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Dutt on a 2013 stamp of India
|Died||19 August 1993 (aged 64)|
|Other names||Utpal Dutta|
|Occupation||Actor, director, playwright|
Utpal Dutt (listen (help·info)) (29 March 1929 – 19 August 1993) was an Indian actor, director, and writer-playwright. He was primarily an actor in Bengali theatre, where he became a pioneering figure in Modern Indian theatre, when he founded the "Little Theatre Group" in 1949. This group enacted many English, Shakespearean and Brecht plays, in a period now known as the "Epic theatre" period, before it immersed itself completely in highly political and radical theatre. His plays became an apt vehicle for the expression of his Marxist ideologies, visible in socio-political plays such as Kallol (1965), Manusher Adhikar, Louha Manob (1964), Tiner Toloar and Maha-Bidroha. He also acted in over 100 Bengali and Hindi films in a career spanning 40 years, and remains most known for his roles in films such as Mrinal Sen’s Bhuvan Shome (1969), Satyajit Ray’s Agantuk (1991), Gautam Ghose’s Padma Nadir Majhi (1993) and Hrishikesh Mukherjee's breezy Hindi comedies such as Gol Maal (1979) and Rang Birangi (1983). He also did the role of a sculptor, Sir Digindra Narayan, in the episode Seemant Heera of Byomkesh Bakshi (TV series) on Doordarshan in 1993, shortly before his death.
He received National Film Award for Best Actor in 1970 and three Filmfare Best Comedian Awards. In 1990, the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance and Theatre, awarded him its highest award, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship for lifetime contribution to theatre.
Early life and education
Though he was active primarily in Bengali theatre, he started his career in English theatre. As a teenager in the 1940s, he developed his passion and craft in English theatre, which resulted in the establishment of "The Shakespeareans" in 1947. Its first performance was a powerful production of Shakespeare's Richard III, with Dutt playing the king. This so impressed Geoffrey Kendal and Laura Kendal (parents of the actress Jennifer Kendal), who led the itinerant "Shakespeareana Theatre Company", that they immediately hired him, and he did two year-long tours with them across India and Pakistan, enacting Shakespeare's plays, first 1947–49 and later 1953–54; and was acclaimed for his passionate portrayal of Othello. After the Kendals left India for the first time in 1949, Utpal Dutt renamed his group the "Little Theatre Group" (LTG), and over the next three years, continued to perform and produce plays by Ibsen, Shaw, Tagore, Gorky and Konstantin Simonov. The group later decided to stage exclusively Bengali plays and to eventually evolve into a production company that would produce several Bengali movies. He also remained an active member of Gananatya Sangha, which performed through rural areas of West Bengal.
He was also a founding member of Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA), an organisation known for its leftist leaning, but left it after a couple of years, when he started his theatre group. He wrote and directed what he called "Epic Theatre", a term he borrowed from Bertolt Brecht, to bring about discussion and change in Bengal. His Brecht Society, formed in 1948, was presided by Satyajit Ray. He became one of the most influential personalities in the Group Theatre movement. While accepting Brecht's belief of the audience being "co-authors" of the theatre, he rejected orthodoxies of "Epic theatre" as being impractical in India. He also remained a teacher of English at the South Point School in Kolkata.
Soon he would turn to his native Bengali, producing translations of several Shakespearean tragedies and the works of Russian classicists into Bengali. Starting in 1954, he wrote and directed controversial Bengali political plays, and also Maxim Gorky's Lower Depths in Bengali in 1957. In 1959, the LTG secured the lease of Minerva Theatre, Kolkata, where most notably Angar (Coal) (1959), based on the exploitation of coal-miners was showcased. For the next decade the group staged several plays here, with him as an impresario, and he still is remembered as one of the last pioneering actor-managers of Indian theatre. He also formed groups like Arjo Opera and Bibek Yatra Samaj.
Meanwhile, his transition to films happened while performing the role of Othello, when famous filmmaker Madhu Bose happened to be watching, and gave him the lead in his film Michael Madhusudan (1950), based on the life of the revolutionary Indian poet Michael Madhusudan Dutt. Later, he himself wrote a play on the fragmented colonial psyche of Michael Madhusudan Dutt, and the ambivalence of swaying between "colonial" admiration and "anti-colonial" revolt. He went on to act in many Bengali films, including many films by Satyajit Ray.
