Recently I was puzzled by this image. If you know what's behind it, you may share your knowledge here.
"Abyssinian propaganda" in 1903-4
Just wandered over to your page, and noted the image from the NY library you had a question about. A closer inspection reveals the part you were probably wondering about: why there's Jewish iconography used in the older Flag of Ethiopia. Historically, Ethiopia was called "Abyssinia" and its kings were referred to as "Lion of Judah", in demonstration of an ancestral connection to King Solomon (the Solomonid Dynasty). Is that what you were trying to figure out?—LeflymanTalk 22:43, 18 April 2006 (UTC)
- Hi Leflyman, thanks for your message. It did not completely satisfy my curiosity, though. Yeah, I know about the old Flag of Ethiopia and the Lion of Judah. What I would like to know is who/why are the "Abyssinians recruiting followers" in 1904? Why does the other flag contain the Star of David, the sign "Zion" in Hebrew and two stripes? Is there a relation to the Zionism? ←Humus sapiens ну? 01:01, 19 April 2006 (UTC)
- Ah, I see what you're saying: there's a ZIonist flag in this graphic, which is supposed to be about a treaty between the US and Ethiopia from 1903/4. (Which is authentic, see:  and ) It's a very interesting point, because according to sources I've seen the flag of Zion design was first used in 1885, raised in Rishon Le Zion, but wasn't "officially" adopted until 1933 at the 18th Zionist Congress. So what was it doing in what's being termed "Abyssinian propaganda"? Perhaps we would need to know what context the image was being used by the "Chicago Commission on Race Relations", which published the volume from which the graphic came, in 1922. Since the item is undated, it could have been from any time between 1904 to 1922. I do notice that it's categorised under "Back to Africa movement". —LeflymanTalk 05:05, 19 April 2006 (UTC)
The Abyssinian kings considered themselves direct descendants of King Solomon, (thought they were the last too) and as such considered themselves the lions and protectors of Judea. They even had a couple plans to launch a tenth crusade and "liberate" the Holy land. They also had a very old Jewish population (the one and same that was taken to Israel a few years back). I am assuming this is the mystery the star of david lion of judea ect. August 23rd User:Justinmcl
It's probably Rastafari tract, although 1922 is VERY early for that. Robert Athlyi Rogers (who wrote the Holy Piby) was active in the US in the early '20s. [Marcus Garvey]'s UNIA was very active by then. It is likely that Garvey would have known of the Zionist movement because of his interest in race relations, so he (and others) may have been aware of the flag design. Nloth 07:02, 20 April 2006 (UTC)
- My point is that it probably isn't the original treaty, but a re-print as part of a tract printed some time after 1904 and prior to 1922. That would explain why it was used in "the Negro in Chicago; a study of race relations and a race riot, by the Chicago Commission on Race Relations." and is cationed "Propaganda literature used by "Abyssinians" in recruiting followers." - ie, it isn't classified as an international relations document.
- http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520050916&id=ysK4TESS2s0C&pg=PA389&lpg=PA389&dq=%22Chicago+Commission+on+Race+Relations%22+Abyssinians&sig=RNcldtOl_zStBFe3I0pEpZ7br-Y has a reference to something called the "Star order of Ethopia" active in Chicago in 1920. http://www.rastaites.com/repatriationnews/report4.htm says: "Redding’s Star Order organization was described by historians (not necessarily favourably) as founded upon unusual interpretations of the Bible and gave their sentiments a religious fervor and a racial aim. For one dollar ($1.00) the Star Order of Ethiopia provided an Ethiopian flag, a small pamphlet containing a prophecy relating to the return of the black-skinned people to Africa, a copy of the treaty between the United States and Ethiopia, and a picture of Ras Tafari." I would suggest that the picture may be of the treaty in this pamphlet. Given that Elder Grover Redding (the founder of the Star Order) was a member of Gravey's UNIA I think it is likely that he knew of and used the Zionist flag in his work. (forgot to sign) Nloth 03:31, 24 April 2006 (UTC)
- The Web page linked above is more or less accurate (three men were shot during the riot, not two, although two of them died, etc) and the suggestion that it was that "copy of the treaty" that made its way into the Chicago Commission papers is plausible. There is more on Redding elsewhere, e.g. in The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, University of California Press, 1983, ISBN 0520050916 Ahasuerus 22:14, 26 April 2006 (UTC)
The FULL Story
History U.S.-Ethiopia Treaty TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE KING OF ETHIOPIA TO REGULATE THE COMMERCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES
Signed at Addis-Ababa, December 97, 1908 Ratification advised by the Senate, March 19, 1904. Ratified by the President, March 17, 1904.
King of Ethiopia notified of ratification, August 2, 1904. Proclaimed, September 30, 1904.
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF America
Whereas a treaty of commerce between the United States of America and His Majesty Menelik II., King of Kings of Ethiopia, was concluded on the twenty-seventh day of December, one thousand nine hundred and three, the original of which treaty, being in the Amharic and French languages, is word for word as follows:
TREATY OF COMMERCE.
