|Voiced velar lateral approximant|
The voiced velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used as a distinct consonant in a very small number of spoken languages in the world. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʟ⟩ (since 1989) and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
Features of the voiced velar lateral approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the soft palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
The velar lateral [ʟ] involves no contact of the tip of the tongue with the roof of the mouth: just like for the velar stop [ɡ], the only contact takes place between the back of the tongue and the velum. This contrasts with the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ] – also known as the dark l in English feel [fiːɫ] – for which the apex touches the alveolar ridge.
|English||Southern US||middle, full||[ˈmɪdʟ̩], [ˈfʟ̩ː]||'middle', 'full'||May occur before or after a velar consonant, as in milk and cycle, when assimilating /ʊ/, as in wolf, or before labial consonants, as in help. See English phonology|
|Hiw||r̄evr̄ov||[ɡ͡ʟəβɡ͡ʟɔβ]||'evening'||Realized as prestopped [ɡ͡ʟ].|
|Korean||달구지 / dalguji||[tɐʟɡud͡ʑi]||'cart'||Allophone of final consonant [ɭ] ⟨ㄹ⟩ before velar consonants. See Korean phonology.|
|Melpa||paⱡa||[paʟa]||'fence'||Realized as prestopped [ɡ͡ʟ].|
|Mid-Wahgi||aglagle||[aʟaʟe]||'dizzy'||Realized as prestopped [ɡ͡ʟ].|
- Voiceless velar lateral approximant, [ʟ̥]
- Velarized alveolar lateral approximant, [ɫ]
- Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative, [ɬ]
- Velar lateral tap, [ʟ̆]
- Voiced velar lateral fricative, [ʟ̝]
- Voiceless velar lateral fricative, [ʟ̝̊]
- Index of phonetics articles
- François, Alexandre (2010), "Phonotactics and the prestopped velar lateral of Hiw: resolving the ambiguity of a complex segment" (PDF), Phonology, 27 (3): 393–434, doi:10.1017/s0952675710000205
- Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (2nd ed.), Blackwell
- Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
- Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .
- List of languages with [ʟ] on PHOIBLE