Toomas Hendrik Ilves
|4th President of Estonia|
9 October 2006 – 10 October 2016
|Prime Minister||Andrus Ansip|
|Preceded by||Arnold Rüütel|
|Succeeded by||Kersti Kaljulaid|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
25 March 1999 – 28 January 2002
|Prime Minister||Mart Laar|
|Preceded by||Raul Mälk|
|Succeeded by||Kristiina Ojuland|
November 1996 – October 1998
|Prime Minister||Tiit Vähi|
|Preceded by||Siim Kallas|
|Succeeded by||Raul Mälk|
|Born||26 December 1953|
|Political party||Social Democratic Party (Before 2006)|
Toomas Hendrik Ilves (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈtoːmɑs ˈhendrik ˈilves]; born 26 December 1953) is an Estonian politician who served as the fourth President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016. Ilves worked as a diplomat and journalist, and he was the leader of the Social Democratic Party in the 1990s. He served in the government as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1996 to 1998 and again from 1999 to 2002. Later, he was a Member of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2006. He was elected as President of Estonia by an electoral college on 23 September 2006 and his term as President began on 9 October 2006. He was reelected by Parliament in 2011.
Early life and education
Ilves was born in Stockholm, Sweden; his parents Endel Ilves (1923–1991) and Irene Ilves (née Rebane;1927–2018) fled Estonia after its occupation by the Soviet Union during World War II. His maternal grandmother was a Russian from Saint Petersburg. He grew up in the United States in Leonia, New Jersey, and graduated from Leonia High School in 1972 as valedictorian. He received a bachelor's degree in psychology from Columbia University in 1976 and a master's degree in the same subject from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978. He also received an honorary degree from St. Olaf College in 2014 in recognition of his relationship with the college. In addition to his native Estonian, Ilves also speaks English, German, Latvian and Spanish.
Ilves worked as a research assistant in Columbia University Department of Psychology from 1974 to 1979. From 1979 to 1981 he served as assistant director and English teacher at the Open Education Center in Englewood, New Jersey. Ilves then moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; from 1981 to 1983 he was director and administrator of arts in Vancouver Arts Centre and from 1983 to 1984 he taught Estonian literature and linguistics in Simon Fraser University.
From 1984 to 1993, Ilves worked in Munich, Germany as a journalist for Radio Free Europe, being the head of its Estonian desk since 1988. As Estonia had restored its independence in 1991, Ilves became Ambassador of Estonia to the United States in 1993, also serving as Ambassador to Canada and Mexico at the same time.
In December 1996, Ilves became Estonian Minister of Foreign Affairs, serving until he resigned in September 1998, when he became a member of a small opposition party (Peasants' Party, agrarian-conservative). Ilves was soon elected chairman of the People's Party (reformed Peasants' Party), which formed an electoral cartel with the Moderates, a centrist party. After the March 1999 parliamentary election he became foreign minister again, serving until 2002, when the so-called Triple Alliance collapsed. He supported Estonian membership in the European Union and succeeded in starting the negotiations which led to Estonia joining the European Union on 1 May 2004. From 2001 to 2002 he was the leader of the People's Party Moderates. He resigned from the position after the party's defeat in the October 2002 municipal elections, in which the party received only 4.4% of the total votes nationwide. In early 2004, the Moderates party renamed itself the Estonian Social Democratic Party.
In 2003, Ilves became an observer member of the European Parliament and, on 1 May 2004, a full member. In the 2004 elections to the European Parliament, Ilves was elected MEP in a landslide victory for the Estonian Social Democratic Party. He sat with the Party of European Socialists group in the Parliament. Katrin Saks took over his MEP seat when Ilves became President of Estonia in 2006. In 2011, he was re-elected for a second five-year term.
In 2013, it was announced that Ilves had accepted a position on the Council on CyberSecurity's Advisory Board. In 2015, it was announced that Ilves had agreed to join the group of advisers to the World Bank president Jim Yong Kim.
During his presidency, Ilves has been appointed to serve in several high positions in the field of ICT in the European Union. He served as chairman of the EU Task Force on eHealth from 2011 to 2012 and was chairman of the European Cloud Partnership Steering Board at the invitation of the European Commission from 2012 to 2014. In 2013 he chaired the High-Level Panel on Global Internet Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms convened by ICANN. From 2014 to 2015 Ilves was the co-chair of the advisory panel of the World Bank's World Development Report 2016 "Digital Dividends" and was also the chair of World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on Cyber Security beginning in June 2014.
