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|The Comic Strip|
|Notable works and roles||The Comic Strip Presents... (1982–2000, 2005–2016)|
The Comic Strip is a group of British comedians who came to prominence in the 1980s. They are known for their television series The Comic Strip Presents... which was labelled as a pioneering example of the alternative comedy scene. The core members are Adrian Edmondson, Dawn French, Rik Mayall, Nigel Planer, Peter Richardson, Jennifer Saunders and Alexei Sayle, with frequent appearances by Keith Allen, Robbie Coltrane, Lanah P and others.
Two double acts, Adrian Edmondson and Rik Mayall under the name "20th Century Coyote" and Nigel Planer and Peter Richardson as "The Outer Limits", started performing at the newly-opened Comedy Store in London in mid-1980, alongside compere Alexei Sayle who had been resident there since the Comedy Store opened in 1979. Concurrently Richardson searched for a venue to mount a play he had produced with Michael White. He planned to run The Comic Strip late at night after the play's performances. He sourced the Raymond Revuebar in Soho, but realising it was unsuitable for a theatrical production and running out of enthusiasm for the play he decided to continue with the idea of a cabaret night. He persuaded the double acts and Sayle to move from the Comedy Store along with Arnold Brown, an older standup comic who did not fit so obviously into the alternative comedy scene. Sayle again resumed his compere duties and decided the running order, with Richardson having behind-the-scenes control. Richardson put out an advert for female performers which was answered by French and Saunders.
Richardson prompted members to sign a contract to signify their attachment to the group. The Comic Strip opened at the Revuebar's Boulevard Theatre on October 7, 1980 and ran until 1981, when the troupe went on a national tour and then a tour of Australia. While the performers gained more exposure, actors such as Jack Nicholson and Robin Williams turned up to watch. A half-hour television documentary about The Comic Strip was broadcast in 1981.
Richardson approached producer Mike Bolland, the newly-appointed Channel Four youth-and-entertainment commissioning editor to propose a series of Comic Strip films for the channel. Bolland agreed to his proposal, his first commission for the station and Jeremy Isaacs quickly approved the budget. Richardson negotiated a deal with the channel for six self-contained half-hour films, using the group as actors rather than standup performers. Almost simultaneously, the BBC signed Edmondson, Mayall, Planer and Sayle to star in The Young Ones, a sitcom in the same anarchic style as the Comic Strip. Richardson was initially to have been involved (in the role of Mike, ultimately played by Christopher Ryan), but was not due to differences between him and the show's producer, Paul Jackson.
The Comic Strip Presents...
|The Comic Strip Presents...|
|Created by||Peter Richardson|
|Written by||Peter Richardson|
|Directed by||Peter Richardson|
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
|No. of series||5|
|No. of episodes||42|
(List of The Comic Strip Presents... episodes)
|Running time||30 minutes|
|Original network||Channel 4 (1982–2000, 2005, 2011)|
|Original release||2 November 1982 –|
20 January 2016
The Comic Strip Presents... debuted on 2 November 1982, the opening night of Channel 4. Each episode was prefixed by an animated lead-in consisting of the words "The Comic Strip Presents" accompanied by a soundtrack consisting of a drum machine and a Farfisa organ rendition of Quando quando quando, together with a bomb labelled "Have a nice day", falling towards a map. In the early episodes the map was of a section of north Dorset and southern Wiltshire, centred on the town of Shaftesbury.
The first episode was "Five Go Mad in Dorset", a parody of The Famous Five. It was written by Peter Richardson and Pete Richens, who wrote most of the early episodes. "Five Go Mad..." drew anger from some viewers for the way it mercilessly satirised a children's classic, although the Enid Blyton estate had given permission for the broadcast. A meeting was called to discuss the group's future with Channel 4, after complaints from viewers.
The final episode of the first series was to have been a spoof chat show called "Back to Normal with Eddie Monsoon" (referred to as "An Evening with Eddie Monsoon" by some sources). It was never produced, as it was considered too vulgar even for the "alternative" Channel 4, and contained material that was possibly libellous. The script—which, uniquely for the Comic Strip, was written as a collaboration by the entire cast—was later published, along with the rest of the series, in book form.
