3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||123.068 g/mol|
|Melting point||163 °C (325 °F; 436 K)|
|Solubility||soluble in alcohol|
|Shock sensitivity||Very low|
|Friction sensitivity||Very low|
|Detonation velocity||4700 m/s|
|GHS signal word||DANGER|
|H201, H271, H301, H304, H314, H332|
|P220, P233, P260, P250, P305+351+338|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Urea nitrate is a fertilizer-based high explosive that has been used in improvised explosive devices in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, and various other terrorist acts elsewhere in the world, like the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. It has a destructive power similar to better-known ammonium nitrate explosives, with a velocity of detonation between 11,155 ft/s (3,400 m/s) and 15,420 ft/s (4,700 m/s).
Urea nitrate explosions may be initiated using a blasting cap.
Urea contains a carbonyl group. The more electronegative oxygen atom pulls electrons away from the carbon forming a greater electron density around the oxygen, giving the oxygen a partial negative charge and forming a polar bond. When nitric acid is presented, it ionizes. A hydrogen cation contributed by the acid is attracted to the oxygen and forms a covalent bond [electrophile H+]. The electronegative NO3− ion then is attracted to the positive hydrogen ion. This forms an ionic bond and hence the compound urea nitrate.
(NH2)2CO (aq) + HNO3 (aq) → (NH2)2COHNO3 (s)
The compound is favored by many amateur explosive enthusiasts as a principal explosive for use in larger charges. In this role it acts as a substitute for ammonium nitrate based explosives. This is due to the ease of acquiring the materials necessary to synthesize it, and its greater sensitivity to initiation compared to ammonium nitrate based explosives.
- Aaron Rowe (18 September 2007). "Chem Lab: Spray-On Test for Improvised Explosives". Wired.
- "Explosives - ANFO (Ammonium Nitrate - Fuel Oil)". GlobalSecurity.org.
- Almog J, Burda G, Shloosh Y, Abramovich-Bar S, Wolf E, Tamiri T (November 2007). "Recovery and detection of urea nitrate in traces". J. Forensic Sci. 52 (6): 1284–90. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00551.x. PMID 17868267.
- Mr.X (July 2008). "Improvised Urea Nitrate". aware eZine Gamma. Archived from the original on 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
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