|United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|
James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, San Francisco, California
|Established||March 3, 1891|
|Chief Judge||Sidney Runyan Thomas|
|Circuit justice||Anthony Kennedy|
- District of Alaska
- District of Arizona
- Central District of California
- Eastern District of California
- Northern District of California
- Southern District of California
- District of Hawaii
- District of Idaho
- District of Montana
- District of Nevada
- District of Oregon
- Eastern District of Washington
- Western District of Washington
It also has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts:
Headquartered in San Francisco, California, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships. The court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U.S. Court of Appeals Building, and Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U.S. Court of Appeals. Panels of the court occasionally travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, and cases from northern California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel.
History and background
|Year||Jurisdiction||Total population||Pop. as % of nat'l pop.||Number of active judgeships|
|1891||California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington||2,087,000||3.3%||2|
|1900||Territory of Hawaii added||2,798,000||3.7%||3|
|1960||Alaska and Guam added||22,607,000||12.6%||9|
|1980||Northern Mariana Islands added||37,170,000||16.4%||23|
The large size of the current court is due to the fact that both the population of the western states and the geographic jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit have increased dramatically since the U.S. Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1891. The court was originally granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.
The Ninth Circuit also had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943.[fn 1]
However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States.
The cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "[f]or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit." Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.
Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, Alaska, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope....It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we often are, or not interpreting them regularly, as we never do."
Allegations of liberalism
According to the most current count, the Ninth Circuit has among the highest percentage of sitting judges appointed by Democratic presidents. Republicans argue the court is biased because of its relatively high proportion of Democratic appointees.
Rate of overturned decisions
From 1999 to 2008, of the 0.151% of Ninth Circuit Court rulings that were reviewed by the Supreme Court, 20% were affirmed, 19% were vacated, and 61% were reversed; the median reversal rate for all federal appellate courts was 68.29% for the same period. From 2010 to 2015, of the cases it accepted to review, the Supreme Court reversed around 79 percent of the cases from the Ninth Circuit, ranking its reversal rate third among the circuits; the median reversal rate for all federal circuits for the same time period was around 70 percent.
Some argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases.
Size of the court
Critics of the Ninth Circuit claim there are several adverse consequences of its large size. Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus (depending on the rules of the particular court) any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. By contrast, in the Ninth Circuit it is impractical for 29 or more judges to take part in a single oral argument and deliberate on a decision en masse. The court thus provides for a “limited en banc review of a randomly selected 11 judge panel. This means that en banc reviews may not actually reflect the views of the majority of the court and indeed may not include any of the three judges involved in the decision being reviewed in the first place. The result, according to detractors, is a high risk of intracircuit conflicts of law where different groupings of judges end up delivering contradictory opinions. That is said to cause uncertainty in the district courts and within the bar. However, en banc review is a relatively rare occurrence in all circuits and Ninth Circuit rules provide for full en banc review in limited circumstances.
All recently proposed splits would leave at least one circuit with 21 judges, only two fewer than the 23 that the Ninth Circuit had when the limited en banc procedure was first adopted. In other words, after a split at least one of the circuits would still be using limited en banc courts.
In March 2007, Associate Justices Anthony Kennedy and Clarence Thomas testified before a House Appropriations subcommittee that the consensus among the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States was that the Ninth Circuit was too large and unwieldy and should be split.
Congressional officials, legislative commissions, and interest groups have all submitted proposals to divide the Ninth Circuit such as:
- Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Reorganization Act of 1993, H.R. 3654
- Final Report of the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals
- Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals of Reorganization Act of 2003, S. 562
- Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2003, H.R. 2723
- Ninth Circuit Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2004, S. 878 (reintroduced as the Ninth Circuit Judgeship and Reorganization Act of 2005, H.R. 211, and co-sponsored by House Majority Leader Tom DeLay)
- Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2005, S. 1845
- Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2007, S. 525.
