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Hi, everyone! My name is Jie Jay Chen, but you can call me Jay as everyone does. In summer 2007, I graduated from the University of Manitoba, which locates in Winnipeg, Canada. I was born on Nov. 6th 1982 in Shanghai, China. When I was one and half years old, my family moved to Guangzhou(Canton) with me. I have been lived in Winnipeg, Canada since fall 2002. Later, I moved to Greater Toronto Area in 2009. That's why I can speak Cantonese, Mandarin as well as English. As a Wikipedian, I edited some parts of the articles of User:Fatck and University of Manitoba.
- the Puti Road Primary School - Guangzhou(Canton), China
- the No. 41 Middle School -Guangzhou(Canton), China
- the No. 2 High School - Guangzhou(Canton), China
- University of Manitoba - Winnipeg, Canada
- Bachelor of Arts with major in Economics and History
- Enrolled in Investment Funds in Canada in 2010
- Wanna be happy and health forever
- Soccer (football) clubs: Real Madrid, Arsenal F.C., A.C. Milan, F.C. Porto, PSV Eindhoven, AFC Ajax, Liverpool F.C., and Chelsea F.C.
- Cantoon heros : Yzak Joule, Sun Wukong, Stellar Loussier, Lunamaria Hawke, Dearka Elsman and Athrun Zala
- Mobile-Suits (Gundam): ZGMF-LRR704B GINN Long Range Reconnaissance Type , Gunner ZAKU Warrior, ZGMF-1001/K Slash ZAKU Phantom, ZGMF-1001/M Blaze ZAKU Phantom, GAT-X102 Duel, GAT-X103 Buster,ZGMF-X42S Destiny, ZGMF-X2000 GOUF Ignited, and ZGMF-X20A Strike Freedom Gundam.
- Actresses: Natalie Portman, Taylor Momsen, Jessica Szohr, Lacie Heart, Kate Bosworth, Bojana Novakovic, Sophia Bush, Lauren Conrad, Kristin Cavallari, Sarah Roemer, Summer Altice, Isild Le Besco, Hilarie Burton, Emma Roberts, Danneel Harris, Lindsey McKeon, Evangeline Lilly, Abbie Cornish, Kaley Cuoco, Amber Heard, Emmanuelle Vaugier, Kirsten Dunst, Elisha Cuthbert, Becki Newton, Julie Gonzalo, Liane Balaban, Alexandra Maria Lara, Anna Faris, Amanda Righetti, Samaire Armstrong, Holly McGuire, Victoria's Secret Angels, Kate Mara, Angela Lindvall, 吳佩慈, Estella Warren, Hayden Panettiere, Leah Dizon, Lauren Lee Smith, Haley Bennett, Abigail Breslin, Camilla Belle, Blake Lively, Teresa Palmer, Amber Tamblyn, Katie Downes, Nikkala Stott, Mischa Barton, Emmanuelle Chriqui, Amii Grove, Bijou Phillips, Eva Green, Amanda Walsh, Jordana Brewster, Jennifer Hollett, Taylor Cole, Sarah Carter, Alex Breckenridge, Brooke Burns, Hanna Verboom, Taryn Manning, Audrina Patridge, Masami Nagasawa, Yui Aragaki, Aya Ueto, Misaki Ito, Sienna Miller, Evan Rachel Wood, Leelee Sobieski, 北原多香子 and so on.
- Actors/Producers: Mark Wahlberg, Sean Connery, George Clooney, Takeshi Kaneshiro, Harrison Ford, Tobey Maguire, Matthew McConaughey, Ben Stiller, Ken Watanabe, Mel Gibson, Matt Damon, Anthony Wong Chau Sang, Leonardo DiCaprio, Hayao Miyazaki, Tom Hanks, Tony Leung Chiu Wai, Lau Ching-Wan, Yūji Oda, Eric Tsang, Tony Leung Ka Fai, Jake Gyllenhaal, Stephen Chow, Hiroshi Abe, Michael Moore, David Spade, Ng Man Tat, Rick Lee, Jude Law, Wong Jim, Steve Martin and so on.
