The Durutti Column
|Origin||Greater Manchester, England|
|Genres||Post-punk, ambient, dream pop, post-rock|
|Labels||Factory, Artful, Kookydisc|
|Associated acts||Simply Red|
|Past members||Dave Rowbotham|
The Durutti Column are an English post-punk band formed in 1978 in Manchester, England. The band is a project of guitarist and occasional pianist Vini Reilly who is often accompanied by Bruce Mitchell on drums and Keir Stewart on bass, keyboards and harmonica. They were among the first acts signed to Factory Records by label founder Tony Wilson.
In 1978 Tony Wilson and Alan Erasmus, later partners in Factory Records, assembled a band around the remnants of local punk rock band Fast Breeder, drummer Chris Joyce and guitarist Dave Rowbotham. The name was derived from a misspelling of the Durruti Column, an anarchist military unit in the Spanish Civil War, named after Buenaventura Durruti. The name was also taken from a four-page comic strip entitled "Le Retour de la Colonne Durruti" ("The Return Of The Durruti Column") by André Bertrand, which was handed out amidst student protests in October 1966 at Strasbourg University.
On 25 January, Vini Reilly, former guitarist for local punk rock band Ed Banger and the Nosebleeds, joined, followed some weeks later by co-member vocalist Phil Rainford and, by the end of February, bassist Tony Bowers arrived from Alberto y Lost Trios Paranoias. The line-up was short-lived as Rainford was sacked in July, and replaced by actor Colin Sharp, who also became one of the songwriters. Rainford went on to produce for Nico and Suns of Arqa.
The Durutti Column played at the Factory club (organised by their managers), and cut two numbers for the first Factory Records release A Factory Sample, a double 7" compilation also featuring Joy Division, John Dowie and Cabaret Voltaire. On the eve of recording a debut album, the band broke up after a dispute about Wilson and Erasmus's choice of producer, Martin Hannett. Rowbotham, Bowers and Joyce went on to form The Mothmen (the latter two becoming members of Simply Red some years later), Sharp went on to form The Roaring 80s, SF Jive, and Glow, and also dedicated himself to acting; only Reilly remained.
With everyone's departure, The Durutti Column defaulted to Reilly's solo project. Other musicians contributed to recordings and live performances as occasioned. Former Alberto Y Lost Trios Paranoias drummer Bruce Mitchell doubled as co-manager with Wilson throughout their career on Factory and for many years afterwards.
1979–1990: Factory Records
The first album, 1980's The Return of the Durutti Column (title inspired by a 1967 Situationist International poster that includes that phrase), was produced by Martin Hannett. Reilly: "...he more or less got sounds for me that no one else could understand that I wanted. And he understood that I wanted to play the electric guitar but I didn't want this horrible distorted, usual electric guitar sound and he managed to get that." The record featured a sandpaper sleeve (like the title of the record, inspired by a Situationist joke, a book – Guy Debord's Mémoires – with a sandpaper cover to destroy other books on the shelf). "I didn't even know it was going to be an album. It was just the case of jumping at the chance of being in the studio. I actually didn't get up in time, Martin had to physically get me out of bed to get me to the studio – that's how little I believed it would happen. I was still doing late night petrol station shifts. I was even more amazed when Tony presented me with a white label. I was completely baffled. 'What, this is really going to be an album? You must be insane! No-one's going to buy this!' And then Tony got the idea from the Situationists about the sandpaper book, and decided to do some with a sandpaper sleeve. It was Joy Division that stuck the sandpaper onto the card. I was mortified."
The music was unlike anything else performed by post-punk acts at the time. Reilly rooting himself in "new wave" with "...an attempt at experimental things"; the record contained nine gentle guitar instrumentals (later releases occasionally feature Reilly's soft and hesitant vocals) including elements from jazz, folk, classical music and rock. Reilly: "...I had a lot of classical training when I was young, guitar and formal training, the scales I write with and the techniques I use are classical techniques and scales – a lot of minor melodic and minor harmonic scales, which generally aren't used in pop music. Usually it's pentatonic". Hannett's production included adding electronic rhythm and other effects, including birdsong on "Sketch for Summer". The album was accompanied by a flexidisc with two tracks by Hannett alone.