A second series of seven episodes followed in 1983–84, including "Five Go Mad On Mescalin", a sequel to the first episode, and the newly written "Eddie Monsoon – A Life?", a spoof documentary on the life and times of the title character, an obscene, drunken television host (played by Adrian Edmondson). Michael White, the theatre impresario and Rocky Horror Show producer who had been brought in by Richardson as executive producer on the series, appeared in this episode as Monsoon's producer, who had been responsible for axing Eddie's television comeback show—called Back to Normal with Eddie Monsoon. The reasons given for the cancellation (e.g. "the things you said about Burt Reynolds") are presumably the same problems that led to the real "Back to Normal..." being dropped by Channel 4. (The name Eddie Monsoon—a corruption of "Edmondson"—was later used by Jennifer Saunders, Adrian Edmondson's wife, for her character in Absolutely Fabulous.) "A Fistful of Travellers' Cheques" was the first episode to be filmed outside the United Kingdom, being made on location in and around San José, Andalusia, Spain using some of the same locations as A Fistful of Dollars which it spoofs.
Two one-off episodes were aired on Channel 4 over Christmas 1985, reflecting the tight schedules of the group. "Consuela" was a French and Saunders-led pastiche of the Alfred Hitchcock film Rebecca (1940), with French's eponymous crazed housekeeper taking centre stage. The second episode, "Private Enterprise", was the tale of a music business rip-off, where Peter Richardson steals a studio recording session tape and passes the results off as his own work.
The group made two feature films—The Supergrass (1985) and Eat the Rich (1987)—as well as three one-off Comic Strip Presents... episodes which were the next to be screened on Channel 4. The first of these, "The Bullshitters", was a parody of television spy and detective shows such as The Professionals. It was not broadcast under the Comic Strip name, partly because of the original group only Richardson appears (he is the only performer to appear in every single episode), and partly because co-star and co-writer Keith Allen did not want to be so closely associated with the group.
The third series was broadcast in 1988, and some episodes had longer running times, mostly around 50 minutes. Five of the six episodes (all except "Funseekers") were given a limited theatrical release. They included "The Strike", which won the Golden Rose of Montreux; "More Bad News", a sequel to "Bad News Tour" showing the band reforming after five years to play at Castle Donington; and "Mr. Jolly Lives Next Door", written by Mayall and Edmondson in the violent style of their sitcoms Filthy Rich and Catflap and Bottom, which featured Peter Cook as a psychotic contract killer (the eponymous Mr. Jolly) and Nicholas Parsons. Peter Richardson and Pete Richens only contributed one episode to the third series, allowing cast members such as Planer and Sayle to get their ideas on screen.
By then, the show had proved a hit, and some big names appeared in later productions, including Leslie Phillips, Miranda Richardson, Lionel Jeffries, Nicholas Parsons, Peter Capaldi, Hugh Cornwell, Kate Bush, Richard Vernon, Ruby Wax, Graham Crowden, Paul McCartney, Ozzy Osbourne, Lemmy, Elvis Costello, and Benjamin Zephaniah (as a Rastafarian police van driver), and several musical acts, particularly from the Bad News series which was also aided by Queen guitarist Brian May, such as Def Leppard and Marillion.
BBC and after
In 1990, the series transferred to BBC2. By now, all the regulars (with the exception of Peter Richardson) had become more famous for their own shows, and more recurring performers such as Gary Beadle, Phil Cornwell, Steve O'Donnell, Mark Caven, Sara Stockbridge and Doon Mackichan were brought in. Rik Mayall was contracted to ITV's The New Statesman, and was only able to appear in two of the BBC productions ("GLC", and the Comic Relief special "Red Nose of Courage"). Richardson and Richens took over the bulk of the writing again, and Richardson also took over as director, having previously directed the two feature films, as well as The Strike. The six-part 1990 series was followed by three individual specials in 1992, and a final six episodes in 1993.
Return to Channel 4
In 1998, the original team reunited and returned to Channel 4 for the first time since 1988, for a one-off special, Four Men In A Car. This was followed in 2000 by a sequel, Four Men In A Plane. After a five-and-a-half-year hiatus, another 60-minute one-off special, "Sex Actually", was made in 2005. It starred Sheridan Smith (Two Pints of Lager and a Packet of Crisps) and Tamer Hassan (Layer Cake) alongside several of the regular cast members. Four Men in a Car was notable for being the first broadcast, on either television or radio, to involve Rik Mayall since his quad bike accident. Permission was thus given by Mayall's family to show the special.
