The Tooth Fairy is a fantasy figure of early childhood in Western and Western-influenced cultures. The folklore states that when children lose one of their baby teeth, they should place it underneath their pillow or on their bedside table and the Tooth Fairy will visit while they sleep, replacing the lost tooth with a small payment.
The tradition of leaving a tooth under a pillow for the Tooth Fairy to collect is practised in various countries.
In Northern Europe, there was a tradition of tand-fé or tooth fee, which was paid when a child lost their first tooth. This tradition is recorded in writings as early as the Eddas (c. 1200), which are the earliest written record of Norse and Northern European traditions.
The reward left varies by country, the family's economic status, amounts the child's peers report receiving and other factors. A 2013 survey by Visa Inc. found that American children receive $3.70 per tooth on average. According to the same survey, only 3% of children find a dollar or less and 8% find a five-dollar bill or more under their pillow.
During the Middle Ages, other superstitions arose surrounding children's teeth. In England, for example, children were instructed to burn their baby teeth in order to save the child from hardship in the afterlife. Children who did not consign their baby teeth to the fire would spend eternity searching for them in the afterlife. The Vikings, it is said, paid children for their teeth. In the Norse culture, children's teeth and other articles belonging to children were said to bring good luck in battle, and Scandinavian warriors hung children's teeth on a string around their necks. Fear of witches was another reason to bury or burn teeth. In medieval Europe, it was thought that if a witch were to get hold of one's teeth, it could lead to them having total power over them.
The modern incarnation of these traditions into an actual Tooth Fairy has been traced to a 1908 "Household Hints" item in the Chicago Daily Tribune:
Many a refractory child will allow a loose tooth to be removed if he knows about the Tooth Fairy. If he takes his little tooth and puts it under the pillow when he goes to bed the Tooth Fairy will come in the night and take it away, and in its place will leave some little gift. It is a nice plan for mothers to visit the 5-cent counter and lay in a supply of articles to be used on such occasions.
Unlike Father Christmas and, to a lesser extent, the Easter Bunny, there are few details of the Tooth Fairy's appearance that are consistent in various versions of the myth. A 1984 study conducted by Rosemary Wells revealed that most, 74 percent of those surveyed, believed the Tooth Fairy to be female, while 12 percent believed the Tooth Fairy to be neither male nor female and 8 percent believed the Tooth Fairy could be either male or female. When asked about her findings regarding the Tooth Fairy's appearance, Wells explained: "You've got your basic Tinkerbell-type Tooth Fairy with the wings, wand, a little older and whatnot. Then you have some people who think of the tooth fairy as a man, or a bunny rabbit or a mouse." One review of published children's books and popular artwork found the Tooth Fairy to also be depicted as a child with wings, a pixie, a dragon, a blue mother-figure, a flying ballerina, two little old men, a dental hygienist, a potbellied flying man smoking a cigar, a bat, a bear and others. Unlike the well-established imagining of Santa Claus, differences in renderings of the Tooth Fairy are not as upsetting to children.
Depiction on coins and currency
Starting in 2011, the Royal Canadian Mint began selling special sets for newborn babies, birthdays, wedding anniversaries, "Oh Canada" and the Tooth Fairy. The Tooth Fairy quarters, which were issued only in 2011 and 2012, were packaged separately.
Belief in the Tooth Fairy is viewed in two very different ways. On the one hand, children believing is seen as part of the trusting nature of childhood. Conversely, belief in the Tooth Fairy is frequently used to label adults as being too trusting and ready to believe anything.
Parents tend to view the myth as providing comfort for children in the loss of their tooth. Research finds that belief in the Tooth Fairy may provide such comfort to a child experiencing fear or pain resulting from the loss of a tooth. Mothers especially seem to value a child's belief as a sign that their "baby" is still a child and is not "growing up too soon". By encouraging belief in a fictional character, parents allow themselves to be comforted that their child still believes in fantasy and is not yet "grown up".
Author Vicki Lansky advises parents to tell their children early that the tooth fairy pays a whole lot more for a perfect tooth than for a decayed one. According to Lansky, some families leave a note with the payment, praising the child for good dental habits.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Ratoncito Pérez (or Ratón Pérez, "Pérez Mouse" in English) is a figure popular in Spanish and Hispanic American cultures, similar to the Tooth Fairy, originating in Madrid in 1894. As is traditional in some English-speaking countries, when a child loses a tooth it is customary for them to place it under the pillow, so that Ratoncito Pérez will exchange it for a gift. The tradition is almost universal in Spanish cultures, but takes different forms in different areas. He is known as "Ratoncito Pérez" in Spanish speaking countries, with the exception of some regions of Mexico, Peru and Chile, where he is called "el Ratón de los Dientes" (The Tooth Mouse), and in Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay and Colombia, he is known simply as "El Ratón Pérez". The Ratoncito Pérez was used by Colgate marketing in Venezuela and Spain.
In France and French-speaking Belgium, this character is called la petite souris ("the little mouse"). From parts of Lowland Scotland comes a tradition similar to the fairy mouse: a white fairy rat who purchases children's teeth with coins.
