|The Red Shoes|
|Based on||"The Red Shoes"|
by Hans Christian Andersen
|Music by||Brian Easdale|
|Edited by||Reginald Mills|
|Distributed by||General Film Distributors (UK)|
Eagle-Lion Films (US)
|Box office||> $5 million|
The Red Shoes is a 1948 British drama film written, directed, and produced by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, and starring Moira Shearer, Anton Walbrook, and Marius Goring. It follows a ballerina who joins an established ballet company under an acclaimed director, ultimately testing her dedication to her craft when she must choose between her career and a romance with an orchestra conductor. It marked the feature film debut of Shearer, an established ballerina, and also features Robert Helpmann, Léonide Massine, and Ludmilla Tchérina, other renowned dancers from the ballet world. The plot is based on the eponymous fairytale by Hans Christian Andersen, and features a ballet within it by the same title, also adapted from the Andersen work.
The Red Shoes was filmmaking team Powell and Pressburger's tenth collaboration and followup to 1947's Black Narcissus. It had originally been conceived by Powell and producer Alexander Korda in the 1930s, from whom the duo purchased the rights in 1946. The majority of the film's cast, including lead actress Shearer, were professional dancers. Filming of The Red Shoes took place in mid-1946, primarily in France and England.
Upon release, The Red Shoes received critical acclaim, especially in the United States, where it received a total of five Academy Award nominations, including a win for Best Original Score and Best Art Direction. It also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score, and was named one of the Top 10 Films of the Year by the National Board of Review. Despite this, some dance critics gave the film unfavorable reviews as they felt its fantastical, impressionistic centerpiece sequence depicted ballet in an unrealistic manner. The film proved a major financial success, and was the first British film in history to gross over $5 million.
Contemporarily, it is regarded as one of the best films of Powell and Pressburger's partnership, and in 1999, it was voted the 9th greatest British film of all time by the British Film Institute. The film underwent an extensive digital restoration beginning in 2006 at the UCLA Film and Television Archive to correct significant damage to the original negatives. The restored version of the film screened at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival, and was subsequently issued on Blu-ray by The Criterion Collection. In 2017, a poll of 150 actors, directors, writers, producers and critics for Time Out magazine saw it ranked the 5th best British film ever.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Cast
- 3 Analysis
- 4 Production
- 5 Release
- 6 Other media
- 7 Legacy
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 External links
At a performance by the Ballet Lermontov at Covent Garden Opera House, music student Julian is in attendance to hear the ballet score Heart of Fire, composed by his teacher, Professor Palmer. Separately present is Victoria 'Vicky' Page, a young, unknown dancer from an aristocratic background, with her aunt, Lady Neston. As Heart of Fire progresses, Julian recognises the music as one of his own compositions. During the performance, Professor Palmer receives an invitation to an after-ballet party at Lady Neston's residence, also asking Boris Lermontov, the company impresario, to attend. Julian leaves the performance in disillusionment at his professor's plagiarism of his music. Lermontov and Vicki meet, and he invites her to a rehearsal of the company.
Julian has written to Lermontov to explain the circumstances behind Heart of Fire, but then tries to retrieve the letter. Lermontov's assistant Dimitri thwarts all attempts by Julian to gain entry to Lermontov's suite, but finally Lermontov gives Julian an audience. Julian says that he wishes to retrieve his letter before Lermontov has seen it, except that Lermontov has already read the letter. Lermontov asks Julian to play one of his own works at the piano. After hearing Julian play, he hires him as a répétiteur for the company orchestra and assistant to the company's conductor, Livingstone Montague (known colloquially to the company as 'Livy'). Lermontov realises that Julian was the true composer of Heart of Fire.
Julian and Vicky arrive for work at the Ballet Lermontov on the same day. Later, Vicky dances with Ballet Rambert in a matinee performance of Swan Lake at the Mercury Theatre, Notting Hill Gate, in a production with a company led by Marie Rambert (who appears in the film as herself in a wordless cameo). Watching this performance, Lermontov realises her potential and invites Vicky to go with Ballet Lermontov to Paris and Monte Carlo. He decides to create a starring role for her in a new ballet, The Ballet of the Red Shoes, for which Julian is to provide the music.