Beginning in 2016, Ilves has been co-chairing The World Economic Forum working group The Global Futures Council on Blockchain Technology. In 2017 he joined Stanford University as a Bernard and Susan Liautaud Visiting Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. From July 2017, Ilves has been a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
Ilves belongs to the advisory council of the Alliance for Securing Democracy.
On 29 August, Ilves was the only candidate in the second and the third round of the presidential election in Riigikogu, the Parliament of Estonia (he was supported by an electoral coalition consisting of the governing Reform Party plus the Social Democrats and the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica which form the parliamentary opposition). Ilves gathered 64 votes out of 65 ballots. Therefore, one deputy of the three party alliance supporting Ilves did not vote in favour of his candidacy. A two-thirds majority in the 101-seat Riigikogu was required, so he was not elected in Riigikogu. His candidacy was automatically transferred to the next round in the Electors' Assembly on 23 September.
On 13 September 2006, a broad spectrum of 80 well-known intellectuals published a declaration in support of Ilves' candidacy. Among those who signed were Neeme Järvi, Jaan Kross, Arvo Pärt and Jaan Kaplinski.
On 23 September 2006 he received 174 ballots in the first round of the presidential election in the Electors' Assembly, thus having been elected the next president of Estonia. His five-year term started on 9 October 2006.
On 29 August 2011, he was reelected by the 101-seat legislature to a second five-year term. His opponent was Indrek Tarand. He received support from 73 members of the legislature, and is the first candidate to be elected in the first round since Estonia regained independence in 1991.
Ilves has been married three times. With his first wife, American psychologist Merry Bullock, he has two children: son Luukas Kristjan (b. 1987) and daughter Juulia Kristiine (b. 1992). In 2004, Ilves married his longtime partner Evelin Int with whom he has one daughter, Kadri Keiu (b. 2003). Ilves' representatives announced on 17 April that Ilves and Evelin Ilves have divorced as of 30 April 2015. Their marriage lasted for 10.5 years and broke up after being distant from each other for a while. In December 2015 it was announced that Ilves was engaged in mid-November to Ieva Kupce, the head of the Cybersecurity Division in the Defense Ministry of Latvia. They married on 2 January 2016. On 28 November 2016 they announced the birth of their son Hans Hendrik Ilves.
Ilves has been noted for his enthusiasm for social media. He maintains a Twitter account, personally posting on a regular basis to comment on both current events and his own interests, usually in English.
Ilves has a brother, Andres Ilves, formerly head of the Persian and Pashto World Service of the BBC. Until the early 2000s, Andres Ilves was head of the Afghanistan bureau of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty based in Prague, Czech Republic.
- Estonia 2006 The Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
- Estonia 2008 The Collar of the Order of the National Coat of Arms, also known as the Presidential Chain
- Norway 1999 Knight First Class of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
- Greece 1999 Grand Cross of the Order of Honour of Greece
- France 2001 Commander of the Légion d'Honneur of the French Republic
- Estonia 2004 Third Class Order of the Seal of the Republic of Estonia
- Latvia 2004 Three Star Order of the Republic of Latvia
- United Kingdom 2006 Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath of Great Britain
- Finland 2007 The Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland with collar
- Japan 2007 The Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum of Japan
- Georgia 2007 The Golden Fleece Order of Georgia
- Spain 2007 The Order of Isabella the Catholic with Collar of Spain
- Lithuania 2008 The Order of Vytautas the Great with the Golden Chain of Lithuania
- Netherlands 2008 The Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
- Belgium 2008 Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold 
- Latvia 2009 The Chain of the Order of the Three Stars
- Hungary 2009 The Grand Cross of the Order of Merit
- Georgia 2010 St. George's Order of Victory
- Iceland 2010 The Order of the Falcon, Knight Grand Cross
- Sweden 2011 Royal Order of the Seraphim, Collar rank
- Romania 2011 Order of the Star of Romania, Collar rank
- Kazakhstan 2011 "Dostyk" (Friendship) the Star of Award I of Kazakhstan
- Malta 2012 The Grand Collar of the National Order of Merit of the Republic of Malta
- Latvia 2012 The Cross of Recognition of Latvia, I class
- Poland 2014 Order of the White Eagle
- Norway 2014 The Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav
- Slovakia 2015 Slovak Republic's Order of the White Double Cross, First Class
International awards and honorary degrees
- 2013 NDI Democracy Award by the National Democratic Institute
- 2014 Freedom Award by the Atlantic Council
- 2015 Aspen Prague Award by the Aspen Institute
- 2016 Knight of Freedom Award by The Casimir Pulaski Foundation
- 2017 Reinhard Mohn Prize by the Bertelsmann Stiftung
- 2017 World Leader in Cybersecurity Award by the Boston Global Forum
- 2007 Honorary Doctorate of the Tbilisi State University, Georgia
- 2010 Honorary Doctorate of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland
- 2014 Doctor of Letters honoris causa of the St. Olaf College, United States of America
- "Obituary of Irene Ilves". Fort Lee, New Jersey, USA: Frank Patti. 5 January 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- "Eile suri Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ema" [Toomas Hendrik Ilves's mother had died yesterday] (in Estonian). Estonia: Postimees. 26 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "U.S.-Educated Diplomat Wins in Estonia". Associated Press. 23 September 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2006.