Dutt was also an extremely famous comic actor in Hindi cinema, though he acted in only a handful of Hindi films. He acted in comedy movies, the most notable ones being Guddi, Gol Maal, Naram Garam, Rang Birangi and Shaukeen. He received Filmfare Best Comedian Award for Golmaal, Naram Garam and Rang Birangi. He appeared in Bhuvan Shome, (for which he was awarded the National Film Award for Best Actor), Ek Adhuri Kahani and Chorus, all by Mrinal Sen; Agantuk, Jana Aranya, Joi Baba Felunath and Hirak Rajar Deshe, by Satyajit Ray; Paar and Padma Nadir Majhi, by Gautam Ghose; Bombay Talkie, The Guru, and Shakespeare Wallah, by James Ivory; Jukti Takko Aar Gappo, by Ritwik Ghatak; Guddi, Gol Maal and Kotwal Saab by Hrishikesh Mukherjee; Shaukeen, Priyatama and Hamari Bahu Alka directed by Basu Chatterjee and Amanush, Anand Ashram and Barsaat Ki Ek Raat by Shakti Samanta.
Utpal Dutt also played the main villain characters in some of the major successful Amitabh Bachchan starrers such as The Great Gambler, Inquilaab (film) and the bilingual Hindi/Bangla movie Barsaat Ki Ek Raat. In fact, Utpal Dutt was the Hero (main lead) in Amitabh Bachchan's maiden venture Saat Hindustani.
He balanced successful parallel careers as an extremely serious theatre playwright and director in Bengal alongside doing hilariously comic roles in Hindi cinema. He is the greatest dramatist in progressive Bengali theatre of the 20th century.
Dutt was also a lifelong Marxist and an active supporter of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), and his leftist "Revolutionary Theatre" was a phenomenon in the contemporary Bengali theatre. He staged many street dramas in favour of the Communist Party. He was jailed by the Congress government in West Bengal in 1965 and detained for several months, as the then state government feared that the subversive message of his play Kallol (Sound of the Waves), (based on the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny of 1946, which ran packed shows at Calcutta's Minerva Theatre), might provoke anti-government protests in West Bengal. The play turned out to be his longest-running play at the Minerva. Manusher Adhikare (Of People's Rights) in 1968, staged as a documentary drama, was a new genre in Bengali theatre before, though it turned out to be his last production of the group at the Minerva, as they soon left the theatre. Thereafter, the group was given the name the "People's Little Theatre"; as it took on yet another new direction, his work came closer to the people, and this phase played an important role in popularising Indian street theatre, as he started performing at street-corners or "poster" plays, in open spaces, without any aid or embellishment, before enormous crowds. The year also marked his transition into Jatra or Yatra Pala, a Bengali folk drama form, performed largely across rural West Bengal. He started writing Jatra scripts, produced and acted in them, even formed his own Jatra troupe. His jatra political dramas were often produced on open-air stages and symbolised his commitment to communist ideology, and today form his lasting legacy.
He wrote Louha Manab (The Iron Man), in 1964 while still in jail, based on a real trial against a pro-Stalin, ex-Politburo member by supporters of Nikita Khrushchev in Moscow of 1963. It was first staged at Alipore Jail in 1965, by the People’s Little Theatre. His stay in jail unleashed a new period of rebellious and politically charged plays, including Tiner Toloar (The Tin Sword), partially based on Pygmalion, Dushapner Nagari (Nightmare City), Manusher Odhikare (Rights Of Man), based on the Scottsboro Boys case, protests against the racial discrimination and injustice of the Scottsborough trial of 1931, Surya-Shikar (Hunting the Sun) (1978), Maha-Bidroha (The Great Rebellion) (1989), and Laal Durgo (Red Fort) (1990) about the demise of Communism, set in a fictitious East European country, and Janatar Aphim (Opiate of the People), (1990) lamented on Indian political parties exploiting religion for gain. In all, he wrote twenty-two full-length plays, fifteen poster plays, nineteen Jatra scripts, acted in thousands of shows, and directed more than sixty productions, apart from writing serious studies of Shakespeare, Girish Ghosh, Stanislavsky, Brecht, and revolutionary theatre, and translating Shakespeare and Brecht.
He also directed a number of films such as Megh (1961), a psychological thriller, Ghoom Bhangar Gaan (1965), Jhar (Storm) (1979), based on the Young Bengal movement, Baisakhi Megh (1981), Maa (1983) and Inquilab Ke Baad (1984).
