreaming (2000).
Sean Phillips earliest American comics work was in the pages of pre-Vertigo Hellblazer, and in May 1993 he became one of the early Vertigo artists by illustrating (with assists from Paul Peart and Sean Harrison Scoffield) the entire 16-issue run of Kid Eternity (1993–4). He drew the covers for twenty-three of the twenty-five issues of the first The Invisibles series and also returned to Hellblazer (switching from artwork and covers to just covers after around 20 issues) between 1995 and 1998. He drew three issues of Shade, the Changing Man (1994), the one-shot Hell Eternal (1995) and the miniseries The Minx as well as inking most of Michael Lark's work on Scene of the Crime. He penciled four issues of the final Invisibles series between 1999 and 2000, produced covers for the Hellblazer Special: Bad Blood miniseries, and shared art chores with John Bolton on the 2001 miniseries User.
John Bolton, another frequent Gaiman collaborator has rarely worked with that author directly for Vertigo, but has utilised his characters, including in the OGN Sandman Presents: The Furies and the Books of Magic lead-in Arcana Annual. He also contributed to the Sandman Mystery Theatre annual, and the Fables OGN 1001 Nights of Snowfall. With Sean Phillips, he produced the artwork for Devin Grayson's 2001 miniseries User, and individually fully illustrated the OGN's Menz Insana (1997) and God Save the Queen (2007).
Inarguably the name most associated with Vertigo's cover output is the artist who provided all of the covers to the Vertigo's highest profile series (The Sandman series (1989–96)): Dave McKean. The first 46 of these covers were created for the DC imprint, but McKean's work also includes a number of Sandman-spin-off issues, miniseries and galleries. These include the two Death miniseries and all 60 issues of The Dreaming (1996–2001). He provided the first 24 DC published covers to Hellblazer, and all 22 covers to the 1993-5 Black Orchid Vertigo series (which spun off from his (and Gaiman's) 1988 DC miniseries). He produced the first cover for Sandman Mystery Theatre and his work was featured in a 1997 artbook incorporating his Sandman covers, "Dust Covers: The Collected Sandman Covers, 1989–1997."
In addition, McKean's artwork also graced the inside pages of the public service comic Death Talks about Life (1994), an issue of The Dreaming (#8), two issues of the DC-published Hellblazer (#27 with Gaiman and #40 with Delano) and his and Neil Gaiman's OGN Mr Punch (1994). The duo's Black Orchid was similarly produced for DC, but retroactively deemed a Vertigo title.
Brian Bolland and Glenn Fabry have also produced a large number of iconic covers for the Vertigo line, Fabry probably being best known for his work on one title: Garth Ennis and Steve Dillon's Preacher (and the spin-off miniseries). Bolland, one of the very earliest British creators whose work was brought to America, drew the first 63 covers for Animal Man, mostly for DC, but also the first 6 Vertigo issues before handing over to a succession of other artists. Bolland also drew the cover for Vertigo's first Doom Patrol issue and for the entire second and third volumes of Morrison's Invisibles (1997–2000) (and in addition provided artwork for the TPB collections of Morrison's Doom Patrol run, and all volumes of The Invisibles). Bolland provided covers for three issues of Mark Millar's Swamp Thing run (1995), and miniseries including Vamps (1994–5), both Vertigo Tank Girl (1995–6) miniseries and BLod + Water (2003) as well as the one-shot Zatanna: Everyday Magic (2003). Bolland also wrote and illustrated stories for the anthology titles Heartthrobs and Strange Adventures (1999) and OGN 1001 Nights of Snowfall, as well as providing a cover each for the Gangland and Winter's Edge anthologies. With issue #12, Bolland took over cover duties (from Fables cover artist James Jean) on Fables spin-off Jack of Fables, which he continues to produce as of June 2008[update].
Fabry, in addition to his Preacher covers, provided covers for Ennis' miniseries Adventures in the Rifle Brigade: Operation Bollock (2001–2) and most of that authors first run on Hellblazer (1992–4) — which included the first Vertigo issue — as well as his return to the title in 1998-9. In addition, Fabry has also penciled a couple of short Hellblazer stories for various specials, and drew the covers for the Hellblazer: The Trenchcoat Brigade miniseries. He contributed to the multi-artist Transmetropolitan special "I Hate It Here" and provided three covers each to the ongoing Transmetropolitan (2002) and Swamp Thing (Vol. 3) (2001); covered the complete Scarab (1993–4) miniseries, all 19 issues of Outlaw Nation and one issue each of the anthology titles Gangland, Heartthrobs and Weird War Tales. Between 2005 and 2006, Fabry fully illustrated Mike Carey's adaptation of Neil Gaiman's Neverwhere, having previously collaborated with the man himself on a story in the 2003 OGN Sandman: Endless Nights. At the start of 2008, he provided a cover for an issue of Exterminators, before taking over from Lee Bermejo as on-going cover artist on, again, Hellblazer.
