|The Golden Girls|
|Created by||Susan Harris|
|Theme music composer||Andrew Gold|
|Opening theme||"Thank You for Being a Friend", performed by Cynthia Fee|
|Ending theme||"Thank You for Being a Friend" (instrumental)|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||7|
|No. of episodes||180 (list of episodes)|
|Camera setup||Videotape, Multi-camera|
|Running time||22–24 minutes|
|Distributor||Buena Vista Television|
|Original release||September 14, 1985 –|
May 9, 1992
|Followed by||The Golden Palace|
The Golden Girls is an American television sitcom created by Susan Harris that originally aired on NBC from September 14, 1985, to May 9, 1992, with a total of 180 half-hour episodes, spanning seven seasons. The show stars Beatrice Arthur, Betty White, Rue McClanahan, and Estelle Getty as four older women who share friendship and a home in Miami, Florida. It was produced by Witt/Thomas/Harris Productions, in association with Touchstone Television. Paul Junger Witt, Tony Thomas and Harris served as the original executive producers.
The Golden Girls received critical acclaim throughout most of its run and won several awards including the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series twice. It also won three Golden Globe Awards for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy. Each of the four stars received an Emmy Award, making it one of only four sitcoms in the award's history to achieve this. The series also ranked among the Nielsen ratings Top 10 for six of its seven seasons. In 2013, TV Guide ranked The Golden Girls number 54 on its list of the 60 Best Series of All Time. In 2014, the Writers Guild of America placed the sitcom at number 69 in their list of the "101 Best Written TV Series of All Time". The series continues to attract new fans in the 21st century and is considered an example of a sitcom that has aged well.
The show had an ensemble cast and the plot revolves around four older single women (three widows and one divorcée) sharing a house in Miami. The owner of the house is a widow named Blanche Devereaux (McClanahan), who was joined by fellow widow Rose Nylund (White) and divorcée Dorothy Zbornak (Arthur), after they both responded to an ad on the bulletin board of a local grocery store a year before the start of the series. In the pilot episode, the three are joined by Dorothy's 80-year-old widowed mother, Sophia Petrillo (Getty), after the retirement home where she has been living has burned down.
The first episode featured a cook/butler named Coco (played by Charles Levin), but the role was dropped before the second episode. The writers observed that in many of the proposed scripts, the main interaction between the women occurred in the kitchen while preparing and eating food. They decided that a separate cook would distract from their friendship. In addition, the character of Sophia had originally been planned as an occasional guest star, but Getty had tested positively with preview audiences that the producers decided to make her a regular character. As a result of her late addition to the regular cast, Sophia appears in very few of the earliest publicity shots for the show that would be used to promote the first season.
The Golden Girls came to an end when Bea Arthur chose to leave the series. In the hour-long series finale, which aired in May 1992, Dorothy meets and marries Blanche's uncle Lucas (Leslie Nielsen) and moves to Hollingsworth Manor in Atlanta. Sophia is to join her, but in the end, she stays behind with the other women in Miami. This led into the spin-off series, The Golden Palace.
The series finale of The Golden Girls was watched by 27.2 million viewers. As of 2016, it was the 17th-most watched television finale.
|Season||Episodes||Originally aired||Rank||Rating||Viewers (millions)|
|First aired||Last aired|
|1||25||September 14, 1985||May 10, 1986||#7||21.8||N/A|
|2||26||September 27, 1986||May 16, 1987||#5||24.5||N/A|
|3||25||September 19, 1987||May 7, 1988||#4||21.8||N/A|
|4||26||October 8, 1988||May 13, 1989||#6||21.4||TBA|
|5||26||September 23, 1989||May 5, 1990||#6||20.1||30.8|
|6||26||September 22, 1990||May 4, 1991||#10||16.5||24.6|
|7||26||September 21, 1991||May 9, 1992||#30||13.1||19.2|
Cast and characters
- Beatrice Arthur as Dorothy Zbornak (née Petrillo), a substitute teacher. Born in Brooklyn, New York City, to Sicilian immigrants Sophia and Salvadore Petrillo, Dorothy became pregnant while still in high school, resulting in a marriage to Stanley Zbornak (Herb Edelman) to legitimize the baby. Stan and Dorothy eventually moved to Miami, but divorced after 38 years when Stan left her for a young flight attendant. The marriage produced two children; Kate, in her early 20s, and Michael, who was inconsistently aged between his mid-20s and late 30s (Michael was purportedly the cause of the shotgun wedding). In the series' final episode, Dorothy marries Blanche's uncle, Lucas Hollingsworth, and relocates to Atlanta. Arthur also played Dorothy's grandmother, Sophia's mother, in a flashback episode to when they lived in Brooklyn in the 1950s when Dorothy was a young adult (even though two episodes – "My Father, my Brother" and "The Days and Nights of Sophia Petrillo" stated that Sophia's mother died when Dorothy was younger). In season one episode seven, Dorothy is stated to be 55. (And again in Season 6 episode 13.) She was practical, sarcastic, easily angered, a follower of current events, and frequently the brunt of jokes about her lack of attractiveness.
- Betty White as Rose Nylund (née Lindström), a Norwegian American from the small farming town of St. Olaf, Minnesota. Often slightly naive and known for her humorously peculiar stories of life growing up in her hometown, Rose was happily married to Charlie Nylund, with whom she had five children; daughters Kirsten, Bridget, Gunilla; and sons Adam and Charlie, Jr. Upon Charlie's death, she moved to Miami. She eventually finds work at a grief counseling center, but later switches careers and becomes assistant to consumer reporter Enrique Mas at a local TV station. In later seasons, Rose became romantically involved with college professor Miles Webber. During season six, it is revealed that Miles has been in the Witness Protection Program. Their relationship continued throughout the series and shortly into the sequel series, The Golden Palace.