- Bands: Savage Garden, Tokio Hotel, Bee Gees, Serebro, Liberty X, Westlife, Boyzone, No Doubt, Take That, Aqua, t.A.T.u, Sugababes, Spice Girls, The Pussycat Dolls, S Club 7, Simple Plan, M2M, Atomic Kitten, Girls Aloud, The Veronicas, Bond, Our Lady Peace and so on.
- Singers: Kelly Chen, Avril Lavigne, Katharine McPhee, Kesha, Lene Marlin, Andy Lau, Jay Chou, Wakin Chau, Craig David, Natalie Alvarado, James Blunt, Will Young, Mandy Moore, Sarah McLachlan, John Mayer, Norah Jones, Kelly Clarkson, Jem, Nathalia Ramos, Aaron Carter, Leann Rimes, Gwen Stefani, Cascada, JoJo, Shayne Ward, Mika Nakashima, Yuuka Nanri, Utada Hikaru, Nami Tamaki, Holly Valance, Rie Tanaka, 有坂美香 and so on.
- Businessmen: Bill Gates, Steve Chen, Hugh Hefner, Lee Shau Kee, Jin Yong, Konosuke Matsushita, Warren Buffett, Steve Jobs, Donald Trump, George Soros, Dale Carnegie, Li Ka Shing, Yue-Kong Pao, Stanley Ho, Roman Abramovich , Henry Fok and so on.
- Politicians/Economist: Bill Clinton, Henry Kissinger, Pierre Trudeau, Barack Obama, Paul Martin, Lester B. Pearson, John Diefenbaker, Justin Trudeau, Cao Cao, Duke Mu of Qin, Duke Wen of Jin, Chen Jiongming, Alan Greenspan, Robert Mundell, Wei Zheng, Fan Li, Itō Hirobumi, Bao Qingtian, Ma Ying-jeou, Zhuge Liang, Anson Chan, Al Gore, Chris Patten, Mahatma Gandhi, Lady Diana, Princess Charles of Wales, Mother Teresa, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Vladimir Putin, Peng Dehuai, Guan Zhong, Zhao Yun, Donald Tsang, John F. Kennedy, Otto von Bismarck, Jean Chrétien and Sun Yat-sen
- Emperors/Kings and Queens: Emperor Wen of Han, Emperor Jing of Han, Emperor Taizong of Tang, Kangxi Emperor, Emperor Meiji, Frederick II of Prussia, Queen Victoria, Peter the Great and Catherine II
- Sport-players: Yao Ming, Michael Owen, Yi Jianlian, Maria Sharapova, Lang Ping, Luís Figo, Iker Casillas, Robinho, Fernando Morientes, Fernando Hierro, Roberto Baggio, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Esteban Cambiasso, Júlio Baptista, Cristiano Ronaldo, Luis Javier García Sanz, Xabi Alonso, Steven Gerrard, Sergio Ramos, Deco, Andrea Pirlo, Frank Lampard, Arjen Robben, Khalid Boulahrouz, Wesley Sneijder, Owen Hargreaves and so on.