The Ballet of the Red Shoes is a resounding success and Lermontov revitalizes the company's repertoire with Vicky in the lead roles and Julian tasked with composing new scores. In the meantime, Vicky and Julian have fallen in love, but keep their relationship secret from Lermontov. Lermontov begins to have personal feelings toward Vicky; he resents the romance between her and Julian after learning of it. The impresario fires Julian; Vicky leaves the company with him. They marry and live in London, where Julian works on composing a new opera.
Some time later whilst travelling, Vicky receives a visit from Lermontov, who convinces her to return to the company to dance a revival of The Ballet of the Red Shoes. On opening night, Julian appears in her dressing room; he has left the première of his opera at Covent Garden to find her and take her back. Lermontov arrives; he and Julian contend for Vicky's affections, each one arguing that her true destiny is with him only. Torn between her love for Julian and her need to dance, she eventually chooses the latter.
Julian, realising that he has lost her, leaves for the railway station; Lermontov consoles Vicky and tries to turn her attention to the evening's performance. Vicky is escorted to the stage wearing the red shoes and, seemingly under their influence, turns and runs from the theatre. Julian, on the platform of the railway station, runs towards her. Vicky leaps from a balcony and falls in front of an approaching train, which hits her. Shortly after, a shaken Lermontov appears before the audience to announce that, "Miss Page is unable to dance tonight – nor indeed any other night". As a mark of respect, the company performs The Ballet of the Red Shoes with a spotlight on the empty space where Vicky would have been. As Vicky bleeds to death on a stretcher, she asks Julian to remove the red shoes, just as at the end of the ballet.
- Moira Shearer as Victoria Page
- Marius Goring as Julian Craster
- Anton Walbrook as Boris Lermontov
- Léonide Massine as Grischa Ljubov
- Robert Helpmann as Ivan Boleslawsky
- Albert Bassermann as Sergei Ratov
- Ludmilla Tchérina as Irina Boronskaya
- Esmond Knight as Livingstone 'Livy' Montague
- Austin Trevor as Professor Palmer
- Jean Short as Terry
- Gordon Littman as Ike
- Eric Berry as Dimitri
- Irene Browne as Lady Neston
- Jerry Verno as Stage Door Keeper
- Yvonne Andre as Vicky's Dresser
"Art versus life"
A central theme to The Red Shoes is a performer's conflict between their art and personal life. Commenting on this theme, Powell himself stated that the film is "about dying for art, that art is worth dying for." McLean, however, notes that Victoria's final leap to her death does not adequately represent this idea. Rather, McLean states that Victoria "seems pushed by those she loves who would rather possess her than support her," and that the film ultimately illustrates the impact of "ruthless personalities" can have on "the weaker or more demure."
Scholar Peter Fraser, in Cinema Journal, observes of this tension between art and life that the film implodes its own "narrative and lyrical worlds... from the moment of recognition, when Vicky looks down at her red shoes and knows that she is then her lyrical persona, her two worlds collapse." He further states that the interpenetration of the lyrical upon the narrative "alters the meaning of the fiction" itself. This blurring of the lyrical and the narrative is represented at the end of the film, when Vicky jumps onto the train platform; she is wearing the red shoes which she wore while preparing in her dressing room, despite the fact that in the performance her character does not put them on until part way through the ballet. Powell and Pressburger themselves discussed this idiosyncrasy and it has been subject to significant critical analysis since. Powell decided that it was artistically "right" for Vicky to be wearing the red shoes at that point because if she is not wearing them, it takes away the ambiguity over why she died.
