|Tolkien's legendarium location|
|Created by||J. R. R. Tolkien|
|Type||realm of immortals|
|Notable characters||Valar, Elves|
|First appearance||The Lord of the Rings|
It was also known as the Undying Lands, along with Tol Eressëa and the outliers of Aman. This latter name is somewhat misleading; the land itself, while blessed, did not cause mortals to live forever. However, only immortal beings were generally allowed to reside there. Exceptionally, the surviving bearers of the One Ring were allowed to dwell there for a time--Bilbo and Frodo Baggins and Sam Gamgee—and perhaps[dubious ] Gimli son of Glóin who, it is said, accompanied his friend Legolas to Valinor.
- 1 Geography and residents
- 2 History
- 3 Other fantasy uses of the word
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Works cited
- 7 External links
Geography and residents
In Tolkien's works Valinor is the home of the Valar (singular Vala), spirits that often take humanoid form, sometimes called "gods" by the Men of Middle-earth. Other residents of Valinor include the related but less powerful spirits, the Maiar, and most of the Eldar. Valinor lies in Aman, a continent on the west of Belegaer, the ocean to the west of Middle-earth. Ekkaia, the encircling sea, surrounds both Aman and Middle-earth.
Valinor is located in the middle of Aman, in the tropical and subtropical latitudes. The land has a warm climate generally, though snow falls on the peaks of the Pelóri, the massive mountains that stand on Valinor's northern, eastern and southern borders. Every animal and plant found elsewhere in Middle-earth exists in Valinor along with species endemic to Valinor.
The size of Valinor is not specified in the text, and Tolkien created no detailed maps of Aman. The maps of Karen Wynn Fonstad, based on Tolkien's rough sketch of Arda's landmasses and seas, show Valinor about 800 miles wide, west to east (from the Great Sea to the Outer Sea), and about 3000 miles long north to south – similar in size to the United States. The entire continent of Aman runs from the Arctic latitudes of the Helcaraxë to the subarctic southern region of Middle-earth – about 7000 miles.
Places in Valinor
Each Vala has its own region of the land where it resides and alters things as it pleases. The Mansions of Manwë and Varda, two of the most powerful spirits, stood upon Taniquetil, the highest mountain of the Pelóri. Yavanna, the Vala of Earth, Growth, and Harvest, resided in the Pastures of Yavanna in the south of the land, west of the Pelóri. Near-by were the mansions of Yavanna's spouse, Aulë the Smith, who made the Dwarves. Oromë, the Vala of the Hunt, lived in the Woods of Oromë to the north-east of the pastures. Nienna, the lonely Vala of Sorrow and Endurance, lived in the far west of the island where she spent her days crying about all the evil of the world, looking out to sea. Just south of Nienna's home, and to the north of the pastures, were the Halls of Mandos. Mandos was the Vala of the After-life. Also living in the Halls of Mandos was his spouse Vairë the weaver, who weaves the threads of time. To the east of the Halls of Mandos is the Isle of Estë, which is situated in the middle of the lake of Lórellin, which in turn lies to the north of the Gardens of Lórien (not to be confused with Lothlórien in Middle-earth). Estë and Lórien were married.
In east-central Valinor at the Girdle of Arda (the Equator of Tolkien's world) is Valmar, the capital of Valinor (also called Valimar or the City of Bells), the residence of the Valar and the Maiar in the realm of Valinor. The first house of the Elves, the Vanyar, settled there as well. The mound of Ezellohar, on which stood the Two Trees, and Máhanaxar, the Ring of Doom, are outside Valmar. Farther east is the Calacirya, the only easy pass through the Pelóri, a huge mountain range fencing Valinor on three sides, created to keep Morgoth's forces out. In the pass is the city Tirion, built on a hill, the city of the Noldor Elves.
In the northern inner foothills of the Pelóri, hundreds of miles north of Valmar was Fëanor's city of Formenos, built upon his banishment from Tirion.
Shore of Valinor
While Valinor proper is the part of Aman inside (i.e. west of) the Pelóri, some Elves resided in a part of Aman ouside the Pelóri and sometimes called the "shore of Valinor".
Access to Valinor
In the extreme north-east, beyond the Pelóri, was the Helcaraxë, a vast ice sheet that joined the two continents of Aman and Middle-earth before the War of Wrath. To prevent anyone from reaching the main part of Valinor's east coast by sea, the Valar created the Shadowy Seas, and within these seas they set a long chain of islands called the Enchanted Isles.
After the destruction of Númenor, the Undying Lands were removed from Arda so that Men could not reach them. The Elves could go there only by the Straight Road and in ships capable of passing out of the spheres of the earth.
Years of the Trees
Valinor was established on the western continent Aman when Melkor (a Vala later named Morgoth, "the black foe", by the Elves) destroyed the Valar's original home on the island Almaren in primeval Middle-earth. To defend their new home from attack, they raised the Pelóri Mountains. They also established Valimar, the radiant Two Trees, and their abiding places. Valinor was said to have surpassed Almaren in beauty.