- "An Interview with Toomas Hendrik Ilves" (PDF).
- "Interview to the Russian daily "Nezavasimaya Gazeta"". Archived from the original on 6 March 2014.
- Jackson, Herb. "From Estonia to Leonia" Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Record (Bergen County), 23 April 2008. Accessed 30 March 2011. Copy of article at the official website of the President of Estonia. "Leonia High School helped make the Baltic Sea nation of Estonia one of the most Internet-reliant in the world, Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves says. How? By including Ilves, who grew up in Leonia, in an experimental four-year math program that featured computer programming."
- "Toomas Hendrik Ilves". Columbia University. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012.
- College, St Olaf (25 May 2014). "President of Estonia speaks at St. Olaf commencement".
- "Toomas Hendrik Ilves (social democrat party, sde) was elected president of the republic of estonia by the electoral college in the first round of the election on 23rd september". www.robert-schuman.eu.
- List of Estonian ambassadors to the United States , U.S. State Department website.
- "Estonian President Ilves re-elected". CBS News. 29 August 2011.
- "Estonian president to become adviser to World Bank president". ERR. 27 January 2015.
- "Toomas Hendrik Ilves". Hoover Institution.
- "While Facebook works to create an oversight board, industry experts formed their own". NBC News.
- "80 kultuuritegelast hakkasid Ilvese usaldusmeesteks". Eesti Päevaleht. 13 September 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2006.
- Ummelas, Ott. "Estonian Lawmakers Approve Second Term for President Ilves". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- Pauts, Katrin (21 February 2008). "Merry Bullock: olulisim pärand Toomaselt, peale laste, oli see, et ta tõi mind Eestisse". Õhtuleht (in Estonian). Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- Pauts, Katrin (13 October 2004). "Evelin Int-Lambot ja Toomas Hendrik Ilves abiellusid". Õhtuleht (in Estonian). Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "EKSPRESSI SUUR LUGU: Presidendipaar lahutab. Mis saab edasi? Kuhu kolib Evelin? Kuidas jagatakse vara?". Eesti Ekspress. 17 April 2015.
- "President Ilves to wed this week". ERR. 28 December 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Seddon, Max (23 September 2013). "The President Of Twitter". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Online intervjuu: Toomas Hendrik Ilves" (in Estonian). Eesti Päevaleht. 3 September 2002. Retrieved 23 September 2006.
- "Estonia website through Wayback" (PDF). Wayback Machine. 26 February 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008.
- "Noblesse et Royautes" Archived 1 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine (French), State visit of Spain in Estonia, May 2009
- Belga Pictures Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, State visit of Belgium in Estonia, 10–12 June 2008
- "Det Norske Kongehuset" (Norwegian), List of awarded medals Retrieved 2015-05-20
- "Biography on the official web page of the president". Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Global Cybersecurity Day Program Honors Estonia Past President Toomas Ilves at Harvard Talks. – Boston Global Forum".
- "Honorary Doctorates". www.kul.pl.
- Committee, Faculty Life. "Honorary Degrees Awarded in the 2010s – Faculty Life Committee".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toomas Hendrik Ilves.|
- "Official website of the Former Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves".
- "Official website of the President of the Republic of Estonia".
- "Estonians elect former exile as new president". DPA. 23 September 2006.
- "Ilves wins Estonia's presidential election". AP. 23 September 2006.
- "Biography of Toomas Hendrik Ilves". Office of the President of the Republic of Estonia. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|New office|| Ambassador to the United States
| Minister of Foreign Affairs
| Minister of Foreign Affairs
| President of Estonia