- Rue McClanahan as Blanche Devereaux (née Hollingsworth), a Southern belle employed at an art museum. Born into a wealthy family, Blanche grew up as the apple of her father's eye on a plantation outside of Atlanta, Georgia, prior to her relocation to Miami, where she lived with her husband, George, until his death. Their marriage produced six children; daughters Janet and Rebecca; and sons Doug, Biff, Skippy, and Matthew. A widow, Blanche was portrayed as self-absorbed and man-hungry. She had two sisters, Virginia and Charmaine, and a younger brother Clayton. Another brother of Blanche's, Tad, is discovered by audiences who watched the spin off series The Golden Palace. Her age may have been 50 as in season 4 episode 1 Sophia called Blanche a “50 year old mattress.”
- Estelle Getty as Sophia Petrillo, Dorothy's mother. Born in Sicily, Sophia moved to New York after fleeing an arranged marriage to Guido Spirelli. She married Salvadore "Sal" Petrillo, with whom she had three children: Dorothy, Gloria, and Phil, a cross-dresser who later dies of a heart attack (episode "Ebbtide's Revenge"). Initially a resident of the Shady Pines retirement home after having a stroke prior to the start of the series, she moved in with Blanche, Rose, and Dorothy following a fire at the institution. During the series' run, Sophia married Max Weinstock, but they soon separated. Throughout the series, she held a few part-time jobs, mostly involving food, including as a fast-food worker and an entrepreneur of spaghetti sauce and homemade sandwiches. In season 5, episode 20, Dorothy states that Sophia is 83.
- Herb Edelman as Stanley Zbornak, Dorothy's cheating, freeloading ex-husband who left her to marry a young flight attendant, who later left him. Stan married another woman in season 4, but they divorced off-screen in season 5. Stanley worked as an unsuccessful novelty salesman until he became a successful entrepreneur by inventing a baked potato opener that made him wealthy. For most of the series whenever Stan showed up, Dorothy was still resentful of Stan for leaving her and criticized him whenever he needed her for help (usually involving money). By the end of the series, they made a peaceful truce especially in the series finale when Stan accepted Dorothy marrying another man.
- Harold Gould as Miles Webber (or Nicholas Carbone/Samuel Plankmaker) is Rose's professor boyfriend from season 5 onwards. In season 6, Miles reveals he is in the witness protection program and was a bookkeeper for a mobster. Gould also guest-starred once in the first season as Arnie Peterson, Rose's first serious boyfriend after her husband Charlie's death.
- Sid Melton as Salvadore Petrillo, Sophia's late husband, who is usually seen in dreams or flashback sequences. Melton also appears as Don the Fool, a waiter at a medieval-themed restaurant in season six.
- Shawn Schepps and Debra Engle, as Blanche's daughter, Rebecca Devereaux. Initially an overweight former model in an emotionally abusive relationship, she later slimmed down and had a baby girl named Aurora by artificial insemination.
- Monte Markham and Sheree North as Blanche's siblings Clayton Hollingsworth and Virginia Hollingsworth. Virginia and Blanche were estranged for a long time, until they reconciled in season 1. They became estranged in season 5 after their father's funeral. Clayton is a closeted gay man who had troubled coming out to Blanche, who eventually accepted his orientation when Clayton and his new boyfriend got married.
- Bill Dana and Nancy Walker as Sophia's siblings Angelo and Angela. Dana appears in seven episodes (seasons 3–7), while he also played Sophia's father in a season-four episode. Walker starred in two episodes in season 2.
- Doris Belack and Dena Dietrich as Gloria Petrillo, Dorothy's younger sister who is married to a wealthy man in California. In a two-part episode, she has lost all of her money and becomes romantically involved with Stan, but she eventually comes to think of him as a "yutz" and breaks up with him.
- Scott Jacoby as Dorothy's traveling musician son Michael Zbornak. In season 3, he married Lorraine, an older black woman who sang with his band, but, by season 5, they are divorced.
- Lynnie Greene (credited as Lyn Greene) as a younger Dorothy in flashbacks.
- Lisa Jane Persky and Deena Freeman, as Dorothy's daughter, Kate Zbornak, an interior decorator in New York and married to Dennis, a podiatrist.
Celebrities Alex Trebek, Merv Griffin, Johnny Gilbert, Jeane Dixon, Burt Reynolds, Marvin Mitchelson, Edwin Newman, Bob Hope, Sonny Bono, Lyle Waggoner, and Julio Iglesias all guest starred as themselves on various episodes.
Billy Barty played Rose's father, Edgar Lindström, in a dream sequence in season 1 episode 13 – "A Little Romance".
Mario Lopez appeared in season 2 episode 21 – "Dorothy's Prized Pupil" – as Mario, a Hispanic boy being tutored by Dorothy until he's revealed to be an undocumented immigrant.
Musician Jenny Lewis appeared on the show as a child actress, in the season 3 premiere, "Old Friends", as a Sunshine Cadet scout who holds Rose's teddy bear hostage.
Actor George Clooney guest starred as a rookie undercover police officer in season 2, episode 24 – "To Catch a Neighbor" – in one of his first paid roles.
|"I was running all over the house grabbing anybody who would listen. I kept reading scenes to them and saying, 'God, this is brilliant [...] There's nothing trendy about this show. There are no tricks. It's a classic."|
|—NBC executive Warren Littlefield about reading the pilot script|
Ideas for a comedy series about older women emerged during the filming of a television special at NBC's Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California, in August 1984. Produced to introduce the network's 1984–85 season schedule, two actresses appearing on NBC shows, Selma Diamond of Night Court and Doris Roberts of Remington Steele, appeared in a skit promoting the upcoming show Miami Vice as Miami Nice, a parody about old people living in Miami. NBC senior vice president Warren Littlefield was among the executive producers in the audience who were amused by their performance, and he envisioned a series based on the geriatric humor the two were portraying.
Shortly afterward, he met with producers Paul Junger Witt and Tony Thomas, who were pitching a show about a female lawyer. Though Littlefield nixed their idea, he asked if they would be interested in delivering a pilot script for Miami Nice instead. Their regular writer declined, so Witt asked his wife, Susan Harris, who had been planning to retire after the conclusion of their ABC series Soap. She found the concept interesting, as "it was a demographic that had never been addressed," and she soon began work on it. Though her vision of a sitcom about women in their 60s differed from NBC's request for a comedy about women around 40 years old, Littlefield was impressed when he received her pilot script and subsequently approved production of it. The Cosby Show director Jay Sandrich, who had previously worked with Harris, Witt, and Thomas on Soap, agreed to direct the pilot episode.