LC ("Lotta Continua", Italian for "continuous struggle"), released in 1981, was recorded without Hannett, and introduced percussionist Bruce Mitchell, Reilly's most frequent musical partner and occasional manager. It was recorded on a four-track cassette deck at home (while it was slightly padded in the studio, the tape hiss is intact); among the first crisp, professionally released recordings made cheaply at home. The EP Deux Triangles, released in 1982, contained three instrumentals, with piano emphasised over guitar. Another Setting (1983) was again Reilly and Mitchell; in 1984 the band was expanded to include Richard Henry (trombone), Maunagh Fleming (cor anglais and oboe), Blaine Reininger (of Tuxedomoon; violin and viola), Mervyn Fletcher (saxophone), Caroline Lavelle (cello), and Tim Kellett (trumpet). The album Without Mercy, arranged by John Metcalfe, was intended as an instrumental evocation of the poem La Belle Dame sans Merci by John Keats.
Say What You Mean was a departure from roots with the addition of deep electronic percussion. Kellett and Metcalfe remained (Metcalfe playing viola); they also appear alongside Reilly and Mitchell on Circuses and Bread (Factory Benelux in 1985) and Domo Arigato. The latter is a live album recorded in Tokyo and the first pop album released in the UK solely on the relatively new compact disc format (and also available on VHS and LaserDisc.)
Kellett left to join Simply Red, but guested on The Guitar and Other Machines (1987), the first new UK album to be released on Digital Audio Tape (as well as the usual media of LP, audio cassette and CD). The Guitar and Other Machines has a far more direct sound than earlier records, with guest vocals from Stanton Miranda and Reilly's then partner, Pol, and the use of a sequencer and drum machine in addition to Mitchell's drumming. The album was produced by Stephen Street, who also produced Morrissey's solo album, Viva Hate (1988), on which Reilly played guitar. Reilly claimed was neither properly credited, nor compensated for composing much of the music on this seminal album, but later redacted this claim. 
Vini Reilly (1989), also produced by Reilly and Street, features extensive use of sampling, with looped samples of vocalists (including Otis Redding, Tracy Chapman, Annie Lennox and Joan Sutherland) used as the basis for several tracks. Initial copies came with a 7" or CD single, "I Know Very Well How I Got My Note Wrong", credited to "Vincent Gerard and Steven Patrick", in which a take of the Morrissey B-side "I Know Very Well How I Got My Name" dissolves into laughter after Reilly hits a wrong note.
On Obey the Time (1990) Mitchell played on only one track, the album being otherwise a solo recording by Reilly, heavily influenced by contemporary dance music. The album's title is a phrase uttered by the titular character of William Shakespeare's Othello toward his fiance, Desdemona in Act One, Scene Two: "I have but an hour of love, of worldly matters and direction, To spend with thee: we must obey the time." An accompanying single, "The Together Mix", featured two reworkings of album tracks by Together, Jonathon Donaghy and Suddi Raval (Donaghy was killed in a car crash in Ibiza before the single was released). This was to be the last Durutti Column record released by Factory, in early 1991.
1990 onwards: after Factory
For the first few years after the demise of Factory, the only Durutti Column album releases were Lips That Would Kiss (a 1991 collection of early singles, compilation contributions and unreleased material on the separate label Factory Benelux), and Dry (1991) and Red Shoes (1992), Italian collections of alternate versions and unreleased outtakes.
In 1993 Tony Wilson attempted to revive Factory Records, and Sex and Death was the first release on Factory Too (a subdivision of London Records). The album was once again produced by Stephen Street, with Mitchell and Metcalfe, and it included, on the track "The Next Time", Peter Hook of New Order. Time Was Gigantic ... When We Were Kids, which followed in 1998, was produced by Keir Stewart, who also played on the album and has frequently worked with Reilly since. Fidelity was released between these albums in 1996 by Les Disques du Crépuscule and was produced by Laurie Laptop.
The eight albums recorded for Factory (The Return of the Durutti Column, LC, Another Setting, Without Mercy, Domo Arigato, The Guitar and Other Machines, Vini Reilly and Obey the Time) were re-released with additional material by Factory Too/London, under the banner Factory Once, between 1996 and 1998.