Later, the Valar heard of the awakening of the Elves in Middle-earth, where Melkor was unopposed. They proposed to bring the Elves to the safety of Valinor. However, to get Elves to Valinor, they needed to get Melkor out of the way. A war was fought, and Melkor's stronghold Utumno was destroyed. Then, many Elves came to Valinor, and established their cities Tirion and Alqualonde, beginning Valinor's age of glory.
There was a problem, however. Melkor had come back to Valinor as a prisoner, and after three Ages was brought before the Valar and he sued for pardon, with a vow to assist the Valar and make amends for the hurts he had done. Manwë then granted him pardon, but confined him within Valmar to remain under watch. After his release, Melkor started planting seeds of dissent in the minds of the Elves (particularly, the Noldor – the Vanyar would not hear him and Melkor considered the Teleri weak) in Valinor, saying that the Valar had brought them here so that they would control them and claim their lands in Middle-earth as their own and that they were prisoners of the Valar. He also created dissent between Fëanor and his brothers Fingolfin and Finarfin.
The Darkening of Valinor
Belatedly, the Valar learned what Melkor had done. Knowing that he was discovered, Melkor went to the home of the Noldorin elves' High King Finwë and stole the Noldorin elves' prized jewels, the Silmarils, killing the king in the process. Melkor then destroyed the Two Trees with the help of Ungoliant, seemingly bringing an endless darkness to Valinor, called the Long Night, relieved only by stars. Melkor and Ungoliant fled to Middle-earth.
As a result of the killing of king Finwë, the majority of the Noldor, led by Fëanor son of Finwë, the maker of the Silmarils, declared their rebellion and decided to pursue Melkor, afterwards known as Morgoth, to Middle-earth to win back their jewels and avenge their king. The Noldor would not listen to Manwë, the lord of the Valar, telling them that they had themselves come to Valinor of their own free will and that the Valar had no desire to rule or control any of them. But Manwë's messenger said also that if they chose to leave and to fight Melkor on their own, the Valar would not help them and that they would suffer great pain and grief on their journey.
The Two Trees, which had been the primary source of light in Valinor, were dead. But the Valar managed to save one last luminous flower from each Tree. Each flower was set in a celestial ship steered by a Maia, and these ships began to sail over the world at different times of the day so that neither Valinor nor Middle-earth would be in darkness. One was called the Sun, and it shone a bright yellow. The other was called the Moon and it shone with a pale white light.
The Hiding of Valinor
Following the creation of the Moon and the Sun, the Valar carried out various titanic labours to further improve the defences of Valinor. They raised the Pelóri mountains to even greater and sheerer heights. Off the coast, eastwards of Tol Eressëa, they created the Shadowy Seas and their Enchanted Isles; both the Seas and the Isles presented numerous perils to anyone attempting to get to Valinor by sea.
For centuries Valinor took no part in the struggles between the Noldor and Morgoth in Middle-earth. But near the end of the First Age, when the Noldor were in total defeat, the mariner Eärendil convinced the Valar to make a last attack on Morgoth. A mighty host of Maiar, Vanyar and the remaining Noldor in Valinor destroyed Morgoth's gigantic army and his stronghold Angband, and cast Morgoth into the void.
During the Second Age, Valinor performed a single action: the building of the island Andor as a reward to the Edain (who had fought with the Noldor), where they established Númenor. Soon, the kingdom of Númenor grew powerful, and even invaded Valinor. Then Eru Ilúvatar was called upon by the Valar and the island was destroyed, Aman was lifted out of Arda, and the world was bereft of Valar. Arda then became spherical and was left for Men to govern.
During the Third Age, recognizing that an outright confrontation with dark Maia Sauron would be disastrous, the Valar sent the Istari to Middle-earth with the intent of giving counsel to Men in their resistance to the growing power of the Dark Lord.
Other fantasy uses of the word
In the Arcanis Dungeons & Dragons campaign setting the word "Valinor" also refers to celestial servants of the Gods. Their names often are in the style of the god, such as the Mercy of Neroth or the Judgement of Nier.
The Townes van Zandt song, "The Silver Ships of Andilar", makes mention of a land called Valinor, although it is unclear if it is meant to be the same location, since van Zandt describes it as a lifeless plain. The song could be telling the story of Númenóreans sailing the Encircling Sea to reach Valinor. Aldarion was not only a mariner, but a Númenórean king as well. Van Zandt also describes a "lifeless plain" as only immortal beings are allowed to live in Valinor.
- Asgard, a similar location in Norse mythology
- Álfheimr, another similar location in Norse mythology
- Elysium and Mount Olympus from Greek Mythology
- In celtic accounts: Mag Mell, Tír na nÓg
- J. R. R. Tolkien, Letters, ed. by Humphrey Carpenter, #156, p. 205.
- J. R. R. Tolkien, The Return of the King, "The Grey Havens", p.1006, and Appendix B, entry for S.R. 1482 and 1541.
- J. R. R. Tolkien, Letters, ed. by Humphrey Carpenter, #249, pp. 328–329.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. The Return of the King. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-00224-3.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. Humphrey Carpenter, ed. Letters. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-05699-8.
- Oberhelman, David D. (2006). "Valinor". In Drout, Michael D. C. J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. Routledge. pp. 692–693. ISBN 0-415-96942-5.
- Fonstad, Karen Wynn (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Lothlórien, ISBN 0-618-12699-6