- Food: Cantonese cuisine, Shanghai cuisine, Canadian cuisine, Buddhist cuisine, Hong Kong cuisine, Hong Kong-style Western cuisine, Macanese cuisine, Taiwanese cuisine, Russian cuisine, Jiangsu cuisine, Italian food, Japanese food, Tea, Vietnamese food, Brazilian food, Russian food, French food, Spanish cuisine, Argentine cuisine and Private kitchen
- Places: Winnipeg, Shanghai, Downtown Toronto, Midtown Toronto, Uptown Toronto, North York, Etobicoke, Toronto, Greater Toronto Area, Guangzhou, Ottawa-Gatineau, Montreal, Calgary-Edmonton Corridor, Halifax Regional Municipality, Metro Vancouver, Portland metropolitan area, Greater Boston, Chicago, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex, New York metropolitan area, Miami, Atlanta, Philadelphia, Houston, Washington, D.C., Phoenix metropolitan area, Greater San Antonio, Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area, Golden Horseshoe, Quebec City-Windsor corridor, Beijing, Tianjin, Kamloops, Greater Santiago, Greater Buenos Aires, Switzerland, Iceland, Japan, Singapore, Russia, Denmark, Ireland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Netherlands
- George W. Bush
- Nuclear and biochemical arms
- The CCP
- Abuse children, women and elders
- Abuse drugs and alcohol
- Junk food
- Democratic socialism
- Proportional representation
- Universal health care
- Green Peace
- The Great Cantonese Autonomous Region
- Replacement level fertility
- Same-sex marriage for equal human rights
- Legalization of cannabis, prostitution, and gambling
- Clone for medical purpose
- Safe sex
- BitTorrent download
One of my research papers
Most feminists and sociologists are especially concerned with social, economic, and political transformations of women. Gender equality is a very important world-wide issue in every continent, especially in Asia, Europe, and North America. This paper will compare women in Sweden, the United States, and China. This paper will begin with an examination of the social change. The other comparison will be a change in the economy under globalization effect in these three countries. The final point will look at women’s political participation among these three countries. Clearly, the comparisons of women in these three countries show the changes in society, economy and polity, which link the issue of gender equality. The social change is the main issue which pushes the transformations in gender roles. This social issue concerns with women participation rate in the labor force, the professional female employees, and demographic change. First, women participation rate in the labor force show the change in gender role change. There is increasing convergence of men’s and women’s role is most manifest in the movement of women into the labor force (Moen 19). More than two-thirds (67.9 percent) of Swedish women aged 17 – 64 were in the labor force in 1975, compared to just under half (49.0 percent) the Unites States (Moen 19). By 1984 the Swedish labor force participation rate of women aged 17 – 64 had raised to 78 percent that is as equal as to men (Moen 19). The greatest change in both countries has been in the employment of women with preschool children: 86 percent of Swedish mothers of young children were in the labor force in 1986, compare to 54.4 percent of American mothers of preschoolers (Moen 19).To contrast China, under the gender revolution in 1950s and the a series of economic reforms in 1978, more than 70 percent women aged 15 - 60 were in the labor force in 1982 (Kerr, Delahanty and Humpage 2). In 1990s, more Chinese women became career women. The Chinese labor force participation rate of women had aged 15 – over raised to 72.93 which are almost equal to men (Kerr, Delahanty and Humpage 2~3).According to the comparison, the women’s labor force participation rate of Sweden and China both are higher than the United States. Second, the changing of fertility rate liberates women from the household. In Sweden, the fertility rate is extremely low which 1.6 children for each woman are in the childbearing years, compared to a U.S. rate of almost 2.0 per woman (Moen 18). Then, the population of the United States hit 300million last month, just behind China and India (U.S. Census Bureau). Most Swedish women have only one or two children; only two percent of the families with children have as many as four, compare to twelve percent in the United States (Moen 18). Thus, Swedish women spend more time to work because their families’ sizes are smaller than the United States. Also, in Sweden, fathers spent more at home than other countries’ men. “Swedish men do a third of what their wives do, even when both have full time jobs (Drew, Emerek and Mahon 201). Often women have been portrayed as role models for men when constructing a new father’s role (Drew, Emerek and Mahon 200). On the other hand, American women spend more time staying at home to look after children; even some women are full time housewives. To look at China, after the national birth control plan, better known as the one child policy, the Chinese birth rate hit the lowest ever. On the other hand, the rate of women employment hit the highest in history because they spend less time at home than in the past, though this policy has many negative criticisms. Chinese women no longer are the traditional homemaker. Based on this comparison among three countries, American women spend the most time at home. Third, the professional female employees