Peter Richardson, who has built his career as a writer-director with the TV series Stella Street and films such as Churchill: The Hollywood Years, has not ruled out the possibility of a whole new series of The Comic Strip Presents... featuring younger cast members.
In June 2011 a casting call went out for a new hour-long episode, starring most of the original team. This was followed by an announcement that The Comic Strip was to produce a one-off special entitled The Hunt for Tony Blair, starring Stephen Mangan as Blair and Robbie Coltrane as Inspector Hutton. The one-off show included Jennifer Saunders (as Margaret Thatcher) as well as Harry Enfield, Rik Mayall and a host of others.
The move to Gold
As of 2009, the archive of Channel 4 episodes has been broadcast on UKTV's flagship channel, Gold. In May 2010, it was announced that Gold would broadcast the next new scripted episode of the series, "Five Go to Rehab," along with a 30th-anniversary documentary. "Five Go to Rehab" is a sequel to "Five Go Mad in Dorset" and featured the entire original cast (Ade Edmonson, Dawn French, Jennifer Saunders, Peter Richardson, as well as Rik Mayall, Nigel Planer, Stephen Mangan and Robbie Coltrane), and it was filmed in the first weeks of July 2012, in and around Totnes. Richardson wrote and directed the film. The film showcased the characters thirty years on trying to recapture their youth. The film broadcast on Gold 7 November 2012.
In addition, a documentary broadcast 3 November 2012, 30 Years of Comic Strip, detailed the filming and reception of several Comic Strip episodes including both original "Five Go Mad" episodes, "The Strike" and its somewhat sequel "GLC: The Carnage Continues", "A Fistful of Travellers' Cheques", "The Bullshitters"/"Detectives on the Edge of A Nervous Breakdown", "Bad News Tour"/"More Bad News" and "The Hunt for Tony Blair". For "A Fistful of Travellers' Cheques", a short sequel was made broadcast in several parts, showing the two main characters reunite, despite the ending of the original episode. Unshown scenes of the original episode were also aired for the first time. For the Bad News part of the documentary, Planer and Richardson dressed up as Den Dennis and Spider Webb and in character recalled their time as Bad News. Some of the telling of the Bad News story was real, due to their real-life signing to EMI, and some fictional, such as the scenes from More Bad News detailing the recording of their debut album. A lot of the original cast were interviewed for the documentary, alongside other people involved with the series at some point such as James Buckley and Stephen Mangan. As Gold, in its current format at least, has never shown the BBC's "GLC", "...Nervous Breakdown", or Channel 4's "The Hunt for Tony Blair", these were the first time clips from these episodes were aired on the channel.
In May 2018, a two-hour documentary history produced by Sean Doherty aired on Gold titled How The Young Ones Changed Comedy. It combined archive footage with revelations from many of the stars involved—such as Nigel Planer, Alexei Sayle, John Lloyd, Paul Jackson and Lise Mayer—while later comedians discussed its impact on British comedy generally.
Video and DVD releases
In 1986, Virgin Video released various episodes of the programme dating between 1982 and '84, which have now become rare. The 1988 series was released on video the same year by Palace Video, each episode having its own video. The only existing episode of the BBC series on video is "GLC", which PolyGram Video released with "The Strike" in 1994. When the Virgin and Palace Video videos went out of print in 1990, the rights were transferred to PolyGram Video. After three years all the Channel 4 episodes of The Comic Strip were released on video.
Eat the Rich (1987) has not been released on DVD in the UK. Eat the Rich is available as a Region 1 (American) DVD, a Region 2 (German) DVD, and a Region 4 (Australian) DVD. The Supergrass was released to VHS and DVD in 2003, albeit favouring the short 93-minute version rather than the longer original which had been released theatrically and on VHS (103 minutes) in the late 1980s.
A nine-disc Region 2 DVD set, The Comic Strip Presents: The Complete Collection was released in July 2005 (and re-released in August 2007). This included all the Channel 4 and BBC episodes (finally canonising The Bullshitters as a Comic Strip episode) plus The Supergrass across eight discs, but not Eat the Rich (due to rights issues), and was released too early to include ...Sex Actually. The ninth disc includes a retrospective documentary from 2005, Julien Temple's 1981 film The Comic Strip (which retroactively lays a strong claim to being the actual first 'episode'), and the two Comic Strip episodes of the 1998 documentary series First On Four. Across the new and archive documentaries are featured interviews with every single key Comic Strip member.