Adaptations in other media
- Constantine (2005), based on the (John Constantine): Hellblazer series of comics.
- A History of Violence (2005), based on the graphic novel A History of Violence written by John Wagner and illustrated by Vince Locke. The film was directed by David Cronenberg and starred Viggo Mortensen and Ed Harris.
- V for Vendetta (2006) based on the comics series by Alan Moore and David Lloyd, and produced by the Wachowskis.
- The Fountain (2006), developed alongside the graphic novel by writer/director Darren Aronofsky (the OGN was illustrated by Kent Williams).
- The Losers (2010), based on the Vertigo monthly series of the same name, which was created by Andy Diggle and Jock.
Future film projects
- In April 2014, Deadline announced the production of a movie adaptation of Vertigo's Federal Bureau of Physics. Justin Marks and David Goyer will be reuniting for the production of the film.
- Also in April, it was announced that New Line Cinema will release films based on Fables and 100 Bullets.
- Neil Gaiman revealed on his tumblr account that Vertigo is planning on releasing a slate of movie adaptations of Vertigo comics. It will include the movie adaptation of The Sandman, developed by David S. Goyer, Jack Thorne and Joseph Gordon-Levitt.
- In January 2015, it was revealed the Fables adaptation will be developed by David Heyman, Jeffrey Clifford and Jeremy Slater, from a script by Jane Goldman and directed by Nikolaj Arcel.
- In June 2015, it was announced that Sandman and the other Vertigo properties were being moved from Warner Bros to New Line Cinema.
- In August 2015, it was announced that Tom Hardy is set to produce an adaptation of 100 Bullets with the option to star. The film will be written by Chris Borrelli.
- In October 2015, Goyer revealed that a new screenwriter was being brought on board to revise the Sandman script by Jack Thorne and stated that he believes the film will go into production next year.
- In March 2016, it was reported that Gordon-Levitt will direct and star in the film and that Eric Heisserer was brought on to write the screenplay. A day later, it was reported that Gordon-Levitt dropped out of the film due to creative differences with New Line Cinema.
- In February 2017, it was reported that Vertigo and New Line Cinema will be producing an upcoming adaptation of the comic book series The Kitchen, with the film being directed and written by Andrea Berloff. It is set to be released September 20, 2019.
- In July 2007 that New Line Cinema was developing Y: The Last Man with director D. J. Caruso and screenwriter Carl Ellsworth. In 2013 the rights for the movie adaptation went back to the comic book writer. As of 2015 no new information were revealed about the movie.
- New Line Cinema announced in June 2005 that it had optioned We3, with that comic's writer, Grant Morrison, then in negotiations to write the screenplay. As of November 2010[update], the status of the film is that Morrison has written the script, but the project appears to have stalled, partially due to concerns over the level of violence. Morrison said in an interview that "Relativity Pictures keeps saying they're doing it, and they still haven't done it", and that he cannot say anything more as it stands.
- Constantine (2014–2015), based on the comic book series Hellblazer by Alan Moore and developed by David Goyer and Daniel Cerone for NBC
- iZombie (2015–Ongoing), loosely based on the comic book series of the same name by Chris Roberson for The CW
- Lucifer (2016–Ongoing), loosely based on the Sandman character Lucifer by Neil Gaiman and Mike Carey for FOX
- Preacher (2016–Ongoing), based on the comic book series of the same name by Garth Ennis and developed by Seth Rogen for AMC
- Scalped (Pilot order), based on the comic book series of the same name by Jason Aaron and developed by Doug Jung and Geoff Johns for WGN America
TV projects announced and in development
- In February 2014 it was announced that Syfy is planning on making a TV series adaptation of the DMZ comics with former Mad Men writers and executive producers Andre and Maria Jacquemetton. Executive producer for the pilot is David Heyman, who previously worked on Harry Potter, Gravity and is working on the movie adaptation of the Vertigo comic series Fables. Production on the pilot started in May 2014.