The Ballet of the Red Shoes
The Red Shoes is famous for featuring a 17-minute ballet sequence (of a ballet entitled The Ballet of the Red Shoes) as its centerpiece. The sequence utilizes a variety of filmic techniques to provide an "impressionistic link" to the Hans Christian Andersen fairytale on which it (and the ballet within the film) are based, as well as the personal struggles faced by the protagonist, Victoria Page, who is dancing the lead role. Film scholar Adrienne McLean notes that the ballet not only duplicates Victoria's own story, but also foreshadows her love for Julian, the conductor in the ballet's orchestra, as well as the contemptuous jealousy of Lermontov, its director.
Throughout the ballet, visual metaphors and fantastical references to Victoria's own life come alive on the screen, including a portion in which she dances with a floating newspaper that alternates in form between mere paper and the human form of Helpmann's character; this is referential to a windblown newspaper that Victoria previously stepped on the night she discovered she had acquired the lead role in the ballet.
Unlike in conventional filmed theatrical ballet, the ballet sequence in The Red Shoes is not one continuous, static shot, but instead employs a variety of editing techniques, close-ups, and special effects. As the ballet progresses, McLean notes that the action of the sequence "rockets from stage right to stage left, a series of swiftly performed vignettes alternating with garishly decorated set pieces. Then, as Robert Helpmann, playing the girls' lover, is borne away into the distance by a crowd, leaving the girl alone in her cursed red shoes, the action reverses... into and through the ballerina's subconscious mind." Because of its dynamic nature and excessive use of cinematic techniques, McLean contests that the ballet sequence is a "greater, or more characteristic, film experience than a dance one."
The question of genre in relationship to The Red Shoes has been a recurrent preoccupation of both critics and scholars, as it does not neatly fit within the confines of a single genre or genres. While the film's extended ballet sequences led some to characterize the film as a musical, McLean notes that the "conventional signals that had allowed fantasy elements to occur in other [musical] films are missing in The Red Shoes." Fraser contests that the film is not emblematic of the standard musical as it has a tragic and violent resolution, and that it is best understood as a "prototype of a generic variation" emerging from the musical film tradition.
Contemporary critic Peter Bradshaw identifies elements of horror in the film, particularly in its central, surreal ballet sequence, which he likens to "the surface of Lewis Carroll's looking-glass, through which the viewer is transported into a new world of amazement and occult horror."
Producer Alexander Korda had conceived a ballet-themed film in 1934, which he intended to be a biopic about Vaslav Nijinsky. The project never came to fruition, but in 1937, Korda found himself again inspired to write a ballet-themed film as a vehicle for Merle Oberon, his future wife. Korda, along with filmmaker Michael Powell, fashioned a film based on Oberon's looks, but, because she was not a skilled dancer, Korda knew he would need to use a double for any dance sequences. Korda eventually abandoned the project, instead shifting his focus to The Thief of Bagdad (1940).
In 1946, Powell and his filmmaking partner Emeric Pressburger bought the rights to the screenplay Powell had co-written with Korda for £9,000. According to Powell, the original screenplay contained significantly more dialogue and less story.
The character of Boris Lermontov was inspired in part by Sergei Diaghilev, the impresario who founded the Ballets Russes, although there are also aspects about him drawn from the personalities of producer J. Arthur Rank and even director Michael Powell himself. The particular episode in Diaghilev's life that is said to have inspired the characterisation is his seeing the 14-year-old Diana Gould partnering Frederick Ashton in the première of his first ballet, Leda and the Swan. On the basis of this, Diaghilev invited her to join his company, but he died before that plan could come about.
The ballet featured in the film roughly follows the Hans Christian Andersen story upon which it is based. A young woman sees a pair of red shoes in a shop window, which are offered to her by the demonic Shoemaker. She puts them on and begins to dance with her boyfriend. They go to a carnival, where she seemingly forgets about the boyfriend as she dances with every man she comes across. Her boyfriend is carried away and nothing is left of him but his image on a piece of cellophane, which she tramples.
She attempts to return home to her mother, but the red shoes, controlled by the Shoemaker, keep her dancing. She falls into a netherworld, where she dances with a piece of newspaper which turns briefly into her boyfriend. She is then beset by grotesque creatures, including the Shoemaker, who converge upon her in a manner reminiscent of The Rite of Spring. They abruptly disappear, leaving her alone. No matter where she flees, the shoes refuse to stop dancing.
Near death from exhaustion, her clothes now rags, she finds herself in front of a church where a funeral is in progress. The priest offers to help her. She motions to him to remove the shoes, and as he does so, she dies. He carries her into the church, and the Shoemaker retrieves the shoes, to be offered to his next victim.
Powell and Pressburger decided early on that they had to use dancers who could act rather than actors who could dance. To create a realistic feeling of a ballet company at work, and to be able to include a fifteen-minute ballet as the high point of the film, they created their own ballet company using many dancers from The Royal Ballet.
In casting the lead role of Victoria Page, Powell and Pressburger sought an experienced dancer who could also act. Scottish ballerina Moira Shearer was recommended by Robert Helpmann, who had been cast in the film as Ivan Boleslawsky, and was also appointed the choreographer of the central ballet sequence; Helpmann had worked with Shearer prior in a production of his ballet Miracle at the Gorbals. At the time, Shearer was beginning to ascend in her career with the Sadler's Wells Dance Company, dancing under Ninette de Valois. Upon reading the screenplay, Shearer declined the offer, as she felt taking a film role would negatively impact her dancing career. She also felt that the screenplay presented a ballet company that was unrealistic, "utterly unlike any ballet company that there had ever been anywhere." She recalled: "Red Shoes was the last thing I wanted to do. I fought for a year to get away from that film, and I couldn't shake the director off."
After Shearer's refusal of the role, American ballerinas Nana Gollner and Edwina Seaver tested for the part, but their acting abilities proved unsatisfactory to Powell and Pressburger. Non-dancers Hazel Court and Ann Todd were briefly considered before Shearer changed her mind, and decided to accept the role with de Valois's blessing. Shearer claimed that de Valois, exasperated by the ordeal, finally advised her to take the role. Powell alternately recounted that de Valois was "more manipulative" in the process, and would vacillate in regard to whether or not Shearer would have a place in the company to return to once filming was completed, accounting for Shearer's alleged protracted contemplation of whether to take the part.
For the role of Julian Craster, the musician with whom Victoria falls in love, Marius Goring was cast. While Goring—at the time in his mid-30s—was slightly too old to play the role, Powell and Pressburger were impressed by his "tact and unselfish approach to his craft." They cast Anton Walbrook in the part of Victoria's domineering ballet director, Boris Lermontov, for similar reasons, as they felt he was a "well-mannered and sensitive actor" who could support Shearer through their emotional scenes together.
The other principal dancers cast in the film included Léonide Massine (who also served as a choreographer for his role as the shoemaker in The Ballet of the Red Shoes), portraying dancer Grischa Ljubov, and Ludmilla Tchérina as dancer Irina Boronskaya; the latter was cast by Powell, who was captivated by her unconventional beauty.
Filming of The Red Shoes took place primarily in Paris, with principal photography beginning in June 1947. Jack Cardiff, who had shot Powell and Pressburger's Black Narcissus, served as cinematographer. The shooting schedule ran approximately fifteen weeks, on a budget of £300,000. Filming also occurred on location in London, Monte Carlo, and the Cote d'Azur. Some sequences were filmed at Pinewood Studios, including the stage and orchestra pit sequences, which were sets constructed specifically for the film.
–Critic Adrienne McLean on the film's technical feats
According to biographer Mark Connelly, the shoot was largely copacetic, with the cast and crew having a "happy time" on set. On the first day of the shoot, Powell addressed the cast and crew: "We'll be doing things that haven't been done before, we'll have to work very hard—but I know it's going to be worth it." The shooting of the film's central The Ballet of Red Shoes sequence took approximately six weeks, according to Shearer, who recalled that it was completed in the middle of the production. Powell disputed this, instead claiming that it was the last portion of the film to be shot. Filming the ballet proved difficult for experienced dancers, who were used to performing live ballet, as the filming process required them to spend hours preparing to shoot moments that lasted sometimes only a few seconds. Shearer recalled that the ballet sequence was "so cinematically worked out that we were lucky if we ever danced for as long as one minute."
The shoot overran significantly, totaling twenty-four weeks rather than the planned fifteen, and the final budget ballooned to over £500,000.[a] John Davis, the chief accountant of The Rank Organisation, forced a £10,000 cut to Powell and Pressburger's salaries due to the film going over budget. Because the shoot was extended so far beyond schedule, Powell and Pressburger promised the cast and crew a fortnight's holiday in September.
Choreography and score
Australian ballet star Robert Helpmann choreographed the ballet, played the role of the lead dancer of the Ballet Lermontov and danced the part of the boyfriend. Léonide Massine created his own choreography for his role as the Shoemaker. Brian Easdale composed the original music for the film, including the full ballet of The Red Shoes. Easdale conducted most of the music in the film, except for the Ballet of the Red Shoes, where Sir Thomas Beecham conducted the score and received prominent screen credit. Beecham's Royal Philharmonic Orchestra was the featured orchestra for the film.
The score for The Red Shoes was written to "fit the cinematic design," and completed in an unorthodox manner: Easdale composed the score for the film's central ballet sequence based on cartoon drawings and storyboards approved by Helpmann, which were assembled in the correct sequence. A total of 120 drawings were provided to help guide Easdale in writing an appropriate musical accompaniment. As filming of the ballet sequence progressed, the hand drawings were replaced by the corresponding completed shots. Easdale received the 1948 Academy Award for Best Original Score, the first British film composer so honoured.
Upon its initial release in the United Kingdom in September 1948, the film was a low-earning picture, as the Rank Organisation could not afford to spend much on promotion due to severe financial problems exacerbated by the expense of Caesar and Cleopatra (1945). Also, according to Powell, the Rank Organisation did not understand the artistic merits of the film, and this strain in the relationship between The Archers and the Rank Organisation led to the end of the partnership between them, with The Archers moving to work for Alexander Korda. Despite a lack of advertising, the film went on to become the sixth most popular film at the British box office in 1948.
The film premiered in the United States at New York City's Bijou Theatre on 21 October 1948, distributed by Eagle-Lion Films. By the end of the year, it had earned $2.2 million in US rentals. The success of this run convinced Universal Studios that The Red Shoes was a worthwhile film and they took over the U.S. distribution in 1951. The Red Shoes went on to become one of the highest-earning British films of all time, with a record-breaking gross of over $5 million.
Film scholar Mark Connelly notes that interpreting the contemporaneous critical response to The Red Shoes is a "complicated task, as there are no simple divisions between those who liked the film and those who did not." Connelly concludes that the reaction was notably "complex and mixed." Adrienne McLean similarly states that the film received "only mixed" reviews from both cinema and ballet critics. Upon its release in the United Kingdom, the film received some criticism from national press, particularly aimed at Powell and Pressburger for the perception that the feature was "undisciplined and downright unBritish."
While the film had its detractors in Britain, it was lauded by some national critics, such as Dilys Powell, who deemed it an "extreme pleasure" and "brilliantly experimental." Writing for The Monthly Film Bulletin, Marion Eames praised the performances of Shearer and Goring, as well as the score. The Daily Film Renter published a divisive review, noting that Powell and Pressburger "have fumbled over a fine idea, and their opulent work trembles between the heights and the depths." Despite this, it was voted the third-best film of the year in a readers' poll by the Daily Mail, behind Spring in Park Lane and Oliver Twist.
Initial reception proved more favorable in the United States, where the film went on to garner mainstream attention after it screened in the U.S. arthouse circuit.
A main point of contention amongst both British and American critics was a perceived lack of realism in respect to the ballet sequences. The focus of this criticism was the film's central 17-minute ballet performance of The Ballet of the Red Shoes: Many dance critics felt the sequences impressionistic touches—which include abstract hallucinations and visual manifestations of Vicky's mental state—detracted from the physical aspects of the ballet. British ballet critic also Katherine Sorley Walker dismissed the sequence, commenting that it marked "a departure from the illusion of stage ballet to the limitless and lush spaces reflecting the ballerina's thought." Eames made similar criticism, condemning the subjective elements of the sequence as "corrupting the integrity of the ballet," as well as the choreography. Philip K. Scheuer of the Los Angeles Times, however, praised the presentation of ballet in the film, deeming it "the most ambitious—and probably the most dazzlingly successful—use of traditional-type ballet in any motion picture to date."
|Academy Awards||Best Picture||Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger||Nominated|||
|Best Original Screenplay||Emeric Pressburger||Nominated|
|Best Original Score||Brian Easdale||Won|
|Best Art Direction||Hein Heckroth, Arthur Lawson||Won|
|Best Film Editing||Reginald Mills||Nominated|
|BAFTA Film Awards||Best British Film||The Red Shoes||Nominated|||
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Original Score||Brian Easdale||Won|
|National Board of Review||Top Ten Films||The Red Shoes||Won|||
|Venice Film Festival||Grand International Award||The Red Shoes||Nominated|
Home media and restoration
Efforts to restore The Red Shoes began in the early 2000s. With fundraising spearheaded by Martin Scorsese and his longtime editor (and Powell's widow), Thelma Schoonmaker, Robert Gitt and Barbara Whitehead formally began the restoration in the fall of 2006 at the UCLA Film and Television Archive, along with the help of the United States Film Foundation. Gitt, the chief preservation officer of the UCLA Archive, supervised the restoration, assisting Whitehead in reviewing each individual frame of the film—192,960 in the print, 578,880 in the tripartite negative. The original negatives had suffered extensive harm, including shrinkage and mould damage. Because the damage to the negatives was so significant, digital restoration was the only viable method of rehabilitating the film. The 4K digital restoration was completed with the help of the Prasad Corporation and Warner Bros. Motion Picture Imaging to remove dirt, scratches, and other flaws. Digital methods were also utilized to remove pops, crackles and background hiss from the film’s original optical soundtrack.
The newly-restored version of The Red Shoes had its world premiere at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival. Several months later, in October 2009, ITV Films released the restored version on Blu-ray in the United Kingdom. On July 20, 2010, the Criterion Collection again reissued the film in its restored state on DVD and Blu-ray. Reviewing the Criterion Blu-ray, which includes an illustrative demonstration of the film's restoration, Stuart Galbraith of DVD Talk referred to the "before and after" comparisons as "shocking and heartening at once."
- Musical theatre adaptation
The film was adapted by Jule Styne (music) and Marsha Norman (book and lyrics) into a Broadway musical, which was directed by Stanley Donen. The Red Shoes opened on 16 December 1993 at the Gershwin Theatre, with Steve Barton playing Boris Lermontov, Margaret Illmann playing Victoria Page, and Hugh Panaro playing Julian Craster. The choreography by Lar Lubovitch received the TDF's Astaire Award, but the musical closed after 51 previews and only five performances.
- Ballet adaptation
The film was adapted as a ballet choreographed by Matthew Bourne and premiered in December 2016 in London. The production used music by Bernard Herrmann, including ‘Vertigo’, in place of Brian Easdale’s Oscar-winning score from the 1948 film.
- Works inspired by the film
Kate Bush's song and album The Red Shoes was inspired by the film. The music was subsequently used in a film The Line, the Cross and the Curve (1993) made by Kate Bush, starring Miranda Richardson and Lindsay Kemp, which references the original film. The 1952 film The Firebird, directed by Hasse Ekman, is largely an homage to The Red Shoes.
In 2005, Ballet Ireland produced Diaghilev And The Red Shoes, a tribute to Sergei Diaghilev, the ballet impresario who founded Ballets Russes, consisting of excerpts from works made famous by that seminal company. An excerpt from The Red Shoes ballet was included, since Diaghilev was one inspiration for the character of Lermontov. The 2012 novel Letters from Yelena, by British author Guy Mankowski, was reported to have been influenced by the film. In 2013, Korean singer-songwriter IU released Modern Times, which featured the lead single "The Red Shoes", whose lyrics were inspired by the fairy tale, and whose music video was adapted from the film.
Contemporarily, it is regarded as one of the best films of Powell and Pressburger's partnership, and in 1999, it was voted the 9th greatest British film of all time by the British Film Institute. In the intervening years, it has garnered status as a cult film and an archetypal dance film. In 2017, a poll of 150 actors, directors, writers, producers and critics for Time Out magazine saw it ranked the 5th best British film ever. Filmmakers such as Brian De Palma, Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola, and Steven Spielberg have named it one of their all-time favourite films, and Roger Ebert included it in his list of Great Movies.
The film is particularly known for its cinematography and especially the use of colour. In the introduction for The Criterion Collection DVD of Jean Renoir's The River, Scorsese considers The Red Shoes and The River to be the two most beautiful colour films.
- Street 2016, p. 109.
- McLean 1988, p. 43.
- Fraser 1987, p. 52.
- Powell 1986, pp. 650–651.
- Ebert, Roger (1 January 2005). "The Red Shoes (1948)". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018.
- McLean 1988, p. 49.
- McLean 2008, pp. 147–149.
- Street 2016, pp. 109–110.
- McLean 2008, p. 149.
- McLean 1988, pp. 49–53.
- McLean 2008, p. 148.
- McLean 1988, p. 54.
- McLean 1988, p. 47.
- Fraser 1987, p. 53.
- Bradshaw, Peter (10 December 2009). "The Red Shoes". The Guardian. London, England. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017.
- Connelly 2005, p. 4.
- Macaulay, Alastair (31 August 2008). "Love and Dance: Two Obsessions, One Classic Film". The New York Times.
- Pritchard, Jane (January 2011). "Menuhin, Diana Rosamond Constance Grace Irene (nee Gould), Lady Menuhin (1912–2003)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 November 2012. (subscription required)
- Connelly 2005, pp. 36–40.
- McLean 2008, pp. 33–34.
- Connelly 2005, p. 36.
- McLean 1988, p. 36.
- Connelly 2005, pp. 36–37.
- Connelly 2005, p. 38.
- Connelly 2005, pp. 39–40, 69.
- Connelly 2005, p. 40.
- Connelly 2005, p. 5.
- McLean 2008, p. 35.
- Connelly 2005, pp. 5–6.
- Connelly 2005, p. 58.
- McLean 1988, p. 37.
- McLean 1988, p. 46.
- Connelly 2005, p. 6.
- McLean 1988, p. 39.
- Macdonald 1994, p. 295.
- Street 2016, p. 110.
- McLean 1988, pp. 48–50.
- McLean 1988, p. 48.
- Pritchard, Stephen (1 October 2006). "For the record". The Observer. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017.
- "The Starry Way". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane: National Library of Australia. 8 January 1949. p. 2. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Thumim, Janet (Autumn 1991). "The popular cash and culture in the postwar British cinema industry". Screen. Vol. 32 no. 3. p. 258.
- Connelly 2005, p. 74.
- McLean 2008, p. 137.
- "Top Grossers of 1948", Variety 5 January 1949 p 46
- Mayer 2003, p. 314.
- Connelly 2005, p. 68.
- McLean 1988, p. 32.
- Connelly 2005, p. 3.
- Connelly 2005, p. 70.
- Connelly 2005, p. 67.
- Connelly 2005, pp. 68–71.
- Connelly 2005, pp. 69–70.
- Connelly 2005, p. 69.
- Scheuer, Philip K. (19 December 1948). "Coproducer Explains 'Red Shoes' Success". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. p. 19 – via Newspapers.com.