The pilot included a gay houseboy, Coco (Charles Levin), who lived with the girls. Levin had been suggested by then-NBC president Brandon Tartikoff based on Levin's groundbreaking portrayal of a recurring gay character, Eddie Gregg, on NBC's Emmy-winning drama Hill Street Blues. After the pilot, the character of Coco was eliminated from the series.
The part of Sophia Petrillo was the first of the four roles to be cast. Estelle Getty auditioned and won the role of the feisty mother of character Dorothy Zbornak. This was due, in part, to the rave reviews she garnered in her Off-Broadway role reprisal for the 1984 Los Angeles run of Torch Song Trilogy. Afterwards, Getty had returned to New York but gained permission from her manager to return to California in early 1985. Getty figured it would be her last chance to find television or film work. She would return home to New York if she was unsuccessful.
Casting director Judith Weiner had seen Torch Song Trilogy and thought Getty was terrific in it. She was also impressed by Getty's audition for the role of the mother of Steven Keaton (played by actor Michael Gross) for a guest episode of Family Ties. Although Getty was impressive, the show's producers went with another actress. Getty came to Weiner's mind soon after when it became time to begin casting of The Golden Girls.
Getty, who went through a three-hour transformation to become Sophia, wore heavy make-up, thick glasses, and a white wig to look the part. The character of Sophia was thought by the creators to enhance the idea that three retirement-aged women could be young. Disney's Michael Eisner explains, "Estelle Getty made our three women into girls. And that was, to me, what made it seem like it could be a contemporary, young show." As surprising as it might sound, Estelle Getty continuously battled her stage fright. During an interview in 1988, Getty commented on her phobia and expressed how working with major stars, such as Arthur and White, made her even more nervous. At times, she even froze on camera while filming.
Hired to film the pilot, director Jay Sandrich also became instrumental in helping to cast the roles of Blanche Devereaux and Rose Nylund. Both Rue McClanahan and Betty White came into consideration as the series Mama's Family, in which the two co-starred, had been canceled by NBC. Originally, producers wanted to cast McClanahan as Rose and White as Blanche. The thinking for this was based on roles they previously played; White portrayed man-hungry Sue Ann Nivens on The Mary Tyler Moore Show, while McClanahan co-starred as sweet but scatterbrained Vivian Harmon in Maude. Eager not to be typecast, they took the suggestion of Sandrich and switched roles at the last minute.
In the pilot script, Blanche was described as "more Southern than Blanche DuBois", so McClanahan was perplexed when she was asked by director Sandrich during the filming of the pilot not to use the strong southern accent she had developed, but to use her natural Oklahoma accent instead. Once the show was picked-up for a first season, the new director Paul Bogart felt exactly the opposite, insisting that McClanahan use a Southern accent. McClanahan deliberately exaggerated her accent, stating "I played Blanche the way I felt Blanche. She thought an accentuated Southern accent...would be sexy and strong and attractive to men. She wanted to be a southern heroine, like Vivien Leigh. In fact, that's who I think she thought she was."
Though Harris had created the character of Dorothy with a "Bea Arthur type" in mind, Littlefield and the producers initially envisioned actress Elaine Stritch for the part. Stritch's audition flopped, however, and under the impression that Arthur did not want to participate, Harris asked McClanahan if she could persuade Arthur, with whom she worked previously on the CBS sitcom Maude, to take the role. Arthur flipped upon reading the script, but felt hesitant about McClanahan's approach, as she did not "want to play (their Maude characters) Maude and Vivian meet Sue Ann Nivens." She reconsidered, however, after hearing that McClanahan and White had switched roles.
Bea Arthur and Betty White worked well together in shared mutual respect but they did not pursue a personal friendship with one another outside of The Golden Girls set. Arthur's son, Matthew Saks, later spoke of tension between the two actresses, stating that his mother "unknowingly carried the attitude that it was fun to have somebody to be angry at...It was almost like Betty became her nemesis, someone she could always roll her eyes about at work." Both actresses had dramatically different training and acting backgrounds; Saks commented on White's habit of breaking the fourth wall to engage and joke with the studio audience during breaks between filming, which Bea Arthur found unprofessional. In 2011 White stated that she believed it was her "positive attitude" and perky demeanor which got on Arthur's nerves. Interestingly, Arthur preferred that she and her three castmates all break for lunch together on workdays.
Writing and taping
The show was the second television series to be produced by the Walt Disney Company under the Touchstone Television label, and was subsequently distributed by Buena Vista International, Inc. (which holds as the ownership stake in Disney Channel Southeast Asia, now Disney–ABC Television Group).
Creator Susan Harris went on to contribute another four episodes to the first season, but became less involved with the sitcom throughout its run; she continued reading all scripts, though, and remained familiar with most of the storylines. Kathy Speer and Terry Grossman were the first head writers of the series and wrote for the show's first four seasons. As head writers, Speer and Grossman, along with Mort Nathan and Barry Fanaro, who won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing the first season, gave general ideas to lower staff writers, and personally wrote a handful of scripts each season.
In 1989, Marc Sotkin, previously a writer on Laverne & Shirley and a producer on fellow Witt/Thomas series It's a Living, assumed head-writing responsibilities, and guided the show (to varying degrees) during what were its final three seasons. Richard Vaczy and Tracy Gamble, previously writers on 227 and My Two Dads, also assumed the roles of producers and head writers. Beginning in 1990, Marc Cherry served as writer and producer, years before creating Desperate Housewives, which ran on ABC from 2004 to 2012. Mitchell Hurwitz also served as writer for the show in its last two seasons. Hurwitz later created Arrested Development for Fox and later for Netflix.
Cherry commented on read-throughs of the scripts that "generally, if the joke was a good one, the women found a way to make it work the very first time they read it. You have a lot of table reads where the actors will mess it up because they don't understand what the characters are doing, or they misinterpret. But the women were so uniformly brilliant at nailing it the first time...we basically knew that if the women didn't get it right the first time, the joke needed to be replaced." According to Cherry, the writers' room was "a competitive atmosphere. There was a lot of competition to get your words into the script." Writer Christopher Lloyd explained that it became usual for all of the more junior writers to be assigned the same scene to write, with whomever's was judged the best version the one to be chosen. This "created a great deal of stress and competitiveness amongst those of us who weren't in that inner sanctum."
After Season 3, Arthur had expressed her growing dissatisfaction with the disparaging jokes made about her physical appearance which were often in the script. She expressed that she would not continue if changes weren't made. However, changes were made and jokes regarding Dorothy's physique appeared less often. Christopher Lloyd later said "I think that was a mistake we made, to be a little bit insensitive to someone who was an extremely sensitive person...I think we pushed that [the jokes about Arthur's appearance] a little bit far and I think she let it be known she didn't love that."
Estelle Getty's stage fright, which affected her from the beginning of the show, grew worse as the show went on. According to McClanahan, by the end of Season 3 Getty's anxiety had become a serious problem and she had increasing trouble memorizing her lines. To aid her retention, Getty tried hypnosis and the show hired an assistant to run lines with her before taping; neither method worked. She took to writing her lines on props which she could glance at easily, like the wicker purse which Sophia always carried with her. The cast would often have to stay behind after the audience had departed to redo scenes where Getty had flubbed her lines and, although this was at first met with resistance from the producers, cue cards were eventually introduced to help her. Rue McClanahan, who shared a dressing room with Getty, described the severity of Getty's stage fright: "She'd panic. She would start getting under a dark cloud the day before tape day...You could see a big difference in her that day. She'd be walking around like Pig-Pen under a black cloud. By tape day, she was unreachable. She was just as uptight as a human being could get. When your brain is frozen like that, you can't remember lines." Getty died in 2008, the result of dementia with Lewy bodies. Her co-stars, in an interview, said that her disease had progressed to the point that she was not able to hold conversations with them or recognize them. She had reportedly started to show signs of the dementia during the filming of the television series, when, despite more than three decades of theater work, she began to struggle to remember her lines and, in later seasons of the show, had to rely on cue cards.
During season six there was some uncertainty over whether Bea Arthur would commit to future seasons, or leave the show once her contract expired to pursue other projects. Arthur felt the characters had been in every possible scenario and wanted to end the series while it was still successful. Debbie Reynolds was brought on as a guest star in the season 6 episode "There Goes the Bride: Part 2" to test her chemistry with the other actresses as a possible replacement for Arthur, but it was decided that nobody could replicate the chemistry of the four original actresses. In any event, Arthur chose to commit to a seventh and final season.
Exterior and interior sets
The house's address was mentioned as being 6151 Richmond Street, Miami. The model used for exterior shots of the house from the third season through the end of the series was part of the backstage studio tour ride at Disney's Hollywood Studios. This façade, along with the Empty Nest house, sustained hurricane damage leading to Disney's 2003 decision to bulldoze the houses of "Residential Street" and construct its Lights, Camera, Action!: Extreme Stunt Show attraction, later replaced by Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge. The façade was based on a real house at 245 N. Saltair Avenue in Brentwood, Los Angeles, California. Producers used this residence for exterior shots during the first two seasons. The exterior shots of the house used in the opening song and other interluding scenes is in Brentwood California; in 2020 it was put on sale for $3 million.
The show's designer, Ed Stephenson, took inspiration from his time living in Florida to design a "Florida look" for The Golden Girls house set. The wooden accents, columns, and doors were painted to mimic bald cypress wood, popular in South Florida homes, with rattan furniture and tropical-printed upholstery chosen for the furniture.
The kitchen set seen on The Golden Girls was originally used on an earlier Witt/Thomas/Harris series, It Takes Two, which aired on ABC from 1982 to 1983. However, the exterior backdrop seen through the kitchen window changed from the view of Chicago high-rises to palm trees and bushes for the Miami setting. Space was limited on the soundstage, so when the kitchen was off camera it was usually detached from the rest of the set and the space used for something else. The doorway from the living room, with the alcove and baker's shelf just inside, was designed to give the illusion that the actors were walking into and out of the kitchen.
Costume designer Judy Evans created distinctive looks for each of the four actresses to suit their character's personalities and to reflect the Florida setting. According to Evans "I wanted a sexy, soft, and flowing look for Rue, a tailored, pulled-together look for Bea, a down-home look for Betty, and comfort for Estelle." Anna Wyckoff of the Costume Designers Guild wrote that "Evans took the direction from the producers to create a vibrant look for the four mature leads, and ran with it...redefining what “dressing your age” looked like." Many of the character's outfits were designed by Evans and made specially, but there were between seven and ten costume changes per episode between the four actresses, which entailed a great deal of off the rack shopping. Evans generally dressed the actresses in expensive pieces and high quality fabrics, despite the recurring theme that the four characters were struggling with money, because "The main idea was to make them look good. We didn't want the show to be about four dowdy ladies."
Bea Arthur had a preference for wearing loose fitting clothing, like slacks and long sweaters, along with sandals because she hated wearing shoes. She had established this signature look while playing Maude, and Evans honored it in her designs for Dorothy. Much of Arthur's wardrobe was custom-made because at the time it was difficult to find off-the-rack clothing that was flattering for a taller woman. Rue McClanahan had a special clause written into her contract allowing her to keep her costumes, which were mostly custom-made using expensive fabrics. Eventually McClanahan went on to create a clothing line for QVC, called "A Touch of Rue", inspired by Blanche but made with affordable fabrics and practical designs.
The Golden Girls was shot on videotape in front of a live studio audience. Many episodes of the series followed a similar format or theme. For example, one or more of the women would become involved in some sort of problem, often involving other family members, men, or an ethical dilemma. At some point, they would gather around the kitchen table and discuss the problem, sometimes late at night and often while eating cheesecake, ice cream or some other dessert. One of the other girls then told a story from her own life, which somehow related to the problem (though Rose occasionally regaled the others with a nonsense story that had nothing to do with the situation, and Sophia told outrageous made-up stories). Some episodes featured flashbacks to previous episodes, flashbacks to events not shown in previous episodes, or to events that occurred before the series began.[self-published source?] Though the writing was mostly comical, dramatic moments and sentimental endings were included in several episodes. One of the actresses on the show, Bea Arthur, actually hated cheesecake.
During the NBC upfronts, the preview screening of the show got a standing ovation. The show promptly received a full order of 12 episodes.
An instant ratings hit, The Golden Girls became an NBC staple on Saturday nights. The show was the anchor of NBC's Saturday line-up, and almost always won its time slot, as ABC and CBS struggled to find shows to compete against it, the most notable being ABC's Lucille Ball sitcom Life With Lucy in the beginning of the 1986–87 season. The Golden Girls was part of a series of Brandon Tartikoff shows that put an end to NBC's ratings slump, along with The Cosby Show, 227, Night Court, Miami Vice, and L.A. Law.
The show dealt with many controversial issues, such as coming out and same-sex marriage, elder care, homelessness, poverty, HIV/AIDS and discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS, US immigration policy, sexual harassment, teenage pregnancy, artificial insemination, adultery, bad medical care, sexism, miscegenation and interracial marriage, age discrimination, environmentalism, addiction to pain killers, problem gambling, nuclear war, death and assisted suicide.
Writer and producer Linda Bloodworth-Thomason created a sitcom with this kind of image as a "four women" show, which became Designing Women on CBS. Designing Women began competing against The Golden Girls in the same time slot, however The Golden Girls always got the higher rating, resulting in CBS pushing Designing Women to Mondays.
At the request of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, who was reputedly a big fan, the cast of The Golden Girls performed several skits as their characters in front of her and other members of the Royal Family at the 1988 Royal Variety Performance in London.
- Seasons 1–6: Saturday at 9:00 PM
- Season 7: Saturday at 8:00 PM
Awards and nominations
During its original run, The Golden Girls received 68 Emmy nominations, 11 Emmy awards, four Golden Globe Awards, and two Viewers for Quality Television awards. All the lead actresses won Emmy Awards for their performances on the show. The Golden Girls is one of four live action shows, along with All in the Family, Will & Grace and Schitt's Creek where all the principal actors have won at least one Emmy Award.
Beginning July 3, 1989, NBC added daytime reruns of the show, replacing long-running Wheel of Fortune (which had moved to CBS) on the NBC schedule at 11:00 a.m.(EST). It ran for a little over a year until September 1990. At this time, syndicated reruns began airing, distributed by Buena Vista Television (now Disney–ABC Domestic Television), the syndication arm of Disney, whose Touchstone Television division produced the series.
In March 1997, the Lifetime cable network acquired the exclusive rights to repeat the episodes of The Golden Girls in the US for over a decade, until March 1, 2009. Many episodes were edited to allow more commercials and for content.
Both the Hallmark Channel and WE tv picked up the reruns in March 2009. As of February 2013, WE tv's rights expired and Viacom networks' TV Land, home to Betty White's last series Hot in Cleveland, purchased them, as did Logo TV. In 2020, CMT purchased the rights to the series.
In Southeast Asia, Rewind Networks began airing reruns of The Golden Girls on its HD channel, HITS, in 2013.
Buena Vista Home Entertainment has released all seven seasons of The Golden Girls on DVD in Region 1 and Region 4 with the first four being released in Region 2. On November 9, 2010, the studio released a complete series box set titled The Golden Girls: 25th Anniversary Complete Collection. The 21-disc collection features all 180 episodes of the series as well as all special features contained on the previously released season sets; it is encased in special collectible packaging, a replica of Sophia's purse. On November 15, 2005, Warner Home Video released The Golden Girls: A Lifetime Intimate Portrait Series on DVD which contains a separate biography of Arthur, White, McClanahan and Getty, revealing each woman's background, rise to stardom and private life, which originally aired on Lifetime network between June 2000 and January 2003.
Australian Region 4 DVD Releases:
- Season 1: 17 August 2005
- Season 2: 21 September 2005
- Season 3: 1 October 2005
- Season 4: 5 December 2007
- Season 5: 2 April 2008
- Season 6: 3 December 2008
- Season 7: 18 March 2009
- The Complete Series: 7 November 2018
Upon the success of The Golden Girls creator Susan Harris later devised Empty Nest as a spin-off from The Golden Girls with some character crossovers. Nurses was later spun-off from Empty Nest, and the shows occasionally had special episodes in which characters from one show made appearances in the others.
The Golden Palace
After the original series ended, White, McClanahan, and Getty reprised their characters in the CBS series The Golden Palace, which ran from September 1992 to May 1993, and also starred Cheech Marin and Don Cheadle (Bea Arthur guest-starred in a double episode, reprising her role as Dorothy). The show never approached the popularity or acclaim of the original, and ranked 57th in the annual ratings. Reportedly, a second season was approved before being canceled the day before the network announced its 1993–94 schedule.
Lifetime, which held the rights to The Golden Girls at the time, aired reruns of The Golden Palace in the summer of 2005, and again in December of that year. This was the first time since 1993 that The Golden Palace was seen on American television. Until April 2006, Lifetime played the series as a virtual season eight, airing the series in between the conclusion of the final season and the syndicated roll-over to season one.
Capitalizing on the popularity of The Golden Girls, creator Susan Harris decided to develop a spin-off, centering on the empty nest syndrome. The initial pilot was aired as the 1987 Golden Girls episode "Empty Nests" and starred Paul Dooley and Rita Moreno as George and Renee Corliss, a married couple living next to the Golden Girls characters, who face empty nest syndrome after their teenage daughter goes to college. When that idea was not well received, Harris retooled the series as a vehicle for Richard Mulligan, and the following year Empty Nest debuted, starring Mulligan as pediatrician Harry Weston, a widower whose two adult daughters moved back home. Characters from both shows made occasional crossover guest appearances on the other show, with the four girls guesting on Empty Nest and Mulligan, Dinah Manoff, Kristy McNichol, David Leisure, and Park Overall appearing on The Golden Girls in their Empty Nest roles. After the end of The Golden Palace, Getty joined the cast of Empty Nest, making frequent appearances as Sophia in the show's final two seasons.
Mulligan and Manoff were alumni from one of Susan Harris' earlier shows, Soap.
Empty Nest launched its own spin-off in 1991 set in Miami in the same hospital where Dr. Weston worked. The series starred Stephanie Hodge and a set of other young female and male nurses. As one of the few times in television history where three shows from the same producer, set in the same city, aired back-to-back-to-back on the same network, the three shows occasionally took advantage of their unique circumstance to create storylines carrying through all three series, such as "Hurricane Saturday". Starring actress Hodge left after two seasons, David Rasche joining the cast at the start of the second season and Loni Anderson being added as the new hospital administrator in the third.
The Golden Girls: Live! was an off-Broadway show that opened in the summer of 2003 in New York City at Rose's Turn theater in the West Village, and ran until November of that year. The production ended because the producers failed to secure the rights and received a cease and desist order by the creators of the original television show. Featuring an all-male cast in drag, The Golden Girls: Live! consisted of two back-to-back episodes of the sitcom: "Break-In" (season one, episode eight) and "Isn't It Romantic?" (season two, episode five).
The cast of The Golden Girls, Sophia, Dorothy, Blanche and Rose, have been even further immortalised in two puppet parody shows Thank You For Being A Friend and That Golden Girls Show: A Puppet Parody, both created by Australian screenwriter Thomas Duncan-Watt and producer Jonathan Rockefeller.
- Chile: Los años dorados [es]: In 2015 a Chilean remake called Los Años Dorados (The Golden Years) was produced by UCVTV in agreement with Disney, starring famous Chilean actresses Gloria Münchmeyer, Carmen Barros, Ana Reeves, and Consuelo Holzapfel, who live their retirement in the city of Viña del Mar. It was a success for the channel, so there are plans to do the second season in 2016.
- Egypt: سكر زيادة [ar]: In 2020 a Arabic remake broadcaster Dubai TV and MBC Masr premiered called سكر زيادة (Extra Sugar) was produced by Cedars Art Production (Sabbah Brothers) Cedars Art Production in agreement with Disney, It was a success for the channel, so there are plans in 2020.
- Israel: Bnot HaZahav, which ran from 2011 to 2016.
- Greece: Chrysa Koritsia: In 2008, Greek broadcaster ET1 premiered a Greek remake entitled Chrysa Koritsia (Greek: Xρυσά κορίτσια, Gold[en] Girls), which features the four women in Greece. Each of the characters has been hellenized to suit the culture and modern setting. Names were only slightly changed, but more for cultural reasons, as Sophia (whose first name was unchanged, as it is Greek), Bela (Blanche), Dora (Dorothy), Fifi (Rose), and Panos (Stan). The series began airing in mid-January, and features many similar plots to the original. ET1 aired a rerun of the show in the summer of 2008 and managed to take a place in the top-10 ratings chart, presented by AGB Nielsen Media Research. The Greek edition features Mirka Papakonstantinou as Dora, Dina Konsta as Sofia, Eleni Gerasimidou as Fifi, and Ivonni Maltezou as Bela.
- Netherlands: Golden Girls [nl]: A Dutch remake for the RTL 4 network stars Loes Luca as Barbara (Blanche), Beppie Melissen as Els (Dorothy), Cecile Heuer as Milly (Rose), and Pleuni Touw as Toos (Sophia). The show premiered in fall 2012, using essentially the same plots as the U.S. version, along with a Dutch-language version of the original theme song, "Thank You for Being a Friend".
- Philippines: 50 Carats, O Di Ba? A Philippine version of The Golden Girls (spin-off) aired during the early 1990s by IBC 13 starred Nida Blanca, Charito Solis, and Gloria Romero.
- Russia: Bolshie Devochki: A Russian remake was broadcast on Channel One in 2006, entitled Bolshie Devochki (Russian: Большие Девочки), which in English can literally be translated to: Big Girls. The series featured renowned Russian actresses Galina Petrova as Irina (Dorothy), Olga Ostroumova as Nadejda (Blanche), Valentina Telechkina as Margarita (Rose), and Elena Millioti as Sofya (Sophia). However, the concept never caught on with Russian viewers and the show was canceled after only 32 episodes.
- Spain: Juntas, pero no revueltas [es]/Las chicas de oro [es]: In 1996, TVE launched a Spanish remake entitled Juntas pero no revueltas (Together, but not mixed) with Mercedes Sampietro as Julia (Dorothy), Mónica Randall as Nuri (Blanche), Kiti Manver as Rosa (Rose), and Amparo Baró as Benigna (Sophia). Low ratings made it disappear after one season. In 2010, another remake with the title Las chicas de oro (The Golden Girls) was announced, again on TVE, this time produced by José Luis Moreno and with Concha Velasco as Doroti (Dorothy), Carmen Maura as Rosa (Rose), Lola Herrera as Blanca (Blanche), and Alicia Hermida as Sofía (Sophia). The series premiered on September 13, 2010 with success. However, after only 26 episodes, the series was eventually discontinued after the end of the first season after receiving generally bad reviews and following dropping ratings.
- Portugal: Queridas e Maduras: In July 1995, RTP premiered Queridas e Maduras (in English, Dear Mature Girls) a Portuguese version of the American sitcom. The show featured renowned Portuguese actresses Catarina Avelar as Edite (Dorothy), Amélia Videira as Inês (Rose), Lia Gama as Salomé (Blanche) and the veteran actress Luísa Barbosa as Aparecida (Sophia). The Portuguese version got two seasons, the first in 1995 and the second in 1996, adapting episode plots from the first two seasons of the original series.
- Turkey: Altın Kızlar [tr]. In 2009, broadcaster ATV premiered Altın Kızlar (literally translated to English as "The Golden Girls"). It was produced by Play Prodüksiyon. Rather than residing in Miami, the women shared a condo in residential part of Beyoğlu. As in other foreign adaptations, it featured well-known local actresses. The key roles were filled by Fatma Girik as Safıye (the 'Sophia' character), Hülya Koçyiğit as İsmet ('Dorothy'), Nevra Serezli as Gönül ('Blanche') and Türkan Şoray as Inci ('Rose'). The show lasted only one episode, consisting of story lines from two of the original American series: "The Engagement" (Season 1, Episode 1) and "The Triangle" (Season 1, Episode 5).
- United Kingdom: Brighton Belles: In 1993, ITV premiered Brighton Belles, a British version of the American sitcom. The show, starring Sheila Hancock, Wendy Craig, Sheila Gish, and Jean Boht was nearly identical to Girls except for character name changes and actor portrayals. The 10-episode series was canceled after six weeks due to low ratings, with the final four episodes airing more than a year later.
In 2017, a Golden Girls-themed eatery Rue La Rue Cafe owned by Rue McLanahan's close friend Michael La Rue, who inherited many of the star's personal belongings and in turn decorated the restaurant with them, opened in the Washington Heights section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The eatery closed in November 2017 after less than a year of operation.
- "About". The Walt Disney Company. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- "'L.A. Law' and 'Golden Girls' Win Series Emmys". The New York Times. Associated Press. September 21, 1987. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Galician, Mary-Lou; Merskin, Debra L. (2007). Critical Thinking About Sex, Love, and Romance In the Mass Media: Media Literacy Applications. Psychology Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-8058-5615-6.
- "TV Guide Magazine's 60 Best Series of All Time". TV Guide. Archived from the original on January 10, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- "'101 Best Written TV Series Of All Time' From WGA/TV Guide: Complete List". Deadline Hollywood. June 2, 2013. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- ‘Golden Girls’ appears to get better with pop culture age
- Bosman, Julie (November 8, 2005). "The Grandchildren of 'The Golden Girls'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Du Brow, Rick (April 28, 1992). "'Golden Girl' Getty Will Miss Her TV 'Daughter'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Kovalchik, Kara (July 22, 2008). "7 Things You Might Not Know About The Golden Girls". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- Morin, Natalie. "These Are the Most-Watched TV Series Finales of All Time: 17". PrettyFamous. Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Season 4, Episode 1, Yes, We Have No Havanas. Sophia called Blanch a “50 year old mattress”
- Fonseca, Nicholas (April 24, 2009). "Golden Girls: A 20th Anniversary Oral History". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Schwartz, Tony (September 30, 1985). "The Real Mr. T". New York: 42. ISSN 0028-7369. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Fitzharris, Dustin (October 4, 2010). "Catching Up with the Golden Girls' Susan Harris". Out. Archived from the original on December 18, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Prague, Jacke (April 8, 2010). "Crackle's Creator Conversation: Soap's Susan Harris". Crackle. Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- Cronin, Brian. "TV Legends Revealed #35". Legends Revealed. Archived from the original on January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
- Colucci, Jim (2006). The Q Guide to the Golden Girls. Alyson Books. pp. 8, 43–55. ISBN 978-1-5558-3985-7.
- Bloom, Ken; Vlastnik, Frank; Lithgow, John (2007). Sitcoms: The 101 Greatest TV Comedies of All Time. Black Dog Publishing. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-57912-752-7.
- Colucci, Jim (July 26, 2016). Golden Girls Forever: An Unauthorized Look Behind the Lanai. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-0624-2292-7. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- Kinosian, Janet (February 1, 1988). Making Up Is Hard to Do. Orange Coast. p. 157. ISSN 0279-0483. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "The Golden Girls". Archive of American Television. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- "20 Fun Facts About 'The Golden Girls'". Mental Floss. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
- Interviewer: Jim Colucci (May 4, 2006). Rue McClanahan on Blanche's accent on "The Golden Girls". The Interviews: An Oral History of Television. Retrieved July 28, 2020 – via YouTube.
- Colucci, Jim (July 26, 2016). Golden Girls Forever: An Unautorized Look Behind the Lanai. Harper Collins. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-0624-2292-7. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- "Betty White and Bea Arthur's Friends Open Up About Their On-Set Feud". Closer. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- Darrisaw, Michelle. "Say It Isn't So, Girls! Details on Betty White and Bea Arthur's Off-Screen Feud". Southern Living. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
- "CNN Official Interview: Betty White: Bea Arthur was not fond of me". CNN. May 4, 2011. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
- McClanahan, Rue (2007). My First Five Husbands...And the Ones Who Got Away. Broadway Books. pp. 273–275. ISBN 9780767927796. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- "ABC Studios". The TV IV. August 30, 2007. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Mills, Nancy (October 30, 1987). "'Golden Girls' Polishes Its Scripts: Daily Revisions Geared to Sharpen Story and Hone Those Laugh Lines". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Adalian, Josef (February 28, 2013). "Marc Cherry Shares His Memories of Writing for Golden Girls". New York. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- Interviewer: Beth Cochran (June 25, 2010). Christopher Lloyd discusses "The Golden Girls" cast. The Interviews: An Oral History of Television. Retrieved July 28, 2020 – via YouTube.
- Nolasco, Stephanie (November 9, 2017). "Golden Girls weren't so chummy off the screen, star's son reveals". Fox News. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2018 – via News.com.au.
- Interviewer: Jim Colucci (May 4, 2006). Rue McClanahan Interview - Part 4 of 5. The Interviews: An Oral History of Television. Retrieved July 28, 2020 – via YouTube.
- Estelle Getty of 'Golden Girls' Dies at 84, YouTube, archived from the original on February 4, 2021, retrieved September 30, 2019
- Weber, Bruce (July 23, 2008). "Estelle Getty, 'Golden Girls' Matriarch, Dies at 84". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- Estelle Getty of 'Golden Girls' Dies at 84, retrieved September 30, 2019
- Nolasco, Stephanie (November 8, 2017). "Bea Arthur's son says she 'wasn't really close to anybody' despite 'Golden Girls' fame". Fox News. Archived from the original on July 31, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
- "Bea Arthur (2002)". Intimate Portrait. September 17, 2016. Lifetime. Retrieved September 13, 2018 – via YouTube.