Factory Too effectively ended in 1998, and subsequent Durutti Column albums have been on independent labels Artful Records (Rebellion , Someone Else's Party , Keep Breathing , Idiot Savants ) or Kookydisc (Tempus Fugit , Sunlight to Blue . . . Blue to Blackness ). Kookydisc has also released two further volumes of The Sporadic Recordings (along with a slightly edited re-release of the first volume from 1989), remastered versions of two very scarce LPs from the early 1980s (Live At The Venue  and Amigos Em Portugal ), and two subscription-club discs of rare and unreleased material. A download-only release, Heaven Sent (It Was Called Digital, It Was Heaven Sent), first appeared in 2005 via Wilson's project F4, which was marketed as the fourth version of Factory Records.
On 7 September 2009, Colin Sharp died from a brain haemorrhage.
In the end, I don't know if it's good music or bad music or indifferent music. I have no idea. I don't really care too much, it's done with and over with. People would say, why do you release it anyway, if you don't really rate it? The answer is, whatever music it is, bad, good, indifferent, stupid, boring, whatever, – it's truthful. At the time, it's the truth, and it's honest. There's no attempt to portray an image or a career or anything. It's what it is. And truth can be painful. It's about losses close to me, and about my own depression, but it's cathartic. But you have to be truthful. If you're not true in what you do, if you're creative, then you should forget it. All I've ever tried to do is be truthful.— Vini Reilly
The film 24 Hour Party People shows Vini Reilly playing to an empty Haçienda (58:30 on the DVD). On the commentary track, however, Tony Wilson makes it clear that this is a "bit unfair" because Vini had a "real audience": "you can take him to Portugal and you get two thousand people, you can take him to Paris and you get eight hundred people, and in Manchester you get five or six hundred".
- The Return of the Durutti Column (Factory FACT 14, 1980) – original LP sleeve made of sandpaper – 1996 CD issue has same track listing and running order as the original sandpaper sleeve 'B1' and later black sleeve 'B3' vinyl pressings (and is missing the extra track from the black sleeve 'B2' LP release) (No. 7)
- Lips That Would Kiss EP (FAC BN 2-005, 1980)
- LC (Factory FACT 44, 1981) (No. 12)
- Deux Triangles EP (Factory Benelux FBN10, 1982)
- Another Setting (Factory FACT 74, 1983 – all CD issues have incorrect track listings) (No. 4)
- Short Stories For Pauline (Though recorded in 1983 and despite being given a catalogue number at the time, this album was not released in its originally intended form until 2012. Previous to this, tracks had been shared between the 1991 'Lips That Would Kiss' compilation and the LTM reissue of Circuses and Bread. In 2013 it was reissued again by LTM with 'Live in Bruxelles 13 August 1981' as a second CD.
- Amigos Em Portugal (Fundação Atlântica, 1983 – reissued on CD by Kooky in 2005) (No. 11)
- Without Mercy (Factory FACT 84, 1984) (No. 8)
- Say What You Mean, Mean What You Say EP (Factory FAC 114, 1985 – added to CD issues of Without Mercy) (No. 5)
- Circuses and Bread (Factory Benelux FACD 154, 1986 – reissued in 1993 with new artwork on Les Disques Du Crepuscule, titled "Bread and Circuses") (Reissued on LTM in 2008 with original artwork and 9 'bonus' tracks LTMCD 2510)(No. 11)
- "The City of Our Lady" (Factory Fac 184/A, 1986) with Debi Diamond (No. 46)
- Greetings Three EP (Materiali Sonori MASO 70003)
- The Guitar and Other Machines (Factory FACT 204, 1987 – also available as the first commercially released pre-recorded DAT) (No. 13)
- Vini Reilly (Factory FACT 244, 1989) (No. 5) – reissued in 2011 as a double CD by Kookydisc, featuring an extra 9 track disc of previously unissued demos and sketches.