reflect the social status of women. When more and more women join into the labor force, they challenge the hegemony of men in professional fields. Among China, the United States and Sweden, Swedish women have the highest rate of female in professional flied. To compare female physicians in Sweden and the United States, in Sweden, under the Social Democratic Party ruled during the post-war period, the party enacted and passed new laws making the equation between men and women (Drew, Emerek and Mahon 41). Many Swedish women were educated, and they had knowledge and abilities to do what men can. For instance, in 1998, a majority of the physicians under 30 years of age were women 59 percent in Sweden (Riska 65). By 2000, women physicians constituted 39 percent in the Scandinavian state (Riska 65). On the other hand, American women faced more social and traditional barriers than Swedish women. “The proportion of women physicians remained largely unchanged between 1900 and 1960: women constituted 6 percent of the U.S. physicians so that fewer women than men reach top positions (Riska 42).” This percentage had changed in the early 1990s. In 1990, the percentage of American female physicians was 17% (Riska 49). In 1996, the percentage was increased to 23% (Riska 49). However, the percentage of American women physicians is still lower than Swedish women. Although no any particular number shows how many Chinese women reach the top positions in medical careers, Chinese women are taking men jobs in science. After the communist party domination the mainland China in 1949, the position of women, legally, most closely matched that of men in other communist or formerly communist countries like the Soviet Union, Eastern European states and Cuba (Bentley and Ziegler 1160). ““Women hold up half the sky”, Mao Zedong had declared, and this eloquent acknowledgment of women’s role translated into a commitment to fairness. The communist dedication to women’s rights had led to improvement in the legal status of Chinese women once the communists gained power in China since 1950 (Bentley and Ziegler 1160).” Therefore, education was not only for male any more. Many Chinese women had a chance to attend schools for learning knowledge. Before the communist party rule the mainland, only two percentage women worked in the national labs or participated science projects. To compare, in 1970, the percentage of women working in science was increased to 16% (Bentley and Ziegler 1160~1161). In the mid 1990s, the percentage was increased to 33.4% (Bentley and Ziegler 1161). At present, more and more Chinese women work in science. Nowadays, under globalization effects, the economy has been changed in Sweden, America and China. The transformation in economy not only affects the changing of the scale of the traditional economic sectors but also changes the ratio of male and female workers. These two changes relate the transformation in pay gap, benefits, working conditions, and the public welfare. In the past, the western countries had a large manufacturing sector. Thus, many men employees worked under factories with the standard employment relationship which meant these male workers had good job security, good salaries, good benefits, and good working condition. Besides, they usually were unionized. To compare, at that time, most women were part-time workers who worked in the servicing industry with non-unions, terrible working conditions, low income, and a few benefits, better known as the precarious employment relationship or some were full time housewives. Nowadays, many men work in the servicing industry with the precarious employment relationship because many plants and factories move to the developing countries, such as China, seeking for low cost and great profits. For example, the United States labor force has also undergone dramatic changes: only 25 percent are now employed in industrial occupations and 72 percent in service, transportation, or trade industries; 16 percent are in the public sector (Moen 22). More and more American men work in the same working conditions as American women, and these male workers obtain a similar income and benefits as female workers. When the American economic sectors changed, the government of the United States provided fewer welfare systems to its people in contrast with Sweden. Many public funds and benefits were cut by the federal government. Besides, the United States does not have a guaranteed health care for all permanent residents. According to U.S. Census Bureau, women live in the poverty that is more than about one million, and white women have less in the poverty than other minority nations (U.S. Census Bureau). The government of the United States prefers to expend money in military rather than its people. To compare China, after the economic reform and the open door policy in 1978 (Bentley and Ziegler 1160), manufacturing and construction sectors in Chinese economy are quickly mushrooming. Therefore, these industries hire not only man but also many women. On account of the great change of Chinese economy, the income, working conditions, and benefits of both gender workers are improving. Furthermore, one Chinese female association, which leads by the central government, provides loads to poor women and unemployed women to reduce the poverty rate of Chinese women. For example, during the period from 1998 to 2003, women's federations nationwide endeavored to get small-sum