- Terrace, Vincent (2011). Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 Through 2010. McFarland. p. 2528. ISBN 978-0-7864-8641-0. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- Breen, Kerry (July 16, 2020). "'Golden Girls' house goes on sale — see what the inside really looks like". Today. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Colucci 2016 p. 317-318
- Colucci, 2016 pg. 324
- Colucci, 2016, p. 333
- Wyckoff, Anna (Spring 2012). "The Changing Face of Modern Television: When Costume Design Costars". The Costume Designer. Archived from the original on January 17, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- Colucci, 2016 pg. 333
- Hoffman, Barbara (January 28, 2002). "Bea-ing Stylish: Former "Golden Girl" Bea Arthur Talks About Comfort Clothes, Going Barefoot and Her Famous "Maude" Wardrobe". New York Post. Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- Colucci, 2016, 333
- Colucci, 2016, 338
- Kovalchik, Kara (January 14, 2014). "7 Must-Have Items from Rue McClanahan's Estate Sale". MentalFloss. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- Colucci, 2016, 339
- Rosewarne, Lauren (2012). Periods in Pop Culture: Menstruation in Film and Television. Lexington Books. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7391-7000-7. Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- DeCaro, Frank (2011). The Dead Celebrity Cookbook: A Resurrection of Recipes from More Than 145 Stars of Stage and Screen. Health Communications Inc. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-7573-1596-1. Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- Huryk, Harry (July 1, 2007). The Golden Girls – The Ultimate Viewing Guide. Lulu.com. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4116-8528-4. Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2013.[self-published source]
- "30 Things You Never Knew About 'The Golden Girls'". ABC News. September 15, 2015. Archived from the original on February 24, 2016. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
- Hunt, Stacey Wilson. "The Golden Girls Creators On Finding a New Generation of Fans". Vulture. Archived from the original on June 2, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "'Golden Girls' Tops Ratings". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. September 17, 1985. Archived from the original on December 18, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "Gays and Closets—a TV Controversy". Los Angeles Times. April 21, 1991. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- "'The Golden Girls' And Gay Marriage: Classic Sitcom Showed Support 20 Years Before Obama". The Huffington Post. May 10, 2012. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Golden Girls Reunion. Lifetime Television. 2003. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- "Legends". Walt Disney Company. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- "The Golden Girls". TV Land. Archived from the original on August 20, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- "Preview 2: The Golden Girls Arrive on Logo April 13th". Logotv.com. March 6, 2013. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- "The Golden Girls". Hulu. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
- "The Golden Girls – 25th Anniversary Complete Collection" (Press release). Walt Disney Studios. September 7, 2010. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- The Golden Girls: A Lifetime Intimate Portrait Series (DVD). Warner Home Video. November 15, 2005. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
- The Night Season. The Night Season. 2004. doi:10.5040/9780571284313.00000006. ISBN 978-0571284313.
- "Golden Girls, The - Season 2". www.jbhifi.com.au. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- "Golden Girls, The – Season 03". Sanity. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- "Golden Girls, The – Season 4". www.jbhifi.com.au. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- "Golden Girls, The – Season 5". www.jbhifi.com.au. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- "Golden Girls, The – Season 6". www.jbhifi.com.au. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- "Golden Girls, The – Season 7". www.jbhifi.com.au. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- "Golden Girls, The – Season 1–7". www.jbhifi.com.au. Archived from the original on February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- DuBrow, Rick (September 10, 1991). "'Golden Girls' Creator Adds Shows". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- O'Connor, John J. (September 25, 1992). "TV Weekend; 3 of the Golden Girls in a New Home". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- Morris, Etta (June 7, 1987). "The Golden Girls Has Been A Delight From Its Inception". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
- Rosenberg, Howard (October 8, 1988). "Empty Nest Looks Like Good Place to Nestle Down". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- Jacobs, Leonard (December 8, 2003). "'Golden Girls: Live!' Sent to Shady Pines". Backstage. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Grogan, Zilka (July 2, 2013). "Thank You For Being a Friend brings the Golden Girls to the stage as puppets". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Sweeney, Jill (November 17, 2019). "Dorothy & Blanche & Rose & Sophia". TheaterJones. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Gerson, Jeffrey (July 29, 2010). "Golden Girls Hits Spain". The Advocate. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "Golden Girls Intro (Dutch)". YouTube. October 11, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
- Francisco, Butch (November 15, 2001). "A rivalry that never was". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- "Большие Девочки" [Big Girls] (in Russian). amedia.ru. 2006. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "TVE comienza a rodar 'Juntas, pero no revueltas', su versión de 'Las chicas de oro'". El País (in Spanish). elpais.com. June 9, 1995. Archived from the original on February 4, 2021. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "TVE presenta el remake: 'Volvemos a la sitcom pero con valor seguro'" (in Spanish). vertele.com. July 27, 2010. Archived from the original on November 29, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- ""Las Chicas de Oro" relucen en su estreno con 4 millones" (in Spanish). vertele.com. September 14, 2010. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "'Las Chicas de Oro' españolas ni son renovadas ni lo merecían" (in Spanish). vertele.com. December 14, 2010. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- Balıksirtı, Şengül. "Altin Kizlar'in Setine Gizli Kamera Koymak Gerek" (in Turkish). Istanbul, Turkey. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- Altin kizlar, archived from the original on June 11, 2019, retrieved September 16, 2018
- Viner, Brian (August 30, 2000). "Heard the one about the US sense of humour?". The Independent. London: Independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- Jorgensen, Jillian (February 8, 2017). "'Golden Girls' cafe Rue La Rue has soft opening in Washington Heights". AM New York. Archived from the original on December 29, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- "'Golden Girls' Cafe in Manhattan Closes After Less Than a Year". WNBC News. November 20, 2017. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Golden Girls|