|Motto||Ex Scientia Tridens (Latin)|
Motto in English
|From Knowledge, Sea Power|
|Type||US Service Academy|
|Established||10 October 1845|
|Superintendent||Vice Admiral Walter E. Carter Jr.|
|Dean||Andrew T. Phillips|
|Location||Annapolis, Maryland, United States|
|Campus||Urban – 338 acres (136.8 ha)|
|Colors||Navy Blue and Gold
|NCAA Division I – Patriot League
American Athletic Conference
CSFL EARC EIGL EIWA
|Mascot||Bill the Goat|
U.S. Naval Academy
|Location||Maryland Ave. and Hanover St., Annapolis, Maryland|
|Architectural style||Beaux Arts|
|NRHP reference #||66000386|
|Added to NRHP||15 October 1966|
|Designated NHLD||4 July 1961|
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus (known to insiders as "the Yard") is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis.
Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Member of Congress. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,200 "plebes" (an abbreviation of the Ancient Roman word plebeian) enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are usually commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can also be cross-commissioned as officers in other U.S. services, and the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, and mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In its 2016 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked the U.S. Naval Academy as the No. 1 public liberal arts college and tied for the 12th best overall liberal arts college in the U.S. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is also tied for No. 1 with the U.S. Military Academy and the U.S. Air Force Academy, and is tied for the No. 5 spot for Best Undergraduate Engineering program at schools where doctorates not offered. In 2016, Forbes ranked the U.S. Naval Academy as No. 24 overall in its report "America's Top Colleges".
Prospective candidates must either be nominated by certain public officials—or be the child of a Medal of Honor recipient, which entitles a qualified candidate to automatic admission without nomination. Nominations may be made by members of and delegates to Congress, the President or Vice-President, the Secretary of the Navy or certain other sources. Candidates must also pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process. The class of 2020 had 1,355 offers of appointment made to 17,043 applicants. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes (freshmen). The U.S. government pays for tuition, room, and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015. From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, services, and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during "firstie" (senior) year. Midshipmen fourth-class (plebes) to midshipmen second-class (juniors) receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses.
Students at the naval academy are addressed as Midshipman, an official military rank and paygrade. As midshipmen are actually in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term covers both males and females. Upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning. If they are selected to serve as a pilot (aircraft), they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, and if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries.
The most recent graduating class, that of 2017, inducted exactly 1,200 midshipmen in 2013 and graduated 1,053 in 2017. 768 were commissioned as Navy Ensigns and 259 as Marine 2nd Lieutenants. This graduating class was composed of 242 women and 811 men Since 1959, midshipmen have also been eligible for an interservice commission in the Air Force or Army, provided they meet that service's eligibility standards. Starting in 2004, midshipmen also became eligible to seek Coast Guard commissions. Every year, a small number of graduates do this—typically three or four. In 2017, two members of the class were commissioned as Air Force 2nd Lieutenants. A small number of foreign students are admitted each year. In 2017, 17 foreign midshipmen were graduated.
At the beginning of their second-class year, midshipmen make their commitment, also known as signing their "2-for-7." This represents a commitment to finish two years at the academy and then an additional five years on active duty. Upon graduation, midshipmen are obligated to serve at minimum 5 years of service after graduation. Those selected for post-graduate education will continue concurrently with their commissioning obligation for officers in the U.S. Navy and consecutively for officers in the U.S. Marine Corps.
Midshipmen who entered the academy from civilian life and who resign or are separated from the academy in their first two years incur no military service obligation. Those who are separated—voluntarily or involuntarily – after that time are required to serve on active duty in an enlisted capacity, usually for two to four years. Alternatively, separated former midshipmen can reimburse the government for their educational expenses, though the sum is often in excess of $150,000. The decision whether to serve enlisted time or reimburse the government is at the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy. Midshipmen who entered the academy from the enlisted ranks return to their enlisted status to serve the remainder of their enlistment.
The Navy operates the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval War College separately. The Naval Academy Preparatory School (NAPS), in Newport, Rhode Island, is the official prep school for the Naval Academy. The Naval Academy Foundation provides post-graduate high school education for a year of preparatory school before entering the academy for a very limited number of applicants. There are several preparatory schools and junior colleges throughout the United States that host this program.[clarification needed]
The academy's Latin motto is Ex Scientia Tridens, which means "Through Knowledge, Sea Power." It appears on a design devised by the lawyer, writer, editor, encyclopedist and naval academy graduate (1867), Park Benjamin, Jr. It was adopted by the Navy Department in 1898 due to the efforts of another graduate (also 1867) and collaborator, Jacob W. Miller. Benjamin states:
"The seal or coat-of-arms of the Naval Academy has for its crest a hand grasping a trident, below which is a shield bearing an ancient galley coming into action, bows on, and below that an open book, indicative of education, and finally bears the motto, 'Ex Scientia Tridens' (From knowledge, sea power)."
The institution was founded as the Naval School on 10 October 1845 by Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft. The campus was established at Annapolis on the grounds of the former U.S. Army post Fort Severn. The school opened with 50 midshipman students and seven professors. The decision to establish an academy on land may have been in part a result of the Somers Affair, an alleged mutiny involving the Secretary of War's son that resulted in his execution at sea. Commodore Matthew Perry had a considerable interest in naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, and helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy. He was also a vocal proponent of modernization of the navy.
Originally a course of study for five years was prescribed. Only the first and last were spent at the school with the other three being passed at sea. The present name was adopted when the school was reorganized in 1850 and placed under the supervision of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. Under the immediate charge of the superintendent, the course of study was extended to seven years with the first two and the last two to be spent at the school and the intervening three years at sea. The four years of study were made consecutive in 1851 and practice cruises were substituted for the three consecutive years at sea. The first class of naval academy students graduated on 10 June 1854.
In 1860, the Tripoli Monument was moved to the academy grounds. Later that year in August, the model of the USS Somers experiment was resurrected when the USS Constitution, then 60 years old, was recommissioned as a school ship for the fourth-class midshipmen after a conversion and refitting begun in 1857. She was anchored at the yard, and the plebes lived on board the ship to immediately introduce them to shipboard life and experiences.
The American Civil War
The Civil War was disruptive to the Naval Academy. Southern sympathy ran high in Maryland. Although riots broke out, Maryland did not declare secession. The United States government planned to move the school, when the sudden outbreak of hostilities forced a quick departure. Almost immediately the three upper classes were detached and ordered to sea, and the remaining elements of the academy were transported to Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island by the USS Constitution in April 1861, where the academy was set up in temporary facilities and opened in May. The Annapolis campus, meanwhile, was turned into a United States Army Hospital.
The United States Navy was stressed by the situation as 24% of its officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Navy, including 95 graduates and 59 midshipmen, as well as many key leaders involved with the founding and establishment of USNA. The first superintendent, Admiral Franklin Buchanan, joined the Confederate States Navy as its first and primary admiral. Captain Sidney Smith Lee, the second commandant of midshipmen, and older brother of Robert E. Lee, left Federal service in 1861 for the Confederate States Navy. Lieutenant William Harwar Parker, CSN, class of 1848, and instructor at USNA, joined the Virginia State Navy, and then went on to become the superintendent of the Confederate States Naval Academy. Lieutenant Charles "Savez" Read may have been "anchor man" (graduated last) in the class of 1860, but his later service to the Confederate States Navy included defending New Orleans, service on CSS Arkansas and CSS Florida, and command of a series of captured Union ships that culminated in seizing the US Revenue Cutter Caleb Cushing in Portland, Maine. Lieutenant James Iredell Waddell, CSN, a former instructor at the US Naval Academy, commanded the CSS Shenandoah. The first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, advocate of the creation of the United States Naval Academy, after whom Maury Hall is named, similarly served in the Confederate States Navy.
The midshipmen and faculty returned to Annapolis in the summer of 1865, just after the war ended.
From the Civil War to World War I
Civil War hero, Admiral David Dixon Porter became superintendent in 1865. He found the infrastructure at Annapolis a shambles, the result of ill military use during the War. Porter attempted to restore the facilities. He concentrated on recruiting naval officers as opposed to civilians, a change of philosophy. He recruited teachers Stephen B. Luce, future admirals Winfield Scott Schley, George Dewey, and William T. Sampson. He reinstated Professor Lockwood. The midshipman battalion consisted of four companies. These were bunked in a single wooden building containing 100 rooms, one company to a floor. They held dress parades every evening except Sunday. Students were termed "cadets", though sometimes "cadet midshipmen"; other appellations were used. Porter began organized athletics, usually intramural at the time.
|Academy training ships, 1850-1957|
Antoine Joseph Corbesier immigrated from Belgium and was appointed to the position of Swordmaster at USNA in October 1865. He coached Navy fencers in intercollegiate competition between 1896 and 1914. By special act of Congress, he was commissioned a 1st Lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 4 March 1914. He died on 26 March 1915 and is buried on Hospital Point.
In 1867, indoor plumbing and water was supplied to the family quarters. In 1868, the figurehead from the USS Delaware, known as "Tecumseh" was erected in the yard. Class rings were first issued in 1869. Weekly dances were held. Wags called the school "Porter's Dancing Academy." President U.S. Grant distributed diplomas to the class of 1869. Porter ensured continued room for expansion by overseeing the purchase of 113 acres (46 ha) across College Creek, later known as hospital point.
In 1871, color competition began, along with the selection of the color company, and a "color girl."
In the 1870s, cuts in the military budget resulted in graduating much smaller classes. In 1872, 25 graduated. Eight of these made the Navy a career. The third class physically hazed the fourth class so ruthlessly that Congress passed an anti-hazing law in 1874. Hazing continued in more stealthy forms.
John H. Conyers of South Carolina was the first black admitted on 21 September 1872. After his arrival, he was subject to severe, ongoing hazing, including verbal torment, and beatings. His classmates even attempted to drown him. Three cadets were dismissed as a result, but the abuse, including shunning, continued in more subtle forms and Conyers finally resigned in October 1873.