credit loans to directly aid a total of 2.5 million women to get employed (the Chinese government). On the other hand, some people, especially female workers, were hired by sweatshops, and most worked in the textile industry, because Chinese women have a congenital ability in weaving. These workers suffer a terrible working condition with a little benefits and low wages. The Chinese government must regard the workers, and the government has to allow unionizing which can rescue them from those sweatshops. Also, the Chinese government should offer the national-wide health care to its people under the booming economy. Sweden faces similar circumstances as the United States. only 30 percent of the Swedish labor force works in the mining, manufacturing, and construction industries, whereas 52 percent is located in the private and public service sectors (Moen 22). Furthermore, more men and more men joined into these traditional female occupational fields. The wage gap between Swedish men and women were closed. Fortunately, although the Swedish economic sectors were changed, Swedish welfare systems did not change, and both women and men had the same rights to obtain these public benefits. Even thought 90 percent of Swedish companies are privately owned, Sweden is often depicted as “socialist” country (Moen 22). This label more accurately refers not to its economic system but to its comprehensive social welfare system, which provides general social insurance, child allowances, free education, and guaranteed health for all citizens (Moen 22). In addition to these entitlements, housing allowances are granted to all families in need. In 1981, about one - third of Swedish households with children under age seventeen received housing support (Moen 22). These welfare systems reduce the conflict between man and women, and the numbers of both genders live under the poverty line as similar. As the result, the Swedish government does the best under the changes in economy. Last but not least, increasing in women’s political participation is the milestone of the equal gender distribution in polity. Under the waves of feminism, more and more women are members of the government. The more democratic countries have the higher rate of women’s political participation. In Sweden, “politicians and cabinet ministers are just as likely to have been women as men because the equal gender distribution in political assemblies is the result of free choice. Some parties include the principle of 50-50 lists in their statutes. In practice, it is now difficult for a party to go to the polls with a slate of candidates who are primarily men. Swedish women are no longer content with only ‘soft’ political areas; they are also engaged in traditionally male-dominated areas, such as fiscal, economic, and defense policies. And when women sit on ‘male’ committees and boards of directors, they bring equal opportunity issues with them (Politics lead the way).” The distribution of elected women female representatives in Sweden:” the parliament is 45 %; municipalities are 41 %, and county councils are 41 % (Politics lead the way).” In the Unites States, the number of female politicians is slowly increasing. “Women's participation in national political life remained low long after the right to vote was gained in 1920. No more than two women served in the Senate at any time until 1994, and less than a dozen were Congressional Representatives until 1955. Current representation is 14 senators and 67 representatives, around 15% of the United States Congress. One quarter of women in Congress is people of color, which reflects the American population, but bucks the trend of the Congress. No woman has been a major party presidential nominee, although several have run for the position of Vice President or sought their party's nomination (Women in Elected Office). Still, the past generation has seen a remarkable shift in American's stated willingness to vote for a woman as president, according to polls more than 80% of Americans would vote for a female candidate (Vote for Woman President).” In China, it is another scene. “In 2004, the National People's Congress (NPC) has 650 women delegates, two women are Vice-Presidents of NPC's Standing Committee; one woman is a CPPCC Vice-President; and one woman is State Councilor. Among the 29 ministries and commissions under the State Council, there are 2 women Ministers and 16 women Vice Ministers (Women's Political Participation in China).” However, no one votes these members to become delegates of the congress, and these female representatives did not reflect the social conditions and working condition of Chinese women in the reality. Without democracy, these female delegates are just like a caboodle puppets. That is why many Chinese female workers still suffer under those sweatshops, and some women face the family violence frequently in rural areas. In conclusion, from what has been discussed above, people should understand the Swedish government does the best in gender equality. The Swedish women should be the one of most happiness women in the world. Also, Sweden and China both are higher than the United States in the participation rate of women’s labor force. Furthermore, under changes in economy, the Swedish government does better than the Chinese government and the United States government. Finally, Sweden beats the United States and China again in increasing of women’s political participation.