Forty years after the staging of the classic play Kallol which entails the story of the mutiny of Indian sailors against the British on the Arabian Sea, for which he was even imprisoned, was revived in 2005, as Gangabokshe Kallol, part of the state-funded "Utpal Dutt Natyotsav" (Utpal Dutt Theatre Festival), on an off-shore stage, by the Hooghly River in Kolkata.
The Last Lear, the 2007 English film based on his play Aajker Shahjahan, on an eccentric Shakespearean actor, and directed for the screen by Rituparno Ghosh, later won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in English.
In 1960, Dutt married theatre and film actress Shobha Sen. Their only daughter, Bishnupriya Dutt is a professor of 'Theatre & Performance studies' at the 'School of Arts & Aesthetics' at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
Awards and recognition
- 1990 Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship for lifetime contribution to theatre
- National Film Award for Best Actor – Won
1970 Bhuvan Shome – Bhuvan Shome
- Filmfare Best Comedian Award – Won
1980 Gol Maal – Bhawani Shankar
1982 Naram Garam – Bhavani Shankar
1987 Rang Birangi – Police Inspector Dhurandhar Bhatawdekar
- Bengal Film Journalists' Association Award: Best Actor Award – Won
1993 Agantuk – Manomohan Mitra
- Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award – Nominated
1975 Amanush – Mahim Ghoshal
1980 Gol Maal – Bhawani Shankar
1986 Saaheb – Badri Prasad Sharma
This is an incomplete filmography of Utpal Dutt.
- Michael Madhusudhan (1950)
- Vidyasagar (1950)
- Vikram Urvashi (1954)
- Rani Rasmani (1955)
- Subhalagna (1956)
- Harano Sur (1957)
- Saptapadi (1961) (voice)
- Rakta Palash (1962)
- Shesh Anka (1963)
- Surya Sikha (1963)
- Momer Alo (1964)
- Shakespeare-Wallah (1965)
- Chowringhee (1968)
- The Guru (1969)
- Bhuvan Shome (1969)
- Saat Hindustani (1969)
- Bombay Talkie (1970)
- Kalankita Nayak (1970)
- Calcutta 71 (1971)
- Guddi (1971)
- Khunjey Berai (1971)
- Ek Adhuri Kahani (1972)
- Mere Jeevan Saathi (1972)
- Sabse Bada Sukh (1972)
- Honeymoon (1973)
- Marjina Abdulla (1973)
- Shriman Prithviraj (1973)
- Asati (1974)
- Chorus (1974)
- Mr. Romeo (1974)
- Jukti, Takko Aar Gappo (1974)
- Thagini (1974)
- Amanush (1975)
- Julie (1975)
- Anari (1975)
- Palanka (1975)
- Jana Aranya (1976)
- Datta (1976)
- Do Anjaane (1976)
- Santan (1976)
- Sei Chokh (1976)
- Shaque (1976)
- Kotwal Saab (1977)
- Yehi Hai Zindagi (1977)
- Immaan Dharam (1977) as Balbir Singh, Military Man
- Anand Ashram (1977)
- Anurodh (1977)
- Dulhan Wahi Jo Piya Man Bhaaye (1977)
- Farishta Ya Qatil (1977)
- Kissa Kursi Ka (1977)
- Priyatama (1977)
- Swami (1977)
- Atithee (1978)
- Striker (1978)
- Safed Haathi (1978)
- Dhanraj Tamang (1978)
- Joi Baba Felunath (1978)
- Toote Khilone (1978)
- Kartavya (1979) as Dewan Dhanpati Rai
- Gol Maal (1979)
- The Great Gambler (1979)
- Jhor (1979)
- Prem Vivah (1979)
- Agreement (1980)
- Hirak Rajar Deshe (1980)
- Paka Dekha (1980)
- Apne Paraye (1980)
- Ram Balram (1980)
- Agni Pareeksha (1981)
- Naram Garam (1981)
- Barsaat Ki Ek Raat (1981) aka Anusandhan (India: Bengali title)
- Chaalchitra (1981)
- Meghmukti (1981)
- Subarna Golak (1981)
- Shaukeen (1981)
- Baisakhi Megh (1981) as Colonel Manningham
- Rajbadhu (1982)
- Raaste Pyar Ke (1982)
- Hamari Bahu Alka (1982)
- Angoor (1982)
- Achha Bura (1983)
- Rang Birangi (1983)
- Duti Pata (1983)
- Kissi Se Na Kehna (1983)
- Pasand Apni Apni (1983)
- Shubh Kaamna (1983)
- Love Marriage (1984)
- John Jani Janardhan (1984)
- Lakhon Ki Baat (1984)
- Inquilaab (1984)
- Paar (1984)
- Yeh Desh (1984)
- Saaheb (1985)
- Harishchandra Shaibya (1985)
- Mera Damad (1985)
- Aar Paar (1985)
- Anyay Abichar (1985)