The DVD set contains revised edits of South Atlantic Raiders (both parts approximately 10 minutes), Wild Turkey and Four Men In A Car, in addition to featuring the pre-existing, 93-minute version of 'The Supergrass'. The DVD re-editing was a deliberate creative decision, with the work undertaken by Peter Richardson himself alongside editor Geoff Hogg, though the decision was a controversial one with fans of the series.
As of 1 May 2012, the entire Comic Strip Presents... series was available on Netflix's streaming service in the U.S., split into eight seasons. It was removed in May 2013.
A slimmed down, five-disc Region 2 DVD set The Best of The Comic Strip Presents was released on 7 October 2013. This includes the first disc release of ...Sex Actually, The Hunt for Tony Blair and Five Go to Rehab as well as Gold's 30th-anniversary documentary. From the earlier box set, the following films were included: Bad News Tour, More Bad News (revised edit), Five Go Mad In Dorset, Fistful of Travellers' Cheques, Strike, G.L.C., Gino, Susie, Mr Jolly Lives Next Door, Spaghetti Hoops, Red Nose of Courage, Bullshitters, Detectives on the Edge of a Nervous Breakdown, Gregory Diary of a Nutcase, The Crying Game, Four Men in a Car (revised edit) and Four Men in a Plane
List of Comic Strip episodes
|The Comic Strip||Edmondson, Mayall, Richardson, Planer, Sayle, French, Saunders, Brown||Julien Temple||Edmondson, Mayall, Richardson, Planer, Sayle, French, Saunders, Brown|
|Series 1 (1982–83)|
|01||Five Go Mad in Dorset||2 November 1982||Richardson, Richens||Bob Spiers||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Daniel Peacock, Richardson, Saunders, Ron Tarr, Nosher Powell, Ronald Allen|
|02||War||3 January 1983||Richardson, Richens||Bob Spiers||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Peacock, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|03||The Beat Generation||17 January 1983||Richardson, Richens||Bob Spiers||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Peacock, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|04||Bad News Tour||24 January 1983||Edmondson||Sandy Johnson||Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|05||Summer School||31 January 1983||French||Sandy Johnson||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|Series 2 (1983–84)|
|06||Five Go Mad on Mescalin||2 November 1983||Richardson, Richens||Bob Spiers||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Peacock, Richardson, Saunders, Ronald Allen|
|07||Dirty Movie||7 January 1984||Edmondson, Mayall||Sandy Johnson||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|08||Susie||14 January 1984||Richardson, Richens||Bob Spiers||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Pellay (aka Pillay), Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|09||A Fistful of Travellers' Cheques||21 January 1984||Mayall, Richardson, Richens||Bob Spiers||Allen, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Peacock, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|10||Gino: Full Story and Pics||28 January 1984||Richardson, Richens||Bob Spiers||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Peacock, Pellay (aka Pillay), Richardson, Saunders, Arnold Brown|
|11||Eddie Monsoon – A Life?||4 February 1984||Edmondson||Sandy Johnson||Edmondson, French, Richardson, Saunders|
|12||Slags||11 February 1984||Saunders||Sandy Johnson||Edmondson, French, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|13||The Bullshitters: Roll Out the Gunbarrel||3 November 1984||Richardson, Allen||Stephen Frears||Allen, Coltrane, Pellay (aka Pillay), Richardson, Kevin Allen|
|Feature film (1985)|
|The Supergrass||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Peacock, Pellay (aka Pillay), Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Sayle|
|14||Consuela, or The New Mrs Saunders||1 January 1986||French, Saunders||Stephen Frears||Edmondson, French, Mayall, Richardson, Saunders|
|15||Private Enterprise||2 January 1986||Edmondson||Adrian Edmondson||Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|Feature film (1987)|
|Eat the Rich||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Pellay (aka Pillay), Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Miranda Richardson|
|Series 3 (1988)|
|16||The Strike||20 February 1988||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Peacock, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Sayle, Kevin Allen, Ronald Allen|
|17||More Bad News||27 February 1988||Edmondson||Adrian Edmondson||Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|18||Mr Jolly Lives Next Door||5 March 1988||Edmondson, Mayall, Rowland Rivron||Stephen Frears||Edmondson, French, Mayall, Richardson, Saunders, Peter Cook, Nicholas Parsons|