In 1875, Albert A. Michelson, class of 1873, returned to teach. He began his experiments with optics and the physics of light, which resulted in the first accurate measure of the speed of light. [clarification needed] 
The Spanish–American War of 1898 greatly increased the academy's importance and the campus was almost wholly rebuilt and much enlarged between 1899 and 1906. Today's campus dates from that era. Prior to that era, about 43 men entered annually. There were 114 joining the class of 1905, 201 with the class of 1908.
On 23 August 1911, the Navy officers on flight duty at Hammondsport, New York, and Dayton, Ohio, were ordered to report for duty at the Engineering Experiment Station, Naval Academy, "in connection with the test of gasoline motors and other experimental work in the development of aviation, including instruction at the aviation school" being set up on Greenbury Point, Annapolis. Naval flight training moved to NAS Pensacola, Florida, in January 1914.
In 1914, the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle corps was formed and by 1922 it went defunct. They were revived in 1926.
Many firsts for minorities occurred during this period. In 1877, Kiro Kunitomo, a Japanese citizen, graduated from the academy. And then in 1879, Robert F. Lopez was the first Hispanic-American to graduate from the academy.
In the late 19th century, Congress required the academy to teach a formal course in hygiene, the only course required by Congress of any military academy. Tradition holds that a congressman was particularly disgusted by the appearance of a midshipman returned from cruise.
World War I to World War II
The navy rowing team won the gold medal at 1920 Summer Olympics Games held in Antwerp, Belgium. In 1923, The Department of Physical Training was established. The naval academy football team played the University of Washington in the Rose Bowl tying 14–14. In 1925, the second-class ring dance was started. In 1925, the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle Corps was formally reestablished. In 1926, "Navy Blue and Gold", composed by organist and choirmaster J. W. Crosley, was first sung in public. It became a tradition to sing this alma mater song at the end of student and alumni gatherings such as pep rallies and football games, and on graduation day. In 1926, Navy won the national collegiate football championship title. In the fall of 1929, the Secretary of the Navy gave his approval for graduates to compete for Rhodes Scholarships. Six graduates were selected for that honor that same year. The Association of American Universities accredited the Naval Academy curriculum on 30 October 1930.
In 1930, the class of 1891 presented a bronze replica of Tecumseh to replace the deteriorating wooden figurehead that had been prominently displayed on campus.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law an act of Congress (Public Law 73-21, 48 Stat. 73) on 25 May 1933 providing for the bachelor of science degree for Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. Four years later, Congress authorized the superintendent to award a bachelor of science degree to all living graduates. Reserve officer training was re-established in anticipation of World War II in 1941.
In 1940, the academy stopped using the Reina Mercedes as a brig for disciplining midshipmen, and restricted them to Bancroft Hall, instead.
In April 1941, superintendent Rear Admiral Russell Willson refused to allow the school's lacrosse team to play a visiting team from Harvard University because the Harvard team included a black player. Harvard's athletic director ordered the player home and the game was played on 4 April, as scheduled, which Navy won 12–0.
A total of 3,319 graduates were commissioned during World War II. Dr. Chris Lambertsen held the first closed-circuit oxygen SCUBA course in the United States for the Office of Strategic Services maritime unit at the academy on 17 May 1943. In 1945, A Department of Aviation was established. That year a Vice Admiral, Aubrey W. Fitch, became superintendent. The naval academy celebrated its centennial. During the century of its existence, roughly 18,563 midshipmen had graduated, including the class of 1946.
World War II to present
The academy and its support facilities became part of the Severn River Naval Command from 1941 to 1962.
An accelerated course was given to midshipmen during the war years which affected classes entering during the war and graduating later. The students studied year around. This affected the class of 1948 most of all. For the only time, a class was divided by academic standing. 1948A graduated in June 1947; the remainder, called 1948B, a year later.
On 3 June 1949, Wesley A. Brown, the sixth African-American to enter the academy, became the first to graduate, followed several years later by Lawrence Chambers, who became the first African-American graduate to make flag rank.
The 1950 Navy fencing team won the NCAA national championship.
The Navy eight-man rowing crew won the gold medal at 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. They were also named National Intercollegiate Champions. In 1955, the tradition of greasing Herndon Monument for plebes to climb to exchange their plebe "dixie cup" covers (hats) for a midshipman's cover started.
In 1957, the moored training ship Reina Mercedes, ruined by a hurricane, was scrapped.
The 1959 fencing team won the NCAA national championship, and became the first to do so by placing first in all three weapons (foil, épée, and saber). All 3 fencers were selected for the 1960 Olympics team, as was head coach Andre Deladrier. The Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, funded by donations, was dedicated 26 September 1959.
Joe Bellino (Class of 1961) was awarded the Heisman Trophy on 22 June 1960. In 1961, the Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference was started. The U.S. Department of the Interior designated the campus of the U.S. Naval Academy as a National Historic Landmark on 21 August 1961.
The 1962 fencing team won the NCAA national championship.
In 1963, Roger Staubach, Class of 1965, was awarded the Heisman Trophy.
In 1963, the academy changed from a marking system based on 4.0 to a letter grade. Midshipmen began referring to the statue of Tecumseh as the "god of 2.0" instead of "the god of 2.5", the former failing mark.
The academy started the Trident Scholar Program in 1963. From 3 to 16 juniors are selected for independent study during their final year.
Professor Samuel Massie became the first African-American faculty member in 1966. On 4 June 1969, the first designated engineering degrees were granted to qualified graduates of the Class of 1969. During the period 1968 to 1972, the academy moved beyond engineering to include more than 20 majors. In 1970, the "James Forrestal Lecture" was created, named for the first U.S. Secretary of Defense in 1947/1949. This has resulted in various leaders speaking to midshipmen, including U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, football coach Dick Vermeil, and Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, and others.
The 1970s brought change. In 1972, Lieutenant Commander Georgia Clark became the first female officer instructor, and Dr. Rae Jean Goodman was appointed to the faculty as the first civilian woman. Later in 1972, a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia terminated compulsory chapel attendance, a tradition which had been in effect since 1853. In September 1973, the new expansive library facility complex was completed and named for Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Class of 1905.
On 8 August 1975, Congress authorized women to attend service academies. The Class of 1980 was inducted with 81 female midshipmen. In 1980, the academy included "Hispanic/Latino" as a racial category for demographic purposes; four women identified themselves as Hispanic in the class of 1981, and these women become the first Hispanic females to graduate from the academy: Carmel Gilliland (who had the highest class rank), Lilia Ramirez (who retired with the rank of commander), Ina Marie Gomez, and Trinora Pinto. In 1979, the traditional "June Week" was renamed "Commissioning Week" because graduation had been moved earlier to May.
In May 1980, Elizabeth Anne Belzer (later Rowe) became the first woman graduate. Janie L. Mines was the first U.S.N.A. African-American woman graduate. On 23 May 1984, Kristine Holderied became the first woman to graduate at the head of the class. In addition, the Class of 1984 included the first naturalized Korean-American graduates, all choosing commissions in the U.S. Navy. The four Korean-American ensigns were Walter Lee, Thomas Kymn, Andrew Kim, and Se-Hun Oh.
On 30 July 1987, the Computing Sciences Accreditation Board (CSAB) granted accreditation for the Computer Science program. In 1991, Midshipman Juliane Gallina, class of 1992, became the first woman brigade commander. On 29 January 1994, the first genderless service assignment was held. All billets were opened equally to men and women with the exception of special warfare and submarine duty.
On 12 March 1995, Lieutenant Commander Wendy B. Lawrence, Class of 1981, became a mission specialist in the space shuttle Endeavour. She is the first woman USNA graduate to fly in space.
To celebrate the 150th Anniversary of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis (1845–1995), the U.S. Postal Service printed a commemorative postage stamp; the First Day of Issue was 10 October 1995.
Freedom 7, America's first space capsule shot into sub-orbit in 1961, was placed on display at the visitor center as the centerpiece of the "Grads in Space" exhibit on 23 September 1998. The late Rear Admiral Alan Shepard, Class of 1945, had flown Mercury program capsule "Freedom 7" 116.5 miles (187.5 km) into space on 5 May 1961. His historic flight marked America's first step in the space race.
On 11 September 2001, the academy lost 14 alumni in the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The academy and its bounds was placed under unprecedented high security.
In August 2007, Superintendent Vice Admiral Jeffrey Fowler changed academy policy to limit liberty, required more squad interaction to emphasize that "we are a nation at war."
On 3 November 2007, the Navy football team defeated long-time rival Notre Dame for the first time in 43 years – 46–44 in triple overtime. The two teams have met every year since 1926 and continue a rivalry that became amicable when Notre Dame volunteered to open its facilities for training of naval officers in World War II. The Navy was credited with saving the University of Notre Dame after its enrollment fell during World War II to about 250 students. The Navy trained 12,000 men to become officers.
In November 2007, Memorial Hall was the venue for a 50-nation Annapolis Conference on a Palestinian-Israeli peace process discussion.
The student body is known as the Brigade of Midshipmen. Students attending the U.S. Naval Academy are appointed to the rank of midshipman and serve on active duty in that rank. "Naval Academy midshipmen are classified as officers of the line but are officers only in a qualified sense. They rank just below chief warrant officers."
Legally, midshipmen are a special grade of officer that ranks above the most senior enlisted grades (E-9) and below the lowest grade of chief warrant officer (W-2) in the Navy and Coast Guard (the Navy and Coast Guard discontinued the rank of warrant officer, WO-1, in 1975). Additionally, midshipmen rank below warrant officer (W-1) in the Marine Corps and the Army, and below second lieutenant (O-1) in the Air Force (the Air Force ceased appointing warrant officers in 1959 and the last USAF WO died in 2008).
A member of the entering class—the fourth class, the lowest rank of midshipmen—is also known as a "plebe" (plural plebes). Because the first year at the Academy is one of transformation from a civilian into a military officer, plebes must conform to a number of rules and regulations not placed on their seniors—the upper three classes of midshipmen—and have additional tasks and responsibilities that disappear upon promotion to midshipman third class.
Third class midshipmen have been assimilated into the brigade and are treated with more respect because they are upperclassmen. They are commonly called "youngsters." Because of their new stature and rank, the youngsters are allowed such privileges as watching television, listening to music, watching movies, and napping.
Second class midshipmen are charged with training plebes. They report directly to the first class, and issue orders as necessary to carry out their responsibilities. Second class midshipmen are allowed to drive their own cars (but may not park them on campus) and are allowed to enter or exit the Yard (campus) in civilian attire (weekends only).
First class midshipmen have more freedoms and liberty in the brigade. While they must participate in mandatory sports and military activities and maintain academic standards, they are also charged with the leadership of the Brigade. They are commonly called "firsties". Firsties are allowed to park their cars on campus and have greater leave and liberty privileges than any other class.
The Brigade is divided into two regiments of three battalions each. Five companies make up each battalion, for a total of 30 companies. The midshipman command structure is headed by a first class midshipman known as the brigade commander, chosen for outstanding leadership performance. He or she is responsible for much of the brigade's day-to-day activities as well as the professional training of midshipmen. Overseeing all brigade activities is the commandant of midshipmen, an active-duty Navy captain or Marine Corps colonel. Working for the commandant, experienced Navy and Marine Corps officers are assigned as company and battalion officers.
Midshipmen at the Academy wear service dress uniforms similar to those of U.S. Navy officers, with shoulder-board and/or sleeve insignia varying by school year or midshipman officer rank. All wear gold anchor insignia on both lapel collars of the service dress blue jacket. Shoulder boards, worn on summer white, service/full dress white, and dinner dress white uniforms as well as a "soft shoulder board" version on the white, button-up shirt of the service/full dress blue uniform have a gold anchor and a number of slanted stripes indicating year, except for midshipman first class whose have a single, horizontal stripe and midshipman officers (also first class), whose shoulder boards have a small gold star in place of the anchor and have 1 through 6 horizontal stripes indicating their position.
On the winter and summer working uniform shirt, a freshman (Midshipman Fourth Class or "plebe") wears no collar insignia, a sophomore (Midshipman Third Class or "Youngster") wears a single fouled anchor on the right collar point, a Junior (Midshipman Second Class) fouled anchors on each collar point, and a Senior (Midshipman First Class or "Firstie") wears fouled anchors with perched eagles. First class midshipmen in officer billets replace those devices with their respective midshipman officer collar insignia.
Midshipman officer collar insignia are a series of gold bars, from the rank of Midshipman Ensign (one bar or stripe) to Midshipman Captain (six bars or stripes) in the Brigade of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy.
Depending on the season, midshipmen wear Summer Whites or Service Dress Blues as their dress uniform, and summer working blues or winter working blues as their daily class uniform. In 2008, the first class midshipmen wore the service khaki as the daily uniform, but this option was repealed following the graduation of the class of 2011. First class midshipmen may wear their service selection uniform on second semester Fridays (i.e., naval aviator and naval flight officer selectees wear flight suits; submarine and surface warfare selectees wear coveralls or Navy Working Uniforms with their new command ballcaps; Marine Corps selectees wear MARPAT camouflage utilities). A unique uniform consisting of a Navy blue double-breasted jacket with brass buttons and high collar, blue or white high-rise trousers (white worn during Graduation Week), and duty belt with silver NA buckle, is worn for formal parades during spring and autumn parade seasons.
During commissioning week (formerly known as "June week"), the uniform is summer whites.
The campus (or "Yard") has grown from a 40,000 square metres (9.9 acres) Army post named Fort Severn in 1845 to a 1.37 square kilometres (340 acres), or 1,375,640 square metres (339.93 acres), campus in the 21st century. By comparison, the United States Air Force Academy is 73 square kilometres (18,000 acres) and United States Military Academy is 65 square kilometres (16,000 acres).
Halls and principal buildings
- Bancroft Hall is the largest building at the Naval Academy and the largest college dormitory in the world. It houses all midshipmen. Open to the public are Memorial Hall, a midshipman-maintained memorial to graduates who have died during military operations, and the Rotunda, the ceremonial entrance to Bancroft Hall. The Commander-in-Chief's Trophy resides in the Rotunda while Navy is in possession of it. It was named for the Academy's founder, Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, and designed by Ernest Flagg.
- The Naval Academy Chapel, at the center of the campus, across from Herndon Monument, has a high dome that is visible throughout Annapolis. Designed by Ernest Flagg. The chapel was featured on the U.S. Postal Service postage stamp honoring the Academy's 150th anniversary in 1995. John Paul Jones lies in the crypt beneath the chapel. Tradition states that if a plebe can place a midshipman cover (hat) on top of the chapel, plebe year will be over for all Fourth Class midshipmen. This tradition, however, is considered dangerous and is discouraged by the Academy.
- Commodore Uriah P. Levy Center and Jewish Chapel, primarily funded with private donations, was dedicated on 23 September 2005. The chapel was named for Commodore Uriah P. Levy and houses a Jewish chapel, the honor board, ethics,[clarification needed] character learning center, officer development spaces, a social director, and academic boards. Built featuring Jerusalem stone, the architecture of the exterior is consistent with nearby Bancroft Hall.
- Alumni Hall is the primary assembly hall for the Brigade of Midshipmen and has two dining facilities. It hosts various sporting events (including the men's and women's intercollegiate basketball games) and is used by alumni for reunions. The Bob Hope Performing Arts Center is located there.
- archives – see Nimitz Library (below)
- Armel-Leftwich Visitor Center—inside Gate 1 and attached to the Halsey Field House—houses the USNA Guide Service, the USNA Gift Shop, a 12-minute film, and various exhibits, including the Graduates in Space exhibit, a sample midshipman's room, a model of the USS Maryland (BB-46), and an exhibit on the life and times of John Paul Jones, who is buried in the crypt beneath the Naval Academy Chapel. Walking tours include five types of adult tours and two types of student tours.
- Athletic Hall of Fame – see Lejeune Hall (below)
- Chauvenet Hall, housing the departments of mathematics, physics, and oceanography, was named for William Chauvenet, an early professor at the US Naval Academy.
- Dahlgren Hall contains a large multi-purpose room and a restaurant area. It was once used as an armory for the Academy and for drill purposes. It was named for John A. Dahlgren.
- The Dyer Tennis Clubhouse is used by the tennis team and contains locker rooms, offices, a racquet stringing room, a lounge, and a viewing deck overlooking the tennis courts. It was named for Vice Admiral George Dyer (Class of 1919).
- Halsey Field House contains an indoor track, squash and tennis courts, five basketball courts, a 65 tatami dojo for Aikido/Judo, a climbing wall, and assorted athletic and workout facilities and offices. Before construction of Alumni Hall, it was used by Navy basketball teams and was the site of midshipman assemblies. It was named for William F. Halsey, Jr.
- Hubbard Hall – used by the crew team – is a three-story building on Dorsey Creek, 250 yards (230 m) from the Severn River. Also known as the Boat House, it was renovated in 1993 and now includes the Fisher Rowing Center. It was named for Rear Admiral John Hubbard (Class of 1870).
- King Hall is the dining hall that seats the Brigade of Midshipmen together at one time. It was named for Ernest J. King. Daily fare ranges from eggs, to sandwiches, to prime rib and the annual crab feast.
- Lejeune Hall, built in 1982, contains an Olympic-class swimming pool and diving tower, a mat room for wrestling and hand-to-hand martial arts, and the Athletic Hall of Fame. Named for John A. Lejeune, it is the first USNA building to be named for a Marine Corps officer.
- Library – see Nimitz Library (below)
- Luce Hall, housing the departments of Professional Development and Leadership, Ethics, and Law, was named for Stephen Luce.
- MacDonough Hall contains a full-scale gymnastics area, two boxing rings, and alternate swimming pools. It was named for Thomas MacDonough.
- Mahan Hall contains a theater along with the old library in the Hart Room, which has now been converted into a lounge and meeting room. It was named for Alfred Thayer Mahan. Designed by Ernest Flagg.
- Maury Hall contains the departments of Weapons and Systems Engineering plus Electrical Engineering. It was named for Matthew Fontaine Maury. Designed by Ernest Flagg.
- Michelson Hall, housing the departments of Computer Science and Chemistry, was named for Albert A. Michelson, the first American to win the Nobel Prize in Physics.
- museum – see Preble Hall (below)
- The Nimitz Library contains the academy's library collection, the academy's archives (William W. Jeffries Memorial Archives), and the departments of Language Studies, Economics and Political Science. It was named for Chester W. Nimitz.
- The Officers' and Faculty Club and officers quarters spread around the Yard.
- Preble Hall houses the U.S. Naval Academy Museum. It was named for Edward Preble. It maintains a collection of Naval Academy class rings from 1869 through to the present. Tradition dictates that the first deceased class member's ring is donated to the museum to represent that class in the official class ring display.
- Ricketts Hall contains the basketball, football, and lacrosse offices, the locker room for the varsity football team, and one of the academy's three "strength and conditioning facilities," where Midshipman athletes train. It was named for Claude V. Ricketts.
- Rickover Hall houses the departments of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering. It was named for Hyman G. Rickover.
- The Robert Crown Sailing Center contains offices, team classrooms, locker rooms, and equipment repair and storage facilities. It also houses the ICSA College Sailing Hall of Fame. Also on display in the Hall are the Naval Academy's sailing trophies and awards.
- Sampson Hall, housing the departments of English and History, was named for William T. Sampson. Designed by Ernest Flagg.
- visitor center – see Armel-Leftwich Visitor Center (above)
- Wesley Brown Field House houses physical education, varsity sports, intramural athletics, club sports, and personal-fitness programs and equipment. The cross country and track and field teams, the sprint football team, the women's lacrosse team, and sixteen club sports all use this building. It has a full-length, retractable football field. When the field is retracted, you can then use the 200-meter track (with hydraulically controlled banked curves) and three permanent basketball courts. It also has eight locker rooms and a medical facility. It was named for Wesley A. Brown, Class of 1949, who was the Academy's first African American graduate.
Monuments and memorials
- Gokoku-ji Bell. A copy of the original bell which was brought back to the United States in 1855 by Commodore Matthew Perry following his mission to Japan. The bell is placed in front of Bancroft Hall and rung in a semi-annual ceremony for each victory that Navy has registered over Army, to include one of the nation's oldest football rivalries, the Army–Navy Game. The current bell is an exact replica of the original, which the United States Navy returned to the people of Okinawa in 1987.
- Tecumseh Statue. This statue is a bronze replica of the figurehead of ship-of-the-line USS Delaware. It was presented to the Academy by the Class of 1891. This bust, one of the most famous relics on the campus, is commonly known as Tecumseh. However, when it adorned the American man-of-war, it commemorated not Tecumseh but Tamanend, the revered Delaware chief who welcomed William Penn to America. The original wooden figurehead is in the Naval Academy fieldhouse. In times past, the bronze replica was considered a good-luck "mascot" for the midshipmen, who threw pennies at it and offered left-handed salutes whenever they wanted a 'favor', such as a sports win over West Point, spiritual help for examinations. It is also referred to as the god of 2.0 because 2.0 is the minimum passing GPA at USNA, and the mids offer pennies to Tecumseh to help achieve this. Today it is used as a morale booster during football weeks and on special occasions when Tecumseh is painted in themes to include super heroes, action heroes, humorous figures, a leprechaun (before Saint Patrick's Day) and a naval officer (during Commissioning Week).
- Battle ensigns. Famous flags of the U.S. Navy and captured flags from enemy ships are displayed throughout the academy. The most famous, perhaps, is the "Don't Give Up the Ship" flag flown by Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry at the Battle of Lake Erie on 10 September 1813; it bears the dying words of Captain James Lawrence, captain of the USS Chesapeake. It was displayed in Memorial Hall, which is in the portion of Bancroft Hall open to the general public until 2004. It underwent conservation and is now on display in the Museum in Preble Hall. The only British royal standard taken by capture was displayed in Mahan Hall. It was taken at Toronto (then York) in the War of 1812.
- Herndon Monument. The Monument was commissioned by the Officers of the U.S. Navy as a tribute to Commander William Lewis Herndon (1813–1857) after his loss in the Pacific Mail Steamer Central America during a hurricane off the North Carolina coast on 12 September 1857. Herndon had followed a longtime custom of the sea that a ship's captain is the last person to depart his ship in peril. It was erected in its current location on 16 June 1860 and has never been moved, even though the Academy was completely rebuilt between 1899 and 1908.
- Memorial Hall – in Bancroft Hall – is a midshipman-kept memorial to graduates who died during military operations. It includes an honor roll, scrolls, and plaques.
- Pearl Harbor memorial. At Alumni Hall, a wall is reserved by the Pearl Harbor Survivors Association to commemorate those who were killed during the attack on Pearl Harbor.
- Tripoli Monument – the oldest military monument in the U.S., honors the heroes of the First Barbary War: Master Commandant Richard Somers, Lieutenant James Caldwell, James Decatur (brother of Stephen Decatur), John Dorsey, Joseph Israel, and Henry Wadsworth. Originally known as the Naval Monument, it was carved of Carrara marble in Italy in 1806 and brought to the U.S. as ballast on board the USS Constitution ("Old Ironsides"). From its original location in the Washington Navy Yard, it was moved to the west terrace of the national Capitol and finally, in 1860, to the Naval Academy.
- USS Samuel B. Roberts memorial. In Alumni Hall, a concourse is dedicated to Lieutenant Lloyd Garnett and his shipmates aboard USS Samuel B. Roberts, who earned their ship the reputation as the "destroyer escort that fought like a battleship" in the Battle of Leyte Gulf during World War II.
- The Mexican War Midshipmen's Monument at the intersection of Stribling Walk (16,000 bricks) and Chapel Walk is in memory of one midshipman (Shubrick) who lost his life in the siege of Veracruz in 1847, and three midshipmen (Clemson, Hynson, Pillsbury) who lost their lives when the brig Somers sank in 1846.
- The Macedonian Monument, at the end of Stribling Walk opposite Mahan Hall, is the figurehead of HMS Macedonian. Macedonian was defeated in battle by the frigate United States 25 October 1812.
Brigade sports complex
The complex includes McMullen Hockey Arena where the men's ice-hockey team is located; rugby venues, an indoor hitting, chipping and putting facility for the golf team, and the Tose Family Tennis Center – including the Fluegel-Moore Tennis Stadium.
Cemetery and columbarium
Glenn Warner Soccer Facility
Terwilliger Brothers Field
The Academy baseball team plays at the Terwilliger Brothers Field at Max Bishop Stadium.
Supervision of the Academy
In 1850, the academy was placed under the jurisdiction of the Navy's Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography but was transferred to the Bureau of Navigation when that organization was established in 1862. The academy was placed under the direct care of the Navy Department in 1867, but for many years the Bureau of Navigation provided administrative routine and financial management.
Roughly 500 faculty members are evenly divided between civilian professors and military instructors. The civilian professors nearly all have a PhD and can be awarded tenure, usually upon promotion from assistant professor to associate professor. Fewer of the military instructors have a PhD but nearly all have a master's degree. Most of them are assigned to the Academy for only two or three years. Additionally, there are adjunct professors, hired to fill temporary shortages in various disciplines. The Adjunct Professors are not eligible for tenure.
- Permanent Military Professors (PMP)
A small number of officers at the Academy are designated as Permanent Military Professors (PMP), initially at the academic rank of Assistant Professor. All PMPs have PhDs, and remain at the Academy until statutory retirement. Most are commanders in the Navy; a few are captains. Like civilian professors, they seek academic promotion to the rank of Associate Professor and Professor. However, they are not eligible for tenure.
- Distinguished Visiting Professorships
The Class of 1957 Distinguished Chair of Naval Heritage is an academic professorial chair in the History Department. In order to preserve and promote a better understanding of professional naval heritage in midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, the Academy's Class of 1957 donated the funds to permanently endow this position. It is designed to be a visiting position for a distinguished senior academic historian, who is to hold the post for one or two years. The position was first occupied in 2006 and, in addition to teaching requirements, the occupant is expected to give the McMullen Seapower Lecture at the Academy's biennial McMullen Naval History Symposium.
- Williamson Murray, January 2006 – June 2007
- Andrew Gordon, August 2007 – June 2009
- Ronald H. Spector, August 2009 – June 2010
- John H. Schroeder, August 2010 – June 2011
- Craig Symonds, August 2011 – June 2012
- James C. Bradford. August 2012 – June 2013
- Gene Allen Smith, August 2013 – June 2014
- William F. Trimble, August 2014 - June 2015
- David Alan Rosenberg, August 2015 - June 2016
- Nicholas A. Lambert, August 2016 -
By an Act of Congress passed in 1903, two midshipman appointments were allowed for each senator, representative, and delegate in Congress, two for the District of Columbia, and five each year at large. Currently each member of Congress and the Vice President can have five appointees attending the Naval Academy at any time. When any appointee graduates or otherwise leaves the academy, a vacancy is created. Candidates are nominated by their senator, representative, or delegate in Congress, and those appointed at large are nominated by the Vice President. The applicants do not have to know their Congressman to be nominated. Congressmen generally nominate ten people per vacancy. They can nominate people in a competitive manner, or they can have a principal nomination. In a competitive nomination, all ten applicants are reviewed by the academy, to see who is the most qualified. If the congressman appoints a principal nominee, then as long as that candidate is physically, medically, and academically found qualified by the academy, he or she will be admitted, even if there are more qualified applicants. The degree of difficulty in obtaining a nomination varies greatly according to the number of applicants in a particular state. The process of obtaining a nomination typically consists of completing an application, completing one or more essays, and obtaining one or more letters of recommendation and often requires an interview either in person or over the phone. These requirements are set by the respective senator or congressman and are in addition to the USNA application.
The Secretary of the Navy may appoint 170 enlisted members of the Regular and Reserve Navy and Marine Corps to the Naval Academy each year. Additional sources of appointment are open to children of career military personnel (100 per year); and 65 appointments are available to children of military members who were killed in action, or were rendered 100% disabled due to injuries received in action, or are currently prisoners of war or missing in action. Typically five to ten candidates are nominated for each appointment, which are normally awarded competitively; candidates who do not receive the appointment they are competing for may still be admitted to the Academy as a qualified alternate. If a candidate is considered qualified but not picked up, they may receive an indirect admission to either a Naval Academy Foundation prep school or the Naval Academy Preparatory School in Newport; the following year, these candidates enlist in the Navy Reserve (or, in the case of prior enlisted members, remain in the Navy) and are eligible for Secretary of the Navy nominations, which are granted as a matter of course. To receive an appointment to the Naval Academy, students at the Naval Academy Preparatory School must first pass with a 2.2 QPA (A mix of GPA and Fitness Assessments), although this is waiverable. A candidate must receive a recommendation for appointment from the Commanding Officer. The appointment process has been criticized as giving preferential treatment towards athletes.
To be admitted, candidates must be between seventeen and twenty-three years of age upon entrance, unmarried with no children, and of good moral character. The current process includes a college application, personality testing, standardized testing, and personal references. Candidates for admission must also undergo a physical aptitude test (the CFA or Candidate Fitness Assessment [formerly the Physical Readiness Examination]) as well as a complete physical exam including a separate visual acuity test to be eligible for appointment. A medical waiver will automatically be sought on behalf of candidates with less than 20/20 vision, as well as a range of other injuries or illnesses. The physical aptitude test is most often administered by a high school physical education teacher or sports team coach.
A small number of international students, usually from smaller allied or friendly countries, are admitted into each class. (International students from larger allies, such as France and the United Kingdom, typically come as shorter-term exchange students from their national naval colleges or academies.) The Class of 2018 includes 13 international students from: Cambodia (1), Cameroon (2), Federated States of Micronesia (1), Georgia (1), Kazakhstan (1), Korea (1), Mexico (1), Montenegro (1), Nigeria (1), Senegal (1), Taiwan (1), and United Arab Emirates (1).
The Naval Academy received accreditation as an approved "technological institution" in 1930. In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law an act of Congress providing for the Bachelor of Science Degree for the Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. The Class of 1933 was the first to receive this degree and have it written in the diploma. In 1937, an act of Congress extended to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy the authority to award the Bachelor of Science degree to all living graduates. The Academy later replaced a fixed curriculum taken by all midshipmen with the present core curriculum plus 22 major fields of study.
Academic departments at the Naval Academy are organized into three divisions: Engineering and Weapons, known as Division I, Mathematics and Science, known as Division II, and Humanities and Social Sciences, known as Division III.
Moral and ethical development is fundamental to all aspects of the Naval Academy. From Plebe Summer through graduation, the Officer Development Program, a four-year integrated program, focuses on integrity, honor, and mutual respect based on the moral values of respect for human dignity, respect for honesty and respect for the property of others.
One of the goals of the program is to develop midshipmen to possess a sense of their own moral beliefs and the ability to express them. Honor is emphasized through the Honor Concept of the Brigade of Midshipmen, which states:
Midshipmen are persons of integrity: They stand for that which is right.
They tell the truth and ensure that the full truth is known. They do not lie.
They embrace fairness in all actions. They ensure that work submitted as their own is their own, and that assistance received from any source is authorized and properly documented. They do not cheat.
They respect the property of others and ensure that others are able to benefit from the use of their own property. They do not steal.
Similar ideals are expressed in the honor codes of the other service academies. However, midshipmen are allowed to confront someone they see violating the code without formally reporting it. It is believed that this method is a better way of developing the honor of midshipmen as opposed to the non-toleration clauses of the other service academies and is a better way of building honor and trust.
Brigade Honor Committees composed of upper-class midshipmen are responsible for the education and training of the Honor Concept. Depending on the severity of the offense, midshipmen found in violation of the Honor Concept by their peers can be separated from the Naval Academy.
Since 1961, the Academy has hosted the annual Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference (NAFAC), the country's largest undergraduate, foreign-affairs conference. NAFAC provides a forum for addressing pressing international concerns and seeks to explore current issues from both a civilian and military perspective.
Each year a unique theme is chosen for NAFAC. Noteworthy individuals with expertise in relevant fields are then invited to address the conference delegates, who represent civilian and military colleges from across the United States and around the globe.
The entire conference is organized and run by midshipmen, who also serve as moderators, presenters, and delegates. The midshipman director is responsible for every aspect of the conference, including the conference theme, and is generally charged with leading a staff of over 250 midshipmen.
The Naval Academy Science and Engineering Conference (NASEC), hosted annually since 2000, is an undergraduate STEM conference. Held in November each year, approximately 45 midshipmen join 150 attendees from other colleges and universities across the country meet and discuss significant science and engineering challenges. The delegates hear from leaders in scientific research and policy from academia, industry, and government, and participate in group discussions on the conference themes.
The conference serves as both a leadership opportunity for the midshipmen staff who organize and run the event, and as a venue to expose midshipmen to cutting edge science and engineering challenges.
Since 1973, the Naval Academy has hosted a major international conference for naval historians. In 2006 it was named after Dr. John J. McMullen, USNA Class of 1940.
Small Satellite Program
The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Small Satellite Program (SSP) was founded in 1999 to actively pursue flight opportunities for miniature satellites designed, constructed, tested, and commanded or controlled by midshipmen.
Because the majority of graduates commence directly into their military commissions, the Naval Academy offers no graduate degree programs. However, a number of programs allow midshipmen to obtain graduate degrees before fulfilling their service obligation. The Immediate Graduate Education Program (IGEP) allows newly commissioned Ensigns or Second Lieutenants to proceed directly to graduate school and complete a master's degree. The Voluntary Graduate Education Program (VGEP) allows the midshipman to begin his studies the second semester of his senior year at a local university, usually University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, or George Washington University, and complete the degree by the following semester. Midshipmen accepted into prestigious scholarships, such as the Rhodes Scholarship are permitted to complete their studies before fulfilling their service obligation. Finally, the Bowman Scholarship allows Navy Nuclear Power candidates to complete master's degrees at the Naval Postgraduate School before continuing into the Navy.
Participation in athletics is, in general, mandatory at the Naval Academy and most midshipmen not on an intercollegiate team must participate actively in intramural or club sports. There are exceptions for non-athletic Brigade Support Activities such as YP Squadron (a professional surface warfare training activity providing midshipmen the opportunity to earn the Craftmaster Badge) or the Drum and Bugle Corps.
The U.S. Naval Academy's varsity sports teams have no official name but usually are referred to in media as "the Midshipmen" (since all athletes are, in fact, midshipmen), or more informally as "the Mids". The term "middies" is generally considered derogatory. The sports teams' mascot is a goat named "Bill."
The Midshipmen participate in the NCAA's Division I FBS as a member of the American Athletic Conference in football and in the NCAA Division I-level Patriot League in many other sports. The academy fields 30 varsity sports teams and 13 club sports teams (along with 19 intramural sports teams).
The most important sporting event at the academy is the annual Army–Navy Game, in football. The 2015 season marks Navy's 14th consecutive victory over Army. The three major service academies (Navy, Air Force, and Army) compete for the Commander-in-Chief's Trophy, which is awarded to the academy that defeats the others in football that year (or retained by the previous winner in the event of a three-way tie). Navy won the trophy in 2012 after two years of residence at the Air Force Academy. Keenan Reynolds (Quarterback 2012-2015) set numerous Navy and NCAA records, including the FBS career rushing touchdown record, arguably becoming Navy's best quarterback ever. Reynolds finished fifth in the prestigious Heisman Trophy voting. In the Army-Navy rivalry, Reynolds became the first quarterback to beat Army in four seasons.
Naval Academy sports teams have many accomplishments at the international and national levels. In 1926, Navy's football team won the U.S. national championship based on both the Boand and Houlgate mathematical poll systems. and the Navy men's lacrosse team won 21 USILL or USILA national championships and was the NCAA Division I runner-up in 1975 and 2004. The men's fencing team won NCAA Division I championships in 1950, 1959, and 1962 and was runner-up in 1948, 1953, 1960, and 1963, and NCAA Division I championships were also earned by the 1945 men's outdoor track and field team and the 1964 men's soccer team.
The Academy lightweight crew won the 2004 National Championship. The lightweights are accredited with two Jope Cup Championships as well, finishing the Eastern Sprints with the highest number of points in 2006 and 2007. The college's heavyweight crew won Olympic gold medals in men's eights in 1920 and 1952, and from 1907 to 1995 at Intercollegiate Rowing Association regatta the team earned 30 championships. In intercollegiate shooting, the Naval Academy has won nine National Rifle Association rifle team trophies, seven air pistol team championships, and five standard pistol team titles. Navy's squash team was the national nine-man team champion in 1957, 1959, and 1967, and the boxing team was National Collegiate Boxing Association champion in 1987, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 2005.
There is an unofficial (but previous National Champion) croquet team. Legend has it that in the early 1980s, a Mid and a Johnnie (slang for a student enrolled at St. John's College, Annapolis), were in a bar and the Mid challenged the Johnnie by stating that Midshipmen could beat St. John's at any sport. The St. John's student selected croquet. Since then, thousands attend the annual croquet match between St. John's and the 28th Company of the Brigade of Midshipmen (originally the 34th Company before the Brigade was reduced to 30 companies). As of 2017, the Midshipmen had a record of 7 wins and 28 losses to the St John's team.
- See also: #A selection of Naval Academy traditions (below)
Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games is: "Anchors Aweigh", the United States Naval Academy fight song. According to "College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology" published in 1998, "Anchors Aweigh" ranks as the fifth greatest fight song of all time. "Blue and Gold" is the name of Naval Academy's Alma Mater.
Other extra-curricular activities
Midshipmen have the opportunity to participate in a broad range of other extracurricular activities including musical performance groups (Drum & Bugle Corps, Men's Glee Club, Women's Glee Club, Gospel Choir, an annual musical, a midshipman orchestra, and a bagpipe band, the Pipes & Drums), religious organizations, academic honor societies such as Omicron Delta Epsilon (an economics honor society), Campus Girl Scouts, the National Eagle Scout Association, a radio station (WRNV), and Navy and Marine Corps professional activities (diving, flying, seamanship, and the Semper Fidelis Society for future Marines). The midshipman theatrical company, The Masqueraders, put on one production annually in Mahan Hall. There is an intercollegiate debate team. Colleges from along the East Coast attend the annual U.S. Naval Academy Debate Tournament. Midshipmen also participate in the Sandhurst Competition, a military skills event.
The Brigade began publishing a humor magazine called The Log in 1913. This magazine was discontinued in 2001 but returned to print in the fall of 2008. Among The Log's usual features were "Salty Sam," an anonymous member of the senior class who served as a gossip columnist, and the "Company Cuties," photos of male midshipmen's girlfriends. (This last was deemed offensive to women, and despite attempts to incorporate the boyfriends of female midshipmen in some issues, the "Company Cuties" were dropped from The Log's format by 1991.) The Log was once featured in Playboy Magazine for its parody of the famous periodical, called "Playmid." "Playmid" was an issue of The Log in 1989 and was ordered destroyed by Rear Admiral Virgil I. Hill, the Academy Superintendent at the time, but a handful of copies did survive, including the one which later showed. Earlier Log attempts to parody were much more successful, with the 18 April 1969, version as the most famous; some sections of this issue can be seen online at an alumni website. In September 1949, the Log began publishing a half-sized Splinter bi-weekly, to alternate with its larger sized publication.
The Naval District Washington-Naval Support Activity Annapolis Police Department is a full DOD law enforcement agency. It is composed of both DoD Department of Navy Civilian Police, and Navy Masters-at-Arms who are responsible for policing the US Naval Academy complex. They enforce Maryland, federal and military law and local instructions, offer assistance to those in need, and provide a visible deterrent for criminal activity.
The Naval Academy first accepted women as midshipmen in 1976, after Congress authorized the admission of women to all of the service academies. Women account for about 22 percent of entering plebes. They pursue the same academic and professional training as do their male classmates, except that certain physical aptitude standards for women are lower than for men, mirroring the standards of the Navy itself. Women have most recently composed about 17 percent of each graduating class, however this number continues to rise. The first pregnant midshipman graduated in 2009. While regulations expressly forbade this, the woman was able to receive a waiver from the Department of the Navy.
In 2006, Michelle J. Howard, class of 1982, became the first female graduate of the Naval Academy to be selected for admiral; she was also the first admiral from her class. Margaret D. Klein, class of 1981, became the first female commandant of midshipmen in December 2006.
Following the 2003 U.S. Air Force Academy sexual assault scandal and due to concern with sexual assault in the U.S. military the Department of Defense was required to establish a task force to investigate sexual harassment and assault at the United States military academies in the law funding the military for fiscal 2004. The report, issued 25 August 2005 showed that during 2004 50% of the women at Annapolis reported instances of sexual harassment while 99 incidents of sexual assault were reported. There had been an earlier incident in 1990 which involved male midshipmen chaining a female midshipman to a urinal and then taking pictures of her after she threw a snowball at them.
Academy Superintendent Vice Admiral Rodney Rempt issued a statement: "With the benefit of the Defense Task Force's assessment and recommendations, we will continue to strive to establish a climate which encourages reporting of these incidents, so we can support the victim and deal with allegations fairly and appropriately. The very idea that any member of the Naval Academy family could be part of an environment that fosters sexual harassment, misconduct, or even assault is of great concern to me, and it is contrary to all we are trying to do and achieve. Preventing and deterring this unacceptable behavior is a leadership issue that I and all the Academy leaders take to heart. The public trusts that the Service Academies will adhere to the highest standards and that we will serve as beacons that exemplify character, dignity and respect. We will increase our efforts to meet that trust." Superintendent Rempt was criticized in 2006 for not allowing former Navy quarterback Lamar Owens to graduate, despite his acquittal on a rape charge. Some alumni have attributed this to an overeagerness on Rempt's part to placate critics urging a crackdown on sexual assault and harassment.
In 1979, James H. Webb published a provocative essay opposing the integration of women at the Naval Academy titled "Women Can't Fight." Webb was an instructor at the Naval Academy in 1979 when he wrote the article for Washingtonian magazine that was critical of women in combat and of them attending the service academies. The article, in which he referred to the dorm at the Naval Academy that housed 4,000 men and 300 women as "a horny woman's dream," was written three years after the Academy admitted women. Webb said he did not write the headline.
On 7 November 2006, Webb was elected to the U.S. Senate from Virginia. His election opponent, then senator George Allen, raised the 1979 article as a campaign issue, depicting Webb as being opposed to women in military service. Webb's response read in part, "To the extent that my writings subjected women at the Academy or the active armed forces to undue hardship, I remain profoundly sorry." He then went on to assert: "I am completely comfortable with the roles of women in today's military." In a political advertisement for Allen five female graduates of the United States Naval Academy had said the article helped foster an air of hostility and harassment towards females within the academy.
The Navy Secretary Ray Mabus on 21 December 2012, issued a statement of shame over a recent sexual abuse study which showed the nation's service academies continue to have trouble maintaining safe teaching environments regarding sexual abuse. Reported sexual assaults the prior year declined from 22 to 13 at Annapolis. The former Superintendent, Vice Admiral Mike Miller, enforced a new academy policy, as of January 2013, related to training, victim support, campus security, leadership presence on weekends, and a general review of alcohol policy based on other information in the recent report which shows the actual number of sexual assaults has not declined and that offenses are not reported.
Problems playing these files? See media help.
Traditions are practices handed down from class to class at the Academy. Many have been recorded over the years in academy publications. Some are as old as a century or more. But few have persisted totally unchanged, as the Academy has adapted to the times.
- Anchors Aweigh is a popular song written historically at the Naval Academy, subsequently coming to stand for the entire United States Navy. The lyrics are by Midshipman Alfred H. Miles, set to music by 2nd Lieutenant Zimmerman, USMC, bandmaster of the Naval Academy Band starting in 1887. After writing "Anchors Aweigh" they dedicated it to the Class of 1907. The song is sung during sporting events, pep rallies, and played by the Drum and Bugle Corps during noon meal formations. Members of the Navy and Marine Corps, unless marching, are supposed to come to attention while it is playing. The original verse (quoted below) is learned by midshipmen as plebes.
- "Beat Army" is a stock phrase, most often said in the autumn before the Army-Navy Football Game to which it refers. It is generally used in a traditional or ad hoc authoritative context, such as after the singing of the Academy's Alma Mater, "Blue and Gold," at a rally. As an example of an ad hoc context, midshipmen officers with the approval of commanding officers may require it to be spoken smartly by plebes while squaring corners.
- "Blue and Gold" is the name of Naval Academy's Alma Mater. The song is sung at the conclusion of every sporting event, at the end of pep rallies and at alumni gatherings. It is also sung in most companies by the plebes at the conclusion of the day; this event is also referred to as "Blue and Gold," which is a short gathering to review the day for better or worse with the upperclass midshipmen. The original lyrics are:
- The second verse is sung at each graduation and commissioning ceremony and is often performed by the Glee Clubs.
- The wording of the first and third lines was changed slightly in 2004 to make them gender neutral. The current first stanza is:
- Cover Toss – At the end of graduation the new ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps (typically) discard their now obsolete midshipman covers (hats) by tossing them into the air to celebrate change of status. Various additional practices have included putting a small sum of money inside the cover for the benefit of children attending, or putting one's name and address inside to receive a letter and cake. The Cover Toss tradition started in 1912.
- Goat Court refers to either of two light wells inside the third and fourth wings of Bancroft, lined with five stories of room windows. The bottoms, forming a roof over the basement, feature large HVAC units. Policies of assignment to the more desirable, outside rooms have varied, but generally rank is the chief consideration.
- Herndon Monument Climb – a year-end informal ritual (analogous to the "cover toss" at graduation) marking the passage from plebe to third-classman. The new upperclassmen raise a classmate to the top of the monument to replace a dixie cup sailor cover with the combination cover traditional to midshipmen. For the event, Herndon is covered with lard. Only teamwork will result in the changing of caps. In 2008, the dixie cup removed and the cover placed belonged to Midshipman Kristen Dickmann, Class of 2011, who had died a few days previously. These were the first women's caps used for the Climb.
- Jimmy Legs. In modern USNA contexts, a disallowed slang term referring to any or all of the NDW-NSA Annapolis Police Department (see above), who provide security for the grounds, and enforcement for some of the regulations, such as the one forbidding town visits over the wall (whether wall or chain-link fence) at night. This is not a legitimate "salty" term; that is, a bona fide English word of antique provenience now used only in naval contexts.[note 1] Accordingly, its use was forbidden in the 1990s policy of "mutual respect" intended to help counter the confrontational crises of the period.
- The Laws of the Navy – a didactic poem written in the classical high style containing a number of four-line stanzas in dactylic trimeter. The imaginary character narrating the poem assumes the role of a wise senior officer offering advice to the junior officers of the wardroom on the appropriate attitudes to have and the appropriate way to behave aboard a ship, delivered in the form of twenty-seven "laws." The uninitiated should understand that "law" is entirely poetical and analogous, and that the "laws" are not and never were part of any regulatory code in or out of any of the world's navies. Furthermore, the advice is of little import in the operation and management of real ships in the real navy. That being so, the outsider might well wonder what is the point of making a tradition of the poem. It is in fact one of a number of set pieces used as an exercise in memory training, much as schoolboys in Britain sometimes memorize Macaulay's Horatius at the Bridge. Most of the other set pieces are totally whimsical, such as "Sir, sir, is a subservient word surviving from the surly days in old Serbia, when certain serfs, ....", etc. Since these exercises are memorized by all midshipmen, they serve as a unifying common heritage of Academy culture. The poem was composed by Rear Admiral Ronald Hopwood, Royal Navy, originally appearing in the Army and Navy Gazette, 23 July 1896. By the mid-1920s the poem began to be published in the USNA's Reef Points, the official midshipman handbook and training manual issued to all plebes during their induction.[note 2]
- Red Beach – the red tiled plaza behind Memorial Hall on top of the wardroom in between 5th and 6th wings of Bancroft Hall, used as a place of formation for part of the Brigade. It also serves as a place for restrictees to march tours. During warm weather this area in the past served as a place for midshipmen to sun bathe which is where the name "red beach" is derived.
- Ring Dance – held in May, this event is when the second class midshipmen receive their class rings at a formal dance complete with fireworks. The event is held in Dahlgren Hall. Traditionally, the Midshipman's date wears the ring around her/his neck, and the couple dips the ring in water from all seven seas.
- Salty Sam – is the personification of the reformation movement in the United States Navy through her Naval Academy graduates. Spiritually the first Salty Sam was perhaps the "natural leader of the navy's Young Turks" William Sims (Class of 1880), who became the leading reformer of the Navy, retiring as a full admiral.
Many of his letters today are relished not because of the reforms there advocated but because of the hilarious way he presented them ... he was addicted to poetry as a means of expression; he put forth his ideas in rhyme whenever possible, sometimes to the despair of his more serious fellows – but others were occasionally enticed to respond in kind. The war on paper could well be waged in poetry, he felt, for it at least kept the mind higher. The older and more senior he became, the more would he try to lighten the mood of his cohorts by humor in prose and poetry, though the latter, many said, became increasingly atrocious the more elevated its author's naval rank. Still it served its purpose admirably. As a junior officer it was a way to cloak his ideas in a patina of genteel wardroom horseplay, with the barb of criticism perfunctorily covered.— Capt. Edward L. Beach, USN
- In later years Salty Sam led the enlightenment of Sims through The Log at USNA. Salty Sam reflects the spirit of Sims by questioning today's paradigms to ready the Navy for the future. The secret and anonymous tradition of Salty Sam is to teach Midshipman to bridle criticism in the ways of Sims humor, but to seek to inspire change and reform through the argument of the obvious.
- The Steam Tunnels, also later known as the Ho Chi Minh trail are a network of underground brick-encased tunnels carrying steam pipes from the old Isherwood Hall, named after Benjamin F. Isherwood who served as the Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy during the American Civil War. The pipes carried steam to Bancroft Hall and Mahan Hall, primarily for heating the buildings. Adjuncts to the tunnels lead underground to the basement levels of Michelson Hall, Chauvenet Hall, and Rickover Hall. The tunnels serve as a natural infiltration route for midshipman pranks, especially during the week leading up to the Army-Navy football game. The original Isherwood Hall was located partially under the current Alumni hall and behind Mahan Hall toward the Nimitz Library. The Steam Plant was located under the front left of Rickover Hall and plaza, in the middle of the current 300 feet (91 m) tow-tank. The Steam Tunnels were left in place after Isherwood Hall was demolished.
The USNA Alumni Association defines "alumni" as graduates and former midshipmen who did not graduate, after the last Academy class of which they were a member has graduated. This policy to include non-graduates dates to 1931—during the Great Depression—when many midshipmen had to leave the Naval Academy to support their families.
Graduates include over 50 U.S. astronauts (including six who flew to the Moon[note 3]), more than from any other undergraduate institution in the U.S. Over 990 noted scholars in a variety of academic fields are Academy graduates, including 46 Rhodes Scholars and 24 Marshall Scholars. Additional notable graduates include one President of the United States (Jimmy Carter) who is also a Nobel laureate, one other Nobel Prize recipient (the first American scientist to win a Nobel Prize) and 73 Medal of Honor recipients.
"Shipmate", the official magazine of the USNA Alumni Association, is distributed worldwide to members of the Association and to midshipmen, parents, faculty, administrators, donors, legislators, and friends.
- Alumni House (United States Naval Academy)
- Annapolis Conference
- Annapolis (film)
- Confederate States Naval Academy
- Hispanics in the United States Naval Academy
- Hull classification symbol
- List of Superintendents of the United States Naval Academy
- Mace of Parliament of Upper Canada
- Naval Academy Band
- Naval Academy Bridge
- Naval Academy, Maryland
- Navy Blue and Gold (film)
- Philadelphia Naval Asylum
- U.S. Air Force Academy
- U.S. Coast Guard Academy
- U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
- U.S. Military Academy
- USNA Out
- The etymology remains unknown. The unsupported conjectures of random writers are of no scholarly merit. The appearance of the term in an anonymous midshipman ditty published in 1889 shows that it was established at least as early as then: "Adios Jimmy Legs, you chief of all spies, Adios Jimmy legs, on you there is no flies," to be found in Gibbs, G.F. (1889). Junk: a collection of songs and poems by cadets at the United States Naval Academy. Washington, D.C.: Patentee Publishing Company. The pages are not numbered. A nautical encyclopedia of the times defines Jimmy Legs as "A sobriquet for the master-at-arms," Hamersly, LR (1884). "Jimmy Legs". A naval encyclopædia: comprising a dictionary of nautical words and phrases biographical notices, and records of naval officers; special articles of naval art and science. Philadelphia: L.R. Hamersly & Co.
- Reef points on a sailing vessel are short pieces of line used to tie the bottom of the mainsail to the boom or spar so as to shorten the sail during a storm, diminishing the force on it and helping it to get through the gale without breakage of sail or mast. The publication, Reef Points, contains information the midshipman will need to get through the storm of plebe year. As part of memory training the plebe is asked to memorize stock pieces for instant recital on demand including some or all of the Laws of the Navy. Reef points is a pocket-sized volume sturdily bound. Past issues tend to be rare books. New ones must be issued or purchased. In imitation, some institutions issue their own "Reef Points."
- Jim Lovell, Bill Anders and Tom Stafford orbited the Moon, and Alan Shepard, Jim Irwin and Charlie Duke were three of the twelve astronauts who walked on the Moon.
- National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- Marilynn Larew (28 July 1977). "National Historic Register of Historic Places Nomination Form" (PDF). National Park Service. and Accompanying photos
- "United States Naval Academy". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- Toll Brothers. "History Meets Modern Luxury".
- "Colleges with the highest-paid grads". CNN.
- "Colleges Rankings - United States Naval Academy". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2017-07-02.
- "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. 5 July 2016.
- "Children of Medal of Honor Awardees".
- "Nomination Sources".
- "Class of 2020 Statistics".
- "Class Portrait 2020" (PDF).
- "Midshipmen Pay and Benefits". U.S. Naval Academy. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- "Class of 2017 Statistics".
- "USNA Alumni Association and Foundation". March 2014.
- Benjamin, Park (1900). The United States naval academy, being the yarn of the American midshipman, Naval Cadet. New York and London: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 349.
The whole is the design of the author, and was adopted by the Navy Department in 1898. Up to that year, the naval academy had possessed no authorized device, although it had printed on its registers an arbitrary symbol. The occasion which led to the adoption of the present design was the building of a new club-house by the University Club of New York, on the exterior of which the coats-of-arms of the several colleges were placed as an embellishment, and this brought the fact to general notice that the naval academy had no badge of the kind. The matter was at once taken up by Mr. Jacob W. Miller, of the class of 1867, and mainly through his endeavors the desired approval of the Navy Department was secured.
- Conrad 2003, p. 6
- Duchesneau, John T; Troost-Cramer, Kathleen (2014). Fort Adams: A History. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 44. ISBN 1-62619-528-5.
- "Echoes from Life In Camp".
- "Commandants". Usna.com. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Mathew Fontaine Maury: Benefactor of Mankind". History.navy.mil. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Cheevers, James (April 1995). "Shipmate article". Shipmate The United States Naval Academy. 58 (3): 23–26.
- "Sailing Vessel of War: The Career of the USS Dale - Tracy Lawson Author". tracylawsonbooks.com. 5 May 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "Black History Legends Nuggets". Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Schneller, Robert J. (2005). Breaking the Color Barrier: the U.S. Naval Academy's First Black Midshipmen And The Struggle for Racial Equality. New York: New York Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0814740132.
- Clare, Rod (July 2005). "The Sixth Wave: Black Integration in the U.S. Naval Academy". Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Albert A. Michelson - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "Register of alumni, graduates, and former naval cadets and midshipmen. 1916". HathiTrust. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- Ray, Thomas (October 1971). "Annapolis: The Navy's First Aerodrome". Proceedings Magazine. U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Shettle, Jr., M. L., "United States Naval Air Stations of World War II, Volume I: Eastern States", Schaertel Publishing Co., Bowersville, Georgia, 1995, Library of Congress card number 94-68879, ISBN 0-9643388-0-7, page 177.
- Poyer, David (March–April 2009). "The Most Kissed Man in America". Annapolis, Maryland: Shipmate. p. 41.
- Academy, United States Naval (12 January 2018). "Annual Register of the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md". Retrieved 12 January 2018 – via Google Books.
- Earle, Ralph; Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano) (12 January 2018). "Life at the U.S. Naval Academy; the making of the American naval officer". New York, London : G.P. Putnam's Sons. Retrieved 12 January 2018 – via Internet Archive.
- "About: History". U.S. Naval Academy Drum and Bugle Corps, U.S. Naval Academy.
- "Asian Pacific American Heritage Month". WindJammer. Commander, Fleet Activities, Okinawa. May 2008. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- Williams, Rudi (11 June 2002). "Asian/Pacific American Military Timeline". The Chinese Historical and Cultural Project. Archived from the original (Timeline) on 2009-01-30. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- The Midshipman Culture and Educational Reform. University of Delaware Press. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "5-cent Naval Academy Seal & Midshipmen". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- John Pike (15 May 1947). "Annapolis". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Doan, Lurita (2 August 2009). "On race, Harvard still must learn" (Newspaper editorial). Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 August 2009.; Fisher, Donald M. (2002). Lacrosse: A History of the Game. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6938-2.; Gup, Ted (12 December 2004). "Southern Discomfort" (Newspaper article). Boston Globe. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
- Butler FK (2004). "Closed-circuit oxygen diving in the U.S. Navy". Undersea Hyperb Med. 31 (1): 3–20. PMID 15233156. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Hawkins T (2000). "OSS Maritime". The Blast. 32 (1).
- "NSA Annapolis – About". Cnic.navy.mil. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Dunn, Robert F. (May–June 2011). "Early Aviation at Annapolis". Shipmate. 74 (4): 16.
- "African American Flag Officers in the US Navy". Department of the Navy. 4 September 2007. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "A brief history of USNA - Interactive USNA Historic Timeline". United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Poyer, David (August 2008). The Mystery of Tecumseh. Shipmate.
- "Trident Scholar Program". USNA.
- Washington Post, 6 June 2009, page B5, Obit:"Commander of First Vessel to Surface at North Pole"
- "Anderson v. Laird". Dc.findacase.com. 31 July 1970. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Capt. Gottschalk from the USNA Institutional Research office. Retrieved 31 May 2007
- Gates, Henry Louis (2011). Life upon these shores : looking at African American history, 1513-2008 (1st ed.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0307593428.
- Vogel, Steve (17 August 2007). "Naval Academy Sets Tough Wartime Rules". Washington Post. p. B01.
- "Notre Dame-Navy: More than football tradition". Media.www.ndsmcobserver.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "College Football Tradition". University of Notre Dame Official Athletic Site. 11 November 2005. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Brackin, William L. (1991). Naval Orientation (NAVEDTRA 12966). United States Navy Naval Education and Training Command. p. 9‑9. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "Insignias – Midshipman". Naval History & Heritage Command. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- U.S. Navy Regulations, Chapter 10: Precedence, Authority and Command, Section 1. Precedence, 1001. Officers of the Naval Service; 1002. Precedence of Officers; 1003. Relative Rank and Precedence of Officers of Different Services; Section 2. Authority, 1037. Authority of Warrant Officers, et al.; and Section 4. Succession to Command, 1085. Succession to Command by Chief Warrant Officers and Warrant Officers https://doni.documentservices.dla.mil/US%20Navy%20Regulations/Chapter%2010%20-%20Precedence,%20Authority%20and%20Command.pdf?Mobile=1&Source=%2F%5Flayouts%2Fmobile%2Fdispform%2Easpx%3FList%3D1070268d%2D94df%2D4f0e%2Db69a%2D44b7748dfaaa%26View%3Dbb2a5aed%2Dcd92%2D4b26%2D8ae9%2D52cf7160c004%26ID%3D25%26CurrentPage%3D1
- Army Regulation 600-20 Personnel-General: Army Command Policy, Chapter 1: Introduction, Table 1���2 Comparable grades among the Services, p. 5. http://sill-www.army.mil/sharp/_docs/documentation/AR%20600_20.pdf
- Warrant Officer Historical Foundation, Warrant Officer Programs of the Other U. S. Uniformed Services, U.S. Air Force http://www.warrantofficerhistory.org//WO_Prog_Other_Svc.htm
- "General Information of Midshipmen". U.S. Naval Academy. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
- "Brigade of Midshipmen". U.S. Naval Academy. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
- "Academy marks completion of Bancroft Hall renovation". The Baltimore Sun. 16 May 2003. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Annapolis Maryland Area Information". Azinet LLC.
