Biography and letters
Humphrey Carpenter has written J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography (1977) and edited The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, the latter assisted by Christopher Tolkien (1981). John Garth has published Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle-earth (2003).
As a writer
A large literature examines Tolkien as a writer and especially his Middle-earth fantasy fiction.
Tolkien's constructed languages, Quenya and Sindarin, the languages of Elves, have inspired linguistic research. Parma Eldalamberon and Vinyar Tengwar are published by the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship of the Mythopoeic Society a non-profit organization. The Vinyar Tengwar and Parma Eldalamberon material published at an increasing rate during the early 2000s is from the stock of linguistic material in the possession of the appointed team of editors (some 3000 pages according to them), consisting of photocopies sent them by Christopher Tolkien and notes taken in the Bodleian library around 1992. An Internet mailing list dedicated to Tolkien's languages, called
tolklang, has existed since November 1, 1990.
Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on the History of Middle-Earth, a book edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter (London: Greenwood Press, 2000), contains a number of essays on topics such as the conceptual evolution of Sindarin or "The Growth of Grammar in the Elven Tongues."
In 2003, linguist and fantasy author Helmut W. Pesch published a comprehensive book on Tolkien's Elvish languages in German. It includes etymologies and grammar of Quenya and Sindarin as well as a dictionary for both languages.
A 2009 book by linguist Elizabeth Solopova, Languages, Myth and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J. R. R. Tolkien's Fiction (New York City: North Landing Books) gives an overview of the linguistic traits of the various languages invented by Tolkien and the history of their creation.
In April 2016, Dimitra Fimi and Andrew Higgins published A Secret Vice: Tolkien on Invented Languages, which included a longer, edited version of Tolkien's essay of the same name reconstructed from manuscripts and notes held by the Bodeleian Library. The book also contains manuscripts of the essay, an introduction, and a newly published "Essay on Phonetic Symbolism."
- Drout, Michael D. C., ed. (2006). J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. New York City: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96942-5.
- Flieger, Verlyn; Carl F. Hostetter, eds. (2000). Tolkien's Legendarium. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30530-7.
- Hammond, Wayne G.; Christina Scull (2005). The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion.
- Hammond, Wayne G.; Scull, Christina (2006b), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Reader's Guide, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-007-14918-2
- Olsen, Corey (2012). Exploring J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-547-73946-5.
- Pesch, Helmut W. (2003). Elbisch – Grammatik, Schrift und Wörterbuch der Elben-Sprache J.R.R. Tolkiens (in German). Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei-Lübbe. ISBN 3-404-20476-X.
- Shippey, Tom (1982). The Road to Middle-earth. London: George Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-04-809018-2. (Revised and expanded 1992, 2005)
- Solopova, Elizabeth (2009), Languages, Myths and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J.R.R. Tolkien's Fiction, New York City: North Landing Books, ISBN 0-9816607-1-1
- Anderson, Douglas A.; Drout, Michael D. C.; Flieger, Verlyn (eds.). "Tolkien Studies". West Virginia University Press. ISSN 1547-3155. Cite journal requires
- Croft, Janet Brennan (ed.). "Mythlore". Mythopoeic Society. ISSN 0146-9339. Cite journal requires
- Eden, Bradford Lee (ed.). "Journal of Tolkien Research". Valparaiso University. ISSN 2471-934X. Cite journal requires
- "Mallorn". The Tolkien Society. ISSN 0308-6674. Cite journal requires
- Hostetter, Carl F. (ed.). "Vinyar Tengwar". Elvish Linguistic Fellowship. ISSN 1054-7606. Cite journal requires
- Garth, John (15 April 2016). "Teach yourself Dwarvish: behind Tolkien's invented languages". New Statesman.
- Solopova, Elizabeth (2009), Languages, Myths and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J.R.R. Tolkien's Fiction, New York City: North Landing Books, p. 90, ISBN 0-9816607-1-1
- The home page of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, which publishes the journals Parma Eldalamberon, Vinyar Tengwar, and Tengwestie, and sponsors the discussion list, Lambengolmor (discussion list launched 29 May 2002, archives at lambengolmor-l).
- Mellonath Daeron, the language guild of the Stockholm Tolkien Society.
- Tolkien's Linguistic Writings and Drafts by Ryszard Derdzinski
- TolkienBooks.net Chronological Book Index - a comprehensive index of Tolkien Publications
- A List of Tolkien's Unpublished and Slightly Published Manuscripts by Lisa Star (concentrates on linguistic materials)
- Tolkien Studies at the Wheaton College, Massachusetts, USA
- Proceedings of the J.R.R. Tolkien Centenary Conference 1992 (out of print)
- Publications of the Tolkien Society (UK)
- Michael Drout's home page in Wheaton College, Massachusetts, USA
- Verlyn Flieger's home page (associated with the University of Maryland, College Park, USA)
- Tom Shippey's home page in Saint Louis University, USA
- Omentielva is a European bi-yearly conference on research into Tolkien's Languages, Sweden
- Hither Shore is the German Tolkien Society's bilingual yearbook on modern fantasy literature, specialising in Tolkien
- Tolkienian courses by The Tolkien Society.
- Tolkien Studies at Signum University
- The Tolkien Professor website