In Catalonia, the most popular would be Els Angelets (little angels) and also "Les animetes" (little souls) and as in the other countries, the tooth is placed under the pillow in exchange of a coin or a little token.
In Japan, a different variation calls for lost upper teeth to be thrown straight down to the ground and lower teeth straight up into the air; the idea is that incoming teeth will grow in straight.
In South Korea, the common practice is to throw both upper and lower teeth on the roof. The practice is rooted around the Korean national bird, the magpie. It is said that if the magpie finds a tooth on the roof, it will bring good luck or a gift like the Western Tooth Fairy. Some scholars think the myth derived from the word 갓치 which was a middle Korean word for magpies that sounds similar to "new teeth", or because of the significance of magpies in Korean mythology as a messenger between gods and humans.
In Middle Eastern countries (including Iraq, Jordan, Egypt and Sudan), there is a tradition of throwing a baby tooth up into the sky to the sun or to Allah. This tradition may originate in a pre-Islamic offering, and dates back to at least the 13th century. It is also mentioned by Izz bin Hibat Allah Al Hadid in the 13th century.
In popular culture
- Ratoncito Pérez – Spanish tooth mouse
- Hammaspeikko – Finnish tooth troll
- Hogfather – Discworld novel featuring their version of the Tooth Fairy
- Blair, John R.; McKee, Judy S.; Jernigan, Louise F. (June 1980). "Children's belief in Santa Claus, Easter Bunny and Tooth Fairy". Psychological Reports. 46 (3, Pt. 1): 691–694. doi:10.2466/pr0.19184.108.40.2061. S2CID 146492076.
- Watts, Linda S. (2007). "Tooth Fairy (legendary)". Encyclopedia of American Folklore. New York: Facts on File. p. 386. ISBN 978-0-8160-5699-6.
- Cleasby, Richard; Vigfússon, Gudbrand (1957). An Icelandic-English Dictionary. William A. Craigie (2 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. s.v. tannfé first edition available on An Icelandic-English Dictionary
- Patca, Raphael; van Waes, Hubertus J. M.; Daum, Moritz M.; Landolt, Markus A. (2017). "Tooth Fairy guilty of favouritism!". Medical Journal of Australia. 207 (11): 482–486. doi:10.5694/mja17.00860. PMID 29227774. S2CID 21234624.
- Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy (2003). "The Tooth Fairy Comes, or Is It Just Your Mum and Dad?: A Child's Construction of Knowledge". Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 28 (3): 19–24. doi:10.1177/183693910302800304. S2CID 141300988.
- "Tooth Fairy inflation flies high". CBS News. 30 August 2013.
- "Survey: Tooth fairy leaving less money". UPI. 26 July 2011.
- Woudstra, Wendy. "How Much Does The Tooth Fairy Pay for a Tooth". Colgate. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Underwood, Tanya (23 May 2008). "Legends of the Tooth Fairy". Recess.
- Lillian Brown (27 September 1908). "Tooth Fairy". Chicago Daily Tribune. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Brooker, Lynda (2 February 1984). "Tooth Fairy Lore Extracted". Toledo Blade.
- "The tooth fairy: friend or foe?". The Milwaukee Journal. 31 July 1991.
- Wells, Rosemary (1997). "The Making of an Icon: The Tooth Fairy in North American Folklore and Popular Culture". In Narváez, Peter (ed.). The Good People: New Fairylore Essays. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 426–446. ISBN 9780813109398.
- 2012 CANADA Tooth Fairy Gift Sett Special quarter reverse Mint sealed | eBay
- Clark, Cindy Dell (1995). "Flight Toward Maturity: The Tooth Fairy". Flights of Fancy, Leaps of Faith: Children's Myths in Contemporary America. University of Chicago Press. pp. 355–364. ISBN 9780226107776.
- Sameroff, Arnold; McDonough, Susan C. (1994). "Educational implications of developmental transitions: revisiting the 5- to 7-year shift". Phi Delta Kappan. 76 (3): 188–193. JSTOR 20405294.
- Lansky, Vicki (2001). Practical parenting tips. New Delhi: Unicorn books. p. 79. ISBN 81-7806-005-1.
- Principe, Gabrielle F.; Smith, Eric (July 2008). "The tooth, the whole tooth and nothing but the tooth: how belief in the Tooth Fairy can engender false memories". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 22 (5): 625–642. doi:10.1002/acp.1402.
- "Centuria Dental". Producto Registrado (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 October 2010.
- Beeler, Selby B. (1998). Throw Your Tooth on the Roof: Tooth Traditions from Around the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-6181-5238-4.
- Al Hamdani, Muwaffak; Wenzel, Marian (1966). "The Worm in the Tooth". Folklore. 77 (1): 60–64. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1966.9717030. JSTOR 1258921.
- Lainez, Rene Colato (2010). The Tooth Fairy Meets El Raton Perez. Illustrated by Tom Lintern. ISBN 978-1-58246-296-7.
- Narváez, Peter (1997) The Good People: New Fairylore Essays (section V). University Press of Kentucky.
- Wynbrandt, James (1998). The Excruciating History of Dentistry. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-26319-8.
- Media related to Tooth fairy at Wikimedia Commons