- "The U.S. Naval Academy". KNLS American Highway. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008.
- "U.S. Naval Academy Chaplain Center". U.S. Naval Academy.
- "Postal Service Honors Naval Academy with a 150 Year Anniversary Commemorative Stamp". A Brief History of the United States Naval Academy. U.S. Naval Academy. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006.
- Rahman, Rema. "Plebe cover tops Naval Academy chapel". capitalgazette.com. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
- "Press Kit: Uriah P. Levy Center Dedication Ceremony 18 September 2005". U.S. Naval Academy. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007.
- Visitor Center webpage. USNA official website. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- See Navy Midshipmen#Facilities.
- See Facilities: Dyer Tennis Clubhouse. Naval Academy Varsity Athletics official website. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Halsey Field House. USNA Athletics website. Archived 9 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Hubbard Hall. US Naval Academy. Retrieved 28 May 2010. Archived 9 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Facilities: Lejeune Hall. Naval Academy Varsity Athletics official website. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Also in Lejeune Hall are two Heisman Trophies – won by Joseph Bellino in 1960 and Roger Staubach in 1963 – and the Eastman Award won by basketball-star David Robinson in 1987. Bailey, Steve (22 August 2008). "In Annapolis, Md., the Past Is Always at Hand". New York Times. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
- "United States Naval Academy Museum official webpage". 2 May 2002. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
- Facilities: Robert Crown Sailing Center. Naval Academy Varsity Athletics official website. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- Honan, William. "A 1465 Bell, War Booty, To Go Back To Okinawa." New York Times. 6 April 1991. Accessed 22 July 2008.
- Giovanni C Micali. "Tripoli Monument at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland". dcmemorials.com. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "Mexican War Midshipmen's Monument". Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "COMMANDANT OF MIDSHIPMEN". July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- McMullen Seapower Symposium Program for 2013
- "Apply For Nomination". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- Fleming, Bruce (20 May 2010). "The Academies' March Toward Mediocrity". The New York Times.
- "Admissions" (PDF). 2005–2006 USNA Catalog. U.S. Naval Academy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "USNA Class of 2018 profile" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Academic Education". United States Naval Academy. 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- "About USNA". Usna.edu. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Honor Concept". Brigade Honor Program website. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Academy. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference". Usna.edu. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "NASEC 2016 :: Academic Research :: USNA". www.usna.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-10.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-10.
- "USNA – Athletics Information". U.S. Naval Academy.
- The term "Middie" is not appropriate. Traditions: U.S. Naval Academy Facts, Figures and History (at "Nickname"). Naval Academy Varsity Athletics official website. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- "Wesley Brown Field House" Facts sheet. USNA Public Affairs Office. Athletics Department webpage (Naval Academy Varsity Athletics official website). Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Navy's Keenan Reynolds Extends Streak vs. Army". The New York Times. 13 December 2015.
- "Official 2007 NCAA Division I Football Record Book" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008.
- "Official 2002 NCAA Winter Championships Records Book" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008.
- "Division I Outdoor Track and Field History". NCAA.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008.
- "1964 Division I Men's Championship Bracket" (PDF). NCAA.org. p. 4. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- "U.S. Team Boatings – Men 1900–1979". Friends of Rowing History. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008.
- "Intercollegiate Rowing Association". Friends of Rowing History.
- "National Trophy Index". NRA. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012.
- "CSA Men's Team Championship Historical Information". College Squash Association. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008.
- "NCBA ��� National Collegiate Boxing Association". Collegeboxing.org. Archived from the original on 21 November 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Navy Midshipmen (history)". ncaaticketsnow.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2013.
- "The Capital". HometownAnnapolis.com. 19 April 2006. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012.
- Winters, Wendy (24 April 2006). "Johnnies Score an Easy Win Over Navy in Croquet". The Capital. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Croquet Fact Sheet". St. John's College. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
- "Ensemble Recordings". Music Department. USNA.
- "STAFF". WRNV. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008.
- "US Naval Academy | Political Science Department | Department Activities". Usna.edu. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Sandhurst 2010. Department of Military Instruction. U.S. Military Academy website. Retrieved 28 June 2010. Archived 27 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- "History :: The LOG :: USNA". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "The Life and Death of the Log: Part II" (PDF). Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Gelfand, H. Michael (University of Arizona) (April 2002). ""Revolutionary Change at Evolutionary Speed": Women and the United States Naval Academy". International Journal of Naval History. 1 (1). Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
- The Log parodied a national magazine once each year
- "Not Politically Correct". Homeport.
- "Splinter". the Log. 5 (16): 1–20. May 1955.
- "Security Department: Police". Website of the United States Naval Academy. United States Naval Academy. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
-  According to the Class Profiles published by the Academy, the percentage of women upon admission for the classes of 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 was 16, 16.7, 20.1, 19.3, and 22.2 percent, respectively "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
- "Pregnant midshipman was granted rare waiver". Navy Times.
- "Gender experts cite academy culture". Archived from the original on 2004-11-05.
- McCaffrey, Raymond; Vogel, Steve (17 December 2006). "Case Stirs Criticism of Naval Academy Chief". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/nathaniel-bach/jim-webbs-baggage_b_103203.html?page=4
- Allsep, Michael (2010). "The Odyssey of James Webb: An Adaptive Gender Perspective". In Parco, James E; Levy, David A. Attitudes Aren't Free: Thinking Deeply about Diversity in the US Armed Forces. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press. pp. 313–315.
- Hlad, Jennifer (21 December 2012). "Navy calls for changes after report on sex assaults at military academies". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- "Anchors Aweigh". Naval Academy Band. USNA. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- "Navy Blue & Gold". Parents of USNA Midshipmen. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Glossary of Navy Terms". Usna-parents.org. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "NAVspeak Glossary – Translations of Navy Slang for Parents of Midshipmen attending the US Naval Academy". Usna.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Hernandez, Nelson (16 May 2008). "Plebes Rise To Occasion As Tradition Carries On". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Fleming, B (2011). Annapolis Autumn: Life, Death, And Literature At The U.S. Naval Academy. New York: New Press. pp. 55–56.
- Hopwood, RA. "The Laws of the Navy". Department of the Navy - Naval Historical Center. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- "United States Naval Academy – Lucky Bag Yearbook (Annapolis, MD), Class of 1974, Page 707". E-yearbook.com. 10 July 1973. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Beach 1986, p. 387
- Beach 1986, p. 388
- "Bylaws of The United States Naval Academy Alumni Association, Inc". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22.
- "Shipmate Magazine". U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association and Foundation. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Chow, Jermyn (31 May 2012). "Singaporean is first foreigner to be tops at US naval academy". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
- "A Brief History of the United States Naval Academy". United States Naval Academy.
- Beach, Captain Edward L (1986). The United States Navy. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-03-044711-9.
- Conrad, James Lee (2003). Rebel Reefers: The Organization and Midshipmen of the Confederate States Naval Academy. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81237-1.
- Forney, Todd A (2004). The Midshipman Culture and Educational Reform: The U.S. Naval Academy, 1946–76. Associated U. Press. ISBN 0-87413-864-7.
- Gelfand, H. Michael. Sea Change at Annapolis: The United States Naval Academy, 1949–2000 U of North Carolina Press, 2006
- Hunter, Mark C. A Society of Gentlemen: Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, 1845–1861. Naval Institute Press, 2010. 264 pp.
- Karsten, Peter. The Naval Aristocracy: The Golden Age of Annapolis and the Emergence of Modern American Navalism. Free Press, 1972. 462 pp.
- Leeman, William P. The Long Road to Annapolis: The Founding of the Naval Academy and the Emerging American Republic (University of North Carolina Press; 2010) 292 pages
- Luce, Commodore S. B., U. S. Navy; Ward, Aaron, Lieutenant, U.S. Navy; Seabury, S., Lieutenant, U.S. Navy (illustrator) (1891). Text-Book of Seamanship: The Equipping and Handling of Vessels Under Sail or Steam for the Use of the United States Naval Academy (Revised and enlarged ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Company for U.S. Naval Academy/Smith & McDougal, Electrotypers/Historic Naval Ships Association.
- Ross MacKenzie. Brief Points: An Almanac for Parents and Friends of U.S. Naval Academy Midshipmen (2004)
- Scharf, J. Thomas. History of the Confederate States Navy: From its Organization to the Surrender of its Last Vessel. New York: Rogers and Sherwood, 1887; repr. The Fairfax Press, 1977.
- Todorich, Charles. The Spirited Years: A History of the Antebellum Naval Academy. Naval Institute Press, 1982. 215 pp.
- "U.S. Naval Academy." Athletics. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Jan. 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Naval Academy.|
- Official Website
- Calo, Mike (2008). "United States Naval Academy: Honor ... Courage... Commitment". Navpooh. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- "Navy Sports: The Official Web Site of Naval Academy Varsity Athletics". Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- United States Naval Academy (1907). Regulations of the United States Naval Academy. Part II: Interior Discipline and Government. Washington: Government Printing Office.
- United States Naval Academy, Anne Arundel County. Includes undated photo at Maryland Historical Trust of early academy.
- "On the Front Lines of Rising Seas: US Naval Academy, Maryland". Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Pratt, Tim (14 June 2017). "Storm causes flooding throughout Annapolis, Naval Academy". Capital Gazette. Annapolis, Maryland. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- Jane Cox; Dr. John L. Seidel (October 1994). "Legacy Resource Management Program Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey VOLUME III Map Analysis and Oral Histories" (PDF). Retrieved February 5, 2018.