- In April 2015, it was announced that Supernatural creator Eric Kripke is writing the comic book series called Amped for DC and Vertigo to be released in fall 2015. In the same time it was announced that USA Network are developing a TV adaptation of the comic book series. Kripke will serve as both writer and executive producer of the show. The series will be co-produced by Kripke Enterprises and Warner Horizon Television.
- In October 2015, The Hollywood Reporter reported that FX is developing a TV series of Y: The Last Man produced by Nina Jacobson and Brad Simpson alongside Brian K. Vaughan, who will also be a writer for the show.
- In July 2008, Showtime announced that it would develop the Vertigo series The Exterminators as a one-hour drama. The comic was created by writer Simon Oliver and artist Tony Moore. Executive producer Sara Colleton's credits include the Showtime hit drama Dexter. However, in February 2011, Oliver revealed in an interview that the project is currently in limbo.
- On December 8, 2008 it was announced that ABC had picked up the rights to develop a pilot of Fables for the 2009–2010 television season. Six Degrees creators and executive producers Stu Zicherman and Raven Metzner was writing the script for the hour-long drama, again set up at Warner Brothers Television, while David Semel came on board to direct. However, in December 2010, Willingham said, in an interview with Io9, that the ABC show is "probably dead", though he also admits to being "out of the loop".
- HBO announced in November 2006 it was adapting Preacher as a one-hour television series, with a pilot episode written by Mark Steven Johnson and directed by Howard Deutch. However, in August 2008, series executive producer Mark Steven Johnson announced that the Preacher project was "dead at HBO." Later it was announced that AMC bought the rights for a TV adaptation developed by Seth Rogen.
- 100 Bullets was optioned and partly developed as a game, but canceled. The license has been bought and an unconnected game is in development as of 2007[update].
- Constantine, a spin-off based on the film of the same name.
- The Wolf Among Us is an episodic graphic adventure video game based on Bill Willingham's Fables comic book series. It is developed and published by Telltale Games and distributed by Vertigo and Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment. It is canon with the comic book universe and is set as a prequel to the comic book. The game's first season consists of five episodes, with the first episode being released for Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 worldwide on October 11, 2013, for OS X worldwide on October 14, 2013, for PlayStation 3 on October 15, 2013, in North America and on October 16, 2013, in Europe and Australia, for iOS worldwide on December 4, 2013, and PlayStation Vita before the end of 2014. Retail versions for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita, Xbox 360, Xbox One, and Nintendo Wii consoles are expected later in 2014.
- Published by DC Comics before the creation of the Vertigo imprint in 1993
- Previous volumes published by Wildstorm
- The first twelve "main" issues were released under the Helix imprint
- Although finding a wider readership under the Vertigo imprint, Hellblazer began publication under the DC Comics imprint, spinning off from The Saga of the Swamp Thing, another proto-Vertigo title. Swamp Thing was also adapted into several films and television series, the first of which was released in 1982, ten years before the creation of the Vertigo imprint.
- A History of Violence was originally published by Paradox Press, but was reprinted by Vertigo after that imprint's demise
- Originally part-serialized in UK anthology magazine Warrior (Quality), V for Vendetta was completed for Vertigo and published as single issues and a trade paperback collection under the Vertigo name
- "MEDIA; At House of Comics, a Writer's Champion" (p. 2), by Dana Jennings, The New York Times, September 15, 2003
- Irvine, Alex (2008). "Black Orchid". In Dougall, Alastair. The Vertigo Encyclopedia. New York: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 32–34. ISBN 0-7566-4122-5. OCLC 213309015.
- retitled Swamp Thing vol. 2 from issue #39-on
- Hellblazer from issue #1 (Jan. 1988), Doom Patrol from vol. 2, #37 (Oct. 1990), Shade, the Changing Man from vol. 2, #1 (July 1990), The Sandman vol. 2, #1 (Jan. 1989), Animal Man from #51 (Sept. 1992) and Swamp Thing, initially reading simply "For Mature Readers", from vol. 2, #57 (Feb. 1987)
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- Green Arrow (vol. 2) ran for 137 issues, concluding in October 1998. Mike Grell's final issue on the series was #80, so the loss of the label did *not*, contrary to some sources, coincide with Grell's departure.
- "Interview with Karen Berger" in Advance Comics #49 (Capital City Distribution, January 1993)
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