- Obey the Time (Factory FACT 274, 1990)
- Sex and Death (Factory Too/London, 1994)
- Fidelity (Les Disques Du Crepuscule, 1996)
- Time was Gigantic... When we Were Kids (Factory Too/London, 1998)
- Rebellion (Artful CD40, 2001)
- Someone Else's Party (Artful CD49, 2003)
- Tempus Fugit (Kooky kookydisc019. 2004)
- Heaven Sent (It Was Called Digital. It Was Heaven Sent) (F4, 2005 – six tracks, download only)
- Keep Breathing (Artful CD52, 2006)
- Idiot Savants (Artful CD62, 2007) with guest vocalist, Poppy Roberts
- Sunlight to Blue... Blue to Blackness (Kooky kookydisc027, 2008)
- Treatise on the Steppenwolf OST (LTMCD 2518, 2008) (incidental music to theatre performance – mostly reworkings of recent material)
- Love in the Time of Recession (Artful CD64, 2009)
- A Paean To Wilson (Kooky, kookydisc 29/1 & 29/2, 2009 mail order, 2010 retail)
- Chronicle (Kooky, 2011)
- Chronicle XL (Kooky, 2014)
- The Sporadic Recordings (TTTTTTTTT CD, 1989 – demos and unreleased material – credited to Vini Reilly, not DC)
- Dry (Materiali Sonori, 1991 – collection of previously unreleased mid and late 1980s material)
- Red Shoes (Materiali Sonori, 1992 – collection of previously unreleased mid 1980s material and Greetings Three EP)
- Return of The Sporadic Recordings (Kooky, 2002 – double CD – abridged reissue of above 1989 Sporadic title with new disc of rare and previously unreleased material)
- Sporadic Three (Kooky, 2007 – another CD release of rare and previously unreleased material)
- Live At The Venue London (VU, 1983 – recorded in the UK, 1983 – original vinyl ltd. to 4000 copies – reissued on CD in 2004)
- Domo Arigato (live) (Factory FACT 144, 1985 – recorded in Japan 4/85 – the first pop compact-disc only release)
- Live at the Bottom Line New York (US ROIR - cassette only release in 1987, CD issued in 1993 – CD reissue in 1999 re-titled "A Night In New York" with bonus track but mistakes in track listing)
- Live in Bruxelles 13.8.1981 (LTM LTMCD 2499, 2008, including radio interview with Vini Reilly)
- Valuable Passages (Factory FACT 164 UK/Relativity US, 1986 – double LP, single CD)
- The First Four Albums (Factory, 1988 – 4-CD set of Return Of, LC, Another Setting and Without Mercy/Say What You Mean... – Return Of disc matches the full 10 tracks of the 'B2' black sleeve vinyl pressing, rather than the 9 tracks of the original sandpaper sleeve 'B1' or later black sleeve 'B3' LP pressings)
- Lips That Would Kiss (Factory Benelux CD, 1991 – early 1980s single and compilation tracks with previously unreleased material)
- The Best Of The Durutti Column (WEA UK, 2004 – double CD)
- Four Factory Records (Kooky – 6-CD box set of first four Factory albums plus two discs of demo & live material – limited edition of 1175 copies, August 2009)
- The Durutti Column 2001–2009 (Fullfill, November 2009 – 5-CD box set of the Artful albums with 7 bonus tracks - bonus tracks also available as a separate EP)
- M24J (Anthology) (Factory Benelux, 2018)
- Nice, James (2011) . Shadowplayers: The Rise and Fall of Factory Records (paperback ed.). London: Aurum Press. ISBN 978 1 84513 634 5.
- "Zeroing in on Martin". BBC. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Strong, Martin C. (1999) "The Great Alternative & Indie Discography", Canongate, ISBN 0-86241-913-1
- Shadowplayers, p49
- Shadowplayers, p29
- Vini Reilly: Always The Bridesmaid, Never The Bride. The Quietus.
- "Liner notes to "The Durutti Column Live at the Bottom Line, New York" by A.H. Wilson". Users.rcn.com. 24 January 1978. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "Vini Reilly interview, 13 August 1981, Muntplein (Brussels)". Users.rcn.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- The Durutti Column: Someone Else's Party. Pitchfork.
- Durutti Column. Trouser Press.
- "Jes'like DAT", Underground, December 1987 (Issue 9), p. 3
- "Morrissey: Vini Reilly Part 1". YouTube. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- News from New Writing North Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 11 September 2009.
- Lazell, Barry (1997). Indie Hits 1980–1999. Cherry Red Books. ISBN 0-9517206-9-4.
- "The Durutti Column: Short Stories For Pauline [LTM, 2012]". Discography.thedurutticolumn.info. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
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