In medieval British legend Trinovantum is the name given to London when, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, it was founded by the exiled Trojan Brutus, who called it Troia Nova ("New Troy"), which was gradually corrupted to Trinovantum. The legend says that it was later rebuilt by King Lud, who named it Caer Lud ("Lud's Fort") after himself, and this name became corrupted to Kaer Llundain, and finally London. This legend is part of the Matter of Britain.
The name Trinovantum derives from the Iron Age tribe of the Trinovantes, who lived in Essex, Suffolk and part of Greater London, and who are mentioned by Julius Caesar in his account of his expeditions to Britain in 55 and 54 BC. In a later account of these expeditions by Orosius, they are referred to as civitas Trinovantum, "the nation of the Trinovantes", with Trinovantum in this case being in the genitive plural. However, as civitas can also mean "city" and Latin neuter nouns often end in -um in the nominative singular, this phrase was misinterpreted by Geoffrey or his sources as "the city Trinovantum".
- Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae 1.17
- Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 5.20
- Orosius, Seven Books of History Against the Pagans 6.9 (Latin only)
- Clark, John (1981). "Trinovantum – the evolution of a legend". Journal of Medieval History. 7: 135–51. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90024-5.