- Ulta Seedha (1985)
- Aap Ke Saath (1986)
- Baat Ban Jaye (1986)
- Kirayadar (1986)
- Main Balwan (1986)
- Pathbhola (1986)
- Sadaa Suhagan (1986)
- Kissa Kathmandu Ka (1986–1987, TV series)
- Pyar Ke Kabil (1987)
- Aaj Ka Robin Hood (1987)
- Asha o Bhalobasha (1988)
- Mahaveera (1988)
- La Nuit Bengali (1988)
- Bahurani (1989)
- Jawani Zindabad (1990)
- Mera Pati Sirf Mera Hai (1990)
- Agantuk (1991)
- Jaan Pechaan (1991)
- Path-o-Prasad (1991)
- Byomkesh Bakshi (1993)
- Padma Nadir Majhi (1993)
- Misti Madhur (1993)
- Ajana Path (1994)
- Tiner Talowar
- Ferari Fauj
- Boniker Rajdando
- Kangor Karagare
- Aajker Shahjahan
- Lohaar Bheem
- Mahusher Adhikarey
- Ebar Rajar Pala
- Danrao Pathikbar
- Girish Chandra Ghosh. Sahitya Akademi Publications. 1992. ISBN 81-7201-197-0. Excerpts
- The Great Rebellion, 1857 (Mahabidroha), Seagull Books, 1986. ISBN 81-7046-032-8.
- On Theatre, Seagull Books. 2009. ISBN 81-7046-251-7.
- Towards A Revolutionary Theatre. Seagull Books, 2009. ISBN 81-7046-340-8.
- On Cinema. Seagull Books, 2009. ISBN 81-7046-252-5.
- Acted in Byomkesh Bakshi Episode 3: Seemant Heera
- Rights Of Man (Manusher Adhikare). Seagull Books, 2009. ISBN 81-7046-331-9.
- 3 Plays. Seagull Books, 2009. ISBN 81-7046-256-8.
- Himani Bannerji, Representation and class politics in the theatre of Utpal Dutt. Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, 1988. ASIN B0000D6DGM
- Arup Mukhopadhay, "Utpal Dutta: Jeevan O Sristhi" (in Bengali), National Book Trust, New Delhi, 2010 (Reprinted in 2011). ISBN 978-81-237-5901-2
- Joel Schechter, Popular theatre: a sourcebook, Worlds of performance. Routledge, 2003. Theatre As Weapon: Utpal Dutt. ISBN 0-415-25830-8.
- Inside the actor’s mind Archived 8 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine Mint (newspaper), 3 July 2009.
- Remembering Utpal Dutt[permanent dead link] Shoma A Chatterji, Screen (magazine), 20 August 2004.
- The Mirror of Class: Essays on Bengali Theatre by Himani Bannerji Archived 21 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Frontline (magazine), Volume 18 – Issue 12, 9–22 Jun 2001.
- Stage On & Off: Man in iron mask Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Telegraph (Kolkata), 26 August 2006.
- Obituary: Utpal Dutt Archived 22 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Independent, 21 August 1993.
- Utpal Dutt The Columbia encyclopedia of modern drama, Volume 1, by Gabrielle H. Cody, Evert Sprinchorn. Columbia University Press, 2007. ISBN 0231144229. Page 382-383.
- Utpal DuttTheatres of independence: drama, theory, and urban performance in India since 1947:Studies in theatre history and culture by Aparna Bhargava Dharwadker. University of Iowa Press, 2005. ISBN 0-87745-961-4. Page 114
- Saubhadro Chatterji (11 March 2009). "Poll-bound Bengal turns to artistes". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 16 March 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Rehearsals of revolution: the political theater of Bengal, by Rustom Bharucha. University of Hawaii Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8248-0845-2. Page 55.
- Pro-Communist Drama Gets Crowds in Calcutta Archived 22 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine New York Times, 25 November 1965.
- Encyclopædia Britannica article on Utpal Dutt Archived 14 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Britannica.com.
- Dutt's Kallol to ride the Hooghly Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Telegraph (Kolkata), 5 November 2005.
- Dutt and his dimensions Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, The Hindu, 26 October 2007.
- "Google Groups". Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2015.