Current composition of the court
As of January 1, 2017[update], the judges on the court are:
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|74||Chief Judge||Sidney Runyan Thomas||Billings, MT||1953||1996–present||2014–present||—||Clinton|
|57||Circuit Judge||Stephen Reinhardt||Los Angeles, CA||1931||1980–present||—||—||Carter|
|62||Circuit Judge||Alex Kozinski||Pasadena, CA||1950||1985–present||2007–2014||—||Reagan|
|76||Circuit Judge||Susan P. Graber||Portland, OR||1949||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|77||Circuit Judge||M. Margaret McKeown||San Diego, CA||1951||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|78||Circuit Judge||Kim McLane Wardlaw||Pasadena, CA||1954||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|79||Circuit Judge||William A. Fletcher||San Francisco, CA||1945||1998–present||—||—||Clinton|
|81||Circuit Judge||Ronald M. Gould||Seattle, WA||1946||1999–present||—||—||Clinton|
|82||Circuit Judge||Richard A. Paez||Pasadena, CA||1947||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|83||Circuit Judge||Marsha S. Berzon||San Francisco, CA||1945||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|84||Circuit Judge||Richard C. Tallman||Seattle, WA||1953||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|85||Circuit Judge||Johnnie B. Rawlinson||Las Vegas, NV||1952||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|87||Circuit Judge||Jay Bybee||Las Vegas, NV||1953||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|88||Circuit Judge||Consuelo María Callahan||Sacramento, CA||1950||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|89||Circuit Judge||Carlos Bea||San Francisco, CA||1934||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|90||Circuit Judge||Milan D. Smith, Jr.||El Segundo, CA||1942||2006–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|91||Circuit Judge||Sandra Segal Ikuta||Pasadena, CA||1954||2006–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|92||Circuit Judge||N. Randy Smith||Pocatello, ID||1949||2007–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|93||Circuit Judge||Mary H. Murguia||Phoenix, AZ||1960||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|94||Circuit Judge||Morgan Christen||Anchorage, AK||1961||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|95||Circuit Judge||Jacqueline Nguyen||Pasadena, CA||1965||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|96||Circuit Judge||Paul J. Watford||Pasadena, CA||1967||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|97||Circuit Judge||Andrew D. Hurwitz||Phoenix, AZ||1947||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|98||Circuit Judge||John B. Owens||San Diego, CA||1971||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|99||Circuit Judge||Michelle Friedland||San Jose, CA||1972||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|38||Senior Circuit Judge||Alfred Goodwin||Pasadena, CA||1923||1971–1991||1988–1991||1991–present||Nixon|
|39||Senior Circuit Judge||J. Clifford Wallace||San Diego, CA||1928||1972–1996||1991–1996||1996–present||Nixon|
|43||Senior Circuit Judge||Procter Ralph Hug Jr.||Reno, NV||1931||1977–2002||1996–2000||2002–present||Carter|
|46||Senior Circuit Judge||Mary M. Schroeder||Phoenix, AZ||1940||1979–2012||2000–2007||2012–present||Carter|
|48||Senior Circuit Judge||Joseph Jerome Farris||Seattle, WA||1930||1979–1995||—||1995–present||Carter|
|50||Senior Circuit Judge||Harry Pregerson||Woodland Hills, CA||1923||1979–2015||—||2015–present||Carter|
|53||Senior Circuit Judge||Dorothy Wright Nelson||Pasadena, CA||1928||1979–1995||—||1995–present||Carter|
|54||Senior Circuit Judge||William Cameron Canby, Jr.||Phoenix, AZ||1931||1980–1996||—||1996–present||Carter|
|65||Senior Circuit Judge||Diarmuid O'Scannlain||Portland, OR||1937||1986–2016||—||2016–present||Reagan|
|66||Senior Circuit Judge||Edward Leavy||Portland, OR||1929||1987–1997||—||1997–present||Reagan|
|67||Senior Circuit Judge||Stephen S. Trott||Boise, ID||1939||1988–2004||—||2005–present||Reagan|
|68||Senior Circuit Judge||Ferdinand Francis Fernandez||Pasadena, CA||1937||1989–2002||—||2002–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|71||Senior Circuit Judge||Andrew Jay Kleinfeld||Fairbanks, AK||1945||1991–2010||—||2010–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|72||Senior Circuit Judge||Michael Daly Hawkins||Phoenix, AZ||1945||1994–2010||—||2010–present||Clinton|