His Majesty Menelik II., King of Kings of Ethiopia, and the United States of America, having agreed to regulate the commercial relations between the two countries and develop them, and render them more and more advantageous to the two contracting Powers:
His Majesty Menelik II., King of Kings of Ethiopia, in the name of the Empire, and Robert P. Skinner, in the name of the United States of America, have agreed and stipulated that which follows:
The citizens of the two Powers, like the citizens of other countries, shall be able freely to travel and to transact business throughout the extent of the territories of the two contracting Powers, while respecting the usages and submitting themselves to the tribunals of the countries in which they may be located.
In order to facilitate commercial relations, the two Governments shall assure, throughout the extent of their respective territories, the security of those engaged fn business therein and of their property.
The two contracting Governments shall reciprocally grant to all citizens of the United States of America and to the citizens of Ethiopia all the advantages which they shall accord to other Powers in respect to Customs duties, imposts, and jurisdiction.
Throughout the extent of the Ethiopian Empire the citizens of the United States of America shall have the use of the telegraphs, posts, and all other means of transportation upon the same terms as the citizens of other Powers.
In order to perpetuate and strengthen the friendly relations which exist between Ethiopia and the United States of America, the two Governments agree to receive reciprocally representatives acceptable to the two Governments. These representatives shall not, however, be maintained at their posts unless they are agreeable to the receiving Power; in such cases they shall be replaced.
The duration of the present treaty shall be ten years. It is understood that at the expiration of these ten years the two Governments shall be able to modify all or any part of this treaty. The Government which shall request at that time the modification shall make its proposal to the other Government one year before the expiration of the treaty.
The present treaty shall take effect, if ratified by the Government of the United States, and if this ratification shall be notified to His Majesty Menelik II., King of Kings of Ethiopia, within the period of one year.
His Majesty Menelik II., King of Kings of Ethiopia, in the name of his Empire, and Robert P. Skinner, in virtue of his full powers, in the name of the United States of America, have signed the present treaty, written in double text, Amharic and French, and in identical terms.
Done at Addis-Ababa this seventeenth day of December, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, in the year grace (correspondent au 27 of grace (corresponding to December, 1903). December 27, 1903).
[Seal of MENELIK IL]
(Signed) ROBERT P. SKINNER.
And whereas it is provided by the said treaty that it shall take effect ' if ratified by the Government of the United States of America, and if this ratification shall be notified to His Majesty King Menelik II., King of Kings of Ethiopia, within the period of one year';
And whereas the said treaty has been duly ratified on the part of the United States of America, and notification of such ratification was given to His Majesty Menelik II., King of Kings of Ethiopia, on the second day of August, one thousand nine hundred and four;
Now, therefore, be it known that I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, have caused the said treaty to be made public, to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington this thirtieth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and twenty-ninth.
[SEAL] THEODORE ROOSEVELT.
By the President FRANCIS B. Loomis,
The Star of David and the Ethiopians
I blogged about Star of David and the Ethiopians on http://star-of-david.blogspot.com/search?q=Ethiopia and you are invited to read... Zeevveez 09:41, 24 April 2007 (UTC)
I'm going on memory here so I may not be 100% accurate. The clue is here: "literature used by Abyssinians". It refers to the recruitment from 1925 onwards. The treaty itself was used as it indicated (proved in the mind of Afro Americans) that coloured people who suffered descrimination in the US would have better life in Ethiopia. The treaty itself is only one of many as Ethiopia offered similar treaties to other countries in the period 1902 to 1910. The reason for the treaty is of course the territorial disputes between Italy (Eritrea) and Ethiopia which Italy always seemed to win. By offering the treaties Ethiopia hoped to get international recognition and thus defacto recognition of it's borders. The use of the flag is probably due to Ethiopia's belief that they possess the Ark of the Covenant. The first King Menelik was the son of the Queen of Sheba and king Solomon. Solomon sent the first born sons of all the Jewish elders to live with him in Ethiopia (according to Ethiopian history), hence the Jewish connection although DNA testing has since proven there is no genetic connection with Israel at all. As for the use of the flag on the treaty that was actually the flag used by the Falash Mura who are Ethiopian Jews who converted to christianity. Whether they just copied the American Zion Flag of the time (later adopted by Israel), or made it themselves based on the Tallit (as the Zion Flag was), i have no idea. Wayne (talk) 12:05, 12 December 2007 (UTC)
Update via the New York Public Library (and me)
I'm rather late in arriving. Just in case Mr. Humus is still around and active on Wikipedia, this is the new and much more convenient link to that image, titled 'Propaganda literature used by "Abyssinians" in recruiting followers (1922)' with notation to the effect that the it was first uploaded on 7-6-2005, and then updated as of 3-25-2011. There is a lot of descriptive material too. I don't know if it was available during the 2005 through 2007 era, when this WP talk page section was last active.
I am sorry if I am littering your talk page with debris! I noted that you said not to alter your user page, which I wouldn't presume to do anyway! I wanted to make sure that you, or whomever ever else might follow, would have the permalink i.e. the persistent identifier, to the image. --FeralOink (talk) 08:07, 26 January 2013 (UTC)