- "The Red Shoes". Northwest Film Center. Portland, Oregon. 30 December 2016. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019.
- Connelly 2005, p. 75.
- Galbraith, Stuart (19 July 2010). "The Red Shoes (Blu-ray)". DVD Talk. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016.
- Turan, Kenneth (17 May 2009). "'The Red Shoes' shines anew". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018.
- Scorsese, Martin; Christie, Ian; Gitt, Robert (2009). "Dancing to the Music of Time: The Red Shoes Restored" (PDF). UCLA Film and Television Archive. University of California, Los Angeles. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 September 2019.
- "The Red Shoes Blu-ray: United Kingdom Special Restoration Edition". Blu-ray.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019.
- Berry, Kevin (4 November 2005). "Diaghilev And The Red Shoes". The Stage.
- Neilson, Marjorie (1 October 2012). "New Books: Letters from Yelena". New Books Magazine. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "The 100 best British films". Time Out. Retrieved 24 October 2017
- Hutchinson, Pamela (6 September 2018). "Five Things to Know About The Red Shoes–Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger's Triumph Turns 70". British Film Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- Connelly, Mark (2005). The Red Shoes: Turner Classic Movies British Film Guide. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-845-11071-0.
- Fraser, Peter (Spring 1987). "The Musical Mode: Putting on The Red Shoes". Cinema Journal. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. 26 (3): 44–54. ISSN 0009-7101.
- McLean, Adrienne L. (1988). "The Red Shoes Revisited". Dance Chronicle. New York City, New York: Routledge. 11 (1): 31–83. ISSN 0147-2526.
- McLean, Adrienne L. (2008). Dying Swans and Madmen: Ballet, the Body, and Narrative Cinema. Rutgers, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-813-54467-0.
- Macdonald, Kevin (1994). Emeric Pressburger: The Life and Death of a Screenwriter. London, England: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-16853-8.
- Mayer, Geoff (2003). Guide to British Cinema. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30307-4.
- Powell, Michael (1986). A Life in Movies. London, England: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-59945-X.
- Street, Sarah (2016). Transatlantic Crossings: British Feature Films in the United States. New York City, New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-474-29068-5.
- Further reading
- Andersen, Hans Christian. The Red Shoes.
- In The Shoes of Fortune, and Other Tales. New York: J. Wiley, 1848.
- In Fairy Tales from Hans Andersen. London: T.C. & E.C. Jack, 1908.
- In Fairy Tales from Hans Andersen. New York: E.P. Dutton & co., 1908.
- In Tales. Odense (Denmark): Flensted, 1972.
- Gibbon, Monk. The Red Shoes Ballet: A Critical Study. London: Saturn Press, 1948. London. 95pp. (illus).
- Powell, Michael & Pressburger, Emeric. The Red Shoes. London: Avon Books, 1978. ISBN 0-8044-2687-2. (pbk).
- Powell, Michael & Pressburger, Emeric. The Red Shoes. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. ISBN 0-312-14034-7.
- Powell, Michael. A Life in Movies: An Autobiography. London: Heinemann, 1986. ISBN 0-434-59945-X.
- Powell, Michael. Million Dollar Movie. London: Heinemann, 1992. ISBN 0-434-59947-6.
- Vermilye, Jerry. The Great British Films. Citadel Press, 1978. ISBN 0-8065-0661-X. 112pp.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Red Shoes (1948 film)|
- The Red Shoes on IMDb
- The Red Shoes at AllMovie
- The Red Shoes memorabilia
- The Red Shoes at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Red Shoes at the TCM Movie Database
- Reviews and articles at the Powell & Pressburger Pages
- The Red Shoes Restoration essay by Robert Gitt at the UCLA Film & Television Archive
- The Red Shoes: Dancing for Your Life essay by David Ehrenstein at the Criterion Collection
- The Restored Red Shoes interview with Thelma Schoonmaker on The Leonard Lopate Show
- The Red Shoes at the BFI's Screenonline – synopsis and stills (and clips viewable from UK libraries)