|73||Senior Circuit Judge||A. Wallace Tashima||Pasadena, CA||1934||1996–2004||—||2004–present||Clinton|
|75||Senior Circuit Judge||Barry G. Silverman||Phoenix, AZ||1951||1998–2016||—||2016–present||Clinton|
|80||Senior Circuit Judge||Raymond C. Fisher||Pasadena, CA||1939||1999–2013||—||2013–present||Clinton|
|86||Senior Circuit Judge||Richard R. Clifton||Honolulu, HI||1950||2002–2016||—||2016–present||G.W. Bush|
Vacancies and pending nominations
|Seat||Seat last held by||Vacancy reason||Date of vacancy||Nominee||Date of nomination|
|19||Harry Pregerson||Senior Status||December 11, 2015||–||–|
|13||Barry Silverman||Senior Status||October 11, 2016||–||–|
|10||Diarmuid O'Scannlain||Senior Status||December 31, 2016||Ryan Wesley Bounds||September 7, 2017|
|24||Richard R. Clifton||Senior Status||December 31, 2016||–||–|
|14||Richard C. Tallman||Senior Status||March 3, 2018||–||–|
List of former judges
|#||Judge||State||Born–died||Active service||Chief Judge||Senior status||Appointed by||Reason for
|1||Sawyer, LorenzoLorenzo Sawyer||California||1820–1891||1891–1891||—||—||Grant, Grant||death|
|2||McKenna, JosephJoseph McKenna||California||1843–1926||1892–1897||—||—||Harrison, B.B. Harrison||resignation to become U.S. Attorney General|
|3||Gilbert, William BallWilliam Ball Gilbert||Oregon||1847–1931||1892–1931||—||—||Harrison, B.B. Harrison||death|
|4||Ross, Erskine MayoErskine Mayo Ross||California||1845–1928||1895–1925||—||1925–1928||Cleveland, Cleveland||death|
|5||Morrow, William W.William W. Morrow||California||1843–1929||1897–1923||—||—||McKinley, McKinley||resignation|
|—||Hunt, William HenryWilliam Henry Hunt||Montana||1857–1949||1911–1928||—||1928–1928||||resignation|
|6||Rudkin, Frank H.Frank H. Rudkin||Washington||1864–1931||1923–1931||—||—||Harding, Harding||death|
|7||McCamant, WallaceWallace McCamant||Oregon||1867–1944||1925–1926||—||—||Coolidge, Coolidge||recess appointment not confirmed by the United States Senate|
|8||Dietrich, Frank SigelFrank Sigel Dietrich||Idaho||1863–1930||1927–1930||—||—||Coolidge, Coolidge||death|
|9||Wilbur, Curtis D.Curtis D. Wilbur||California||1867–1954||1929–1945||—||1945–1954||Hoover, Hoover||death|
|10||Sawtelle, William HenryWilliam Henry Sawtelle||Arizona||1868–1934||1931–1934||—||—||Hoover, Hoover||death|
|11||Garrecht, Francis ArthurFrancis Arthur Garrecht||Washington||1870–1948||1933–1948||—||—||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|12||Denman, WilliamWilliam Denman||California||1872–1959||1935–1957||1948–1957||1957–1959||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|13||Mathews, CliftonClifton Mathews||Arizona||1880–1962||1935–1953||—||1953–1962||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|14||Haney, Bert E.Bert E. Haney||Oregon||1879–1943||1935–1943||—||—||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|15||Stephens Sr., Albert LeeAlbert Lee Stephens Sr.||California||1874–1965||1937–1961||1957–1959||1961–1965||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|16||Healy, WilliamWilliam Healy||Idaho||1881–1962||1937–1958||—||1958–1962||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|17||Bone, HomerHomer Bone||Washington||1883–1970||1944–1956||—||1956–1970||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|18||Orr, William EdwinWilliam Edwin Orr||Nevada||1881–1965||1945–1956||—||1956–1965||Truman, Truman||death|
|19||Pope, Walter LyndonWalter Lyndon Pope||Montana||1889–1969||1949–1961||1959–1959||1961–1969||Truman, Truman||death|
|20||Lemmon, Dal MillingtonDal Millington Lemmon||California||1887–1958||1954–1958||—||—||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|21||Chambers, Richard HarveyRichard Harvey Chambers||Arizona||1906–1994||1954–1976||1959–1976||1976–1994||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|22||Fee, James AlgerJames Alger Fee||Oregon||1888–1959||1954–1959||—||—||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|23||Barnes, StanleyStanley Barnes||California||1900–1990||1956–1970||—||1970–1990||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|24||Hamley, Frederick GeorgeFrederick George Hamley||Washington||1903–1975||1956–1971||—||1971–1975||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|25||Hamlin Jr., Oliver DevetaOliver Deveta Hamlin Jr.||California||1892–1973||1958–1963||—||1963–1973||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|26||Jertberg, Gilbert H.Gilbert H. Jertberg||California||1897–1973||1958–1967||—||1967–1973||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|27||Merrill, Charles MertonCharles Merton Merrill||Nevada||1907–1996||1959–1974||—||1974–1996||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|28||Koelsch, Montgomery OliverMontgomery Oliver Koelsch||Idaho||1912–1992||1959–1976||—||1976–1992||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|29||Browning, James R.James R. Browning||California||1918–2012||1961–2000||1976–1988||2000–2012||Kennedy||death|
|30||Duniway, Benjamin C.Benjamin C. Duniway||California||1907–1986||1961–1976||—||1976–1986||Kennedy, Kennedy||death|
|31||Ely, Jr., Walter RaleighWalter Raleigh Ely, Jr.||California||1913–1984||1964–1979||—||1979–1984||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||death|
|32||Carter, James MarshallJames Marshall Carter||California||1904–1979||1967–1971||—||1971–1979||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||death|
|33||Hufstedler, ShirleyShirley Hufstedler||California||1925–2016||1968–1979||—||—||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||resignation to become U.S. Secretary of Education|
|34||Wright, Eugene AllenEugene Allen Wright||Washington||1913–2002||1969–1983||—||1983–2002||Nixon, Nixon||death|
|35||Kilkenny, JohnJohn Kilkenny||Oregon||1901–1995||1969–1971||—||1971–1995||Nixon, Nixon||death|
|36||Trask, Ozell MillerOzell Miller Trask||Arizona||1909–1984||1971–1984||—||—||Nixon, Nixon||death|
|37||Choy, HerbertHerbert Choy||Hawaii||1916–2004||1971–1984||—||1984–2004||Nixon, Nixon||death|
|40||Sneed III, Joseph TyreeJoseph Tyree Sneed III||California||1920–2008||1973–1987||—||1987–2008||Nixon, Nixon||death|
|41||Kennedy, AnthonyAnthony Kennedy||California||1936–present||1975–1988||—||—||Ford, Ford||elevated to Supreme Court|
|42||Anderson, J. BlaineJ. Blaine Anderson||Idaho||1922–1988||1976–1988||—||—||Ford, Ford||death|
|44||Tang, ThomasThomas Tang||Arizona||1922–1995||1977–1993||—||1993–1995||Carter, Carter||death|
|45||Betty Binns Fletcher||Washington||1923–2012||1979–1998||—||1998–2012||Carter||death|
|47||Otto Richard Skopil Jr.||Oregon||1919–2012||1979–1986||—||1986–2012||Carter||death|
|49||Arthur Lawrence Alarcon||California||1925–2015||1979–1992||—||1992–2015||Carter, Carter||death|
|51||Warren J. Ferguson||California||1920–2008||1979–1986||—||1986–2008||Carter, Carter||death|
|52||Poole, Cecil F.Cecil F. Poole||California||1914–1997||1979–1996||—||1996–1997||Carter, Carter||death|
|55||Boochever, RobertRobert Boochever||California||1917–2011||1980–1986||—||1986–2011||Carter||death|
|56||Norris, William AlbertWilliam Albert Norris||California||1927–2017||1980–1994||—||1994–1997||Carter, Carter||retirement|
|58||Beezer, Robert R.Robert R. Beezer||Washington||1928–2012||1984-1996||—||1996–2012||Reagan||death|
|59||Cynthia Holcomb Hall||California||1929–2011||1984–1997||—||1997–2011||Reagan||death|
|60||Wiggins, Charles E.Charles E. Wiggins||California||1927–2000||1984–1996||—||1996–2000||Reagan, Reagan||death|
|61||Brunetti, Melvin T.Melvin T. Brunetti||Nevada||1933–2009||1985–1999||—||1999–2009||Reagan, Reagan||death|
|63||Noonan Jr., John T.John T. Noonan Jr.||California||1926–2017||1985–1996||—||1996–2017||Reagan, Reagan||death|
|64||Thompson, David R.David R. Thompson||California||1930–2011||1985–1998||—||1998–2011||Reagan||death|
|69||Rymer, Pamela AnnPamela Ann Rymer||California||1941–2011||1989–2011||—||—||G.H.W. Bush||death|
|70||Nelson, Thomas G.Thomas G. Nelson||Idaho||1936–2011||1990–2003||—||2003–2011||G.H.W. Bush||death|
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
Succession of seats
The court has 29 seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were filled. Judges who retire into senior status remain on the bench but leave their seat vacant. That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president.
- The population of China is not included in the above chart for 1920 or 1940, since the Court for China lacked plenary jurisdiction over China's domestic population, then numbering about 430 million people; the court exercised only extraterritorial jurisdiction over the relatively small number of American citizens in China.
- David C. Frederick, Rugged justice: the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and the American West, 1891-1941, 0520083814, 9780520083813, University of California Press, 1994.
- See, e.g., Republic of China v. Merchants' Fire Ass'n of N.Y., 49 F.2d 862 (9th Cir. 1931). As the court noted, this bizarre insurance claim dispute arose directly from the "perplexing" civil war during China's warlord era, in which various groups of military officers claimed to be the representatives of the Republic's legitimate government.
- Kepner v. United States, 195 U.S. 100 (1904).
- White v. Samsung Elec. Am., Inc., 989 F.2d 1512, 1521 (9th Cir. 1993) (Kozinski, J., dissenting).
- Kleinfeld, Andrew J. (1998-05-22). Memo to the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals. URL Retrieved June 21, 2005.
- Bagley, Constance E.; Savage, Diane (2009). Managers and the Legal Environment: Strategies for the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 64. ISBN 9780324582048. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Landslide, Volume 2, Number 3, January/February 2010 by the American Bar Association.
- Carroll, Lauren (February 10, 2017). "No, the 9th Circuit isn't the 'most overturned court in the country,' as Hannity says". PolitiFact.
- Jerome Farris, The Ninth Circuit—Most Maligned Circuit in the Country Fact or Fiction? 58 Ohio St. L.J. 1465 (1997) (noting that, in 1996, the Supreme Court let stand 99.7 percent of the Ninth Circuit's cases).
- Carol J. Williams (July 18, 2011). "U.S. Supreme Court again rejects most decisions by the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- O'Scannlain, Diarmuid (October 2005). "Ten Reasons Why the Ninth Circuit Should Be Split" (PDF). Engage. 6 (2): 58–64. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 2, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2006.
- "Statement of Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski to the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts". U.S. House of Representatives. October 21, 2003. Archived from the original on September 26, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- Schroeder, Mary M.; et al. (April 2006). "A Court United: A Statement of a Number of Ninth Circuit Judges" (PDF). Engage. 7 (1): 63–66. Retrieved June 6, 2006.
- "America and the Courts," 48:28. C-SPAN, March 17, 2007.
- Eric J. Gribbin, 47 Duke L.J. 351, law.duke.edu
- Final Report, Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals, Dec. 18, 1998
- Testimony of Circuit Judge Richard Tallman: U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 26 October 2005. United States Senate: Committee on the Judiciary. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- Govtrack.us S. 525--110th Congress (2007): Circuit Court of Appeals Restructuring and Modernization Act of 2007, GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation): govtrack.us (Retrieved February 18, 2008)
- Sawyer was appointed as a circuit judge for the Ninth Circuit in 1869 by Ulysses S. Grant. The Judiciary Act of 1891 reassigned his seat to what is now the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
- Hunt did not have a permanent seat on this court. Instead, he was appointed to the ill-fated United States Commerce Court in 1911 by William Howard Taft. Aside from their duties on the Commerce Court, the judges of the Commerce Court also acted as at-large appellate judges, able to be assigned by the Chief Justice of the United States to whichever circuit most needed help. Hunt was assigned to the Ninth Circuit upon his commission.
- Recess appointment.
- President Coolidge first nominated Wilbur for the judgeship in the final days of his presidency, but the Senate failed to act on it before the 70tb Congress ended on March 3, 1929. "Wilbur Nominated for Judge Post," Woodland Daily Democrat, 1929-03-01 at p. 1 (noting, as the Coolidge Administration ended, that Coolidge nominated Wilbur for the new judgeship); "Sentence Cut Out by Hoover," Oakland Tribune, 1929-03-04, Section D, p. 1 (noting that the Wilbur nomination was not acted upon before the 70th Congress ended). Hoover then resubmitted the nomination to the Senate in the 71st Congress, which approved it.
- Court Security Improvement Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110-177 § 509(a)(2), 121 Stat. 2534, 2543, January 7, 2008
|Wikisource has original works on the topic: United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|
- United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
- This website includes links to the court's published and unpublished opinions, court-specific rules of appellate procedure, and general operating procedures.
- Ninth Circuit Library
- Recent opinions from FindLaw
- Federal Judicial Center
- Disposition of Supreme Court decisions on certiorari or appeal from state and territory supreme courts, and from federal courts of appeals, 1950-2006