|19||The Yob||12 March 1988||Allen, Peacock||Ian Emes||Allen, Edmondson, Richardson|
|20||Didn't You Kill My Brother?||19 March 1988||Sayle, David Stafford, Pauline Melville||Bob Spiers||Richardson, Sayle, Kevin Allen, Dexter Fletcher|
|21||Funseekers||26 March 1988||Planer, Doug Lucie||Baz Taylor||Allen, Planer, Richardson, Kevin Allen, Kathy Burke (as "Cathy Burke")|
|Series 4 (1990)|
|22||South Atlantic Raiders||1 February 1990||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Kathy Burke, Lenny Henry|
|23||South Atlantic Raiders: Argie Bargie!||8 February 1990||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Kevin Allen, Ronald Allen, Kathy Burke|
|24||GLC: The Carnage Continues...||15 February 1990||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Kevin Allen, Gary Beadle|
|25||Oxford||22 February 1990||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Edmondson, French, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Ronald Allen, Lenny Henry|
|26||Spaghetti Hoops||1 March 1990||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Allen, French, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Sayle, Tim McInnerny|
|27||Les Dogs||8 March 1990||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Allen, Edmondson, Peacock, Richardson, Sayle, Kevin Allen, Gary Beadle, Kate Bush, Tim McInnerny, Miranda Richardson|
|Feature film (1991)|
|The Pope Must Die||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Coltrane, Edmondson, Richardson, John Sessions, Alex Rocco, Annette Crosbie, Herbert Lom, Beverly D'Angelo|
|28||Red Nose of Courage||9 April 1992||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Sayle, Phil Cornwell, Mark Caven, and Doon Mackichan|
|29||The Crying Game||5 May 1992||Richardson, Allen||Peter Richardson, Keith Allen||Allen, Planer, Richardson, Gary Beadle, Phil Cornwell, Doon Mackichan and Mark Caven.|
|30||Wild Turkey||24 December 1992||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Richardson, Saunders, Gary Beadle, Phil Cornwell, Ruby Wax|
|Series 5 (1993)|
|31||Detectives on the Edge of a Nervous Breakdown||22 April 1993||Richardson, Allen||Peter Richardson, Keith Allen||Allen, Richardson, Kevin Allen, Gary Beadle, Jim Broadbent, Phil Cornwell, Doon Mackichan and Mark Caven.|
|32||Space Virgins from Planet Sex||29 April 1993||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson, Keith Allen||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Richardson, Saunders, Kevin Allen, Gary Beadle, Phil Cornwell, Doon Mackichan, Mark Caven, Miranda Richardson|
|33||Queen of the Wild Frontier||6 May 1993||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Richardson, Sayle, Gary Beadle|
|34||Gregory: Diary of a Nutcase||13 May 1993||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Allen, Edmondson, Planer, Richardson, Mark Caven, Phil Cornwell, Doon Mackichan|
|35||Demonella||20 May 1993||Paul Bartel, Barry Dennen||Paul Bartel||Allen, Coltrane, Edmondson, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Miranda Richardson|
|36||Jealousy||27 May 1993||Coltrane, Morag Fullarton||Robbie Coltrane||Coltrane, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Peter Capaldi, Kevin Allen, Gary Beadle, Kathy Burke, Miranda Richardson|
|37||Four Men in a Car||12 April 1998||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Edmondson, French, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders|
|38||Four Men in a Plane||4 January 2000||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Edmondson, Mayall, Planer, Richardson|
|Feature film (2004)|
|Churchill: The Hollywood Years||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Christian Slater, Mayall, Phil Cornwell, Harry Enfield, Leslie Phillips, Miranda Richardson, Neve Campbell, Antony Sher, Reeves and Mortimer|
|39||…Sex Actually||28 December 2005||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Phil Cornwell, Doon Mackichan, Sheridan Smith|
|40||The Hunt for Tony Blair||14 October 2011||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Coltrane, Mayall, Planer, Richardson, Saunders, Stephen Mangan, Harry Enfield|
|41||Five Go to Rehab||7 November 2012||Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||Coltrane, Edmondson, French, Mayall, Richardson, Saunders, Planer, Peacock, Mangan.|
|42||Redtop||20 January 2016||Brigit Grant, Richardson, Richens||Peter Richardson||James Buckley, Enfield, Mangan, O'Donnell, Sidney Mayall, Maxine Peake, Planer, Richardson, Russell Tovey, Sayle, Sessions, Johnny Vegas, Mark Williams|
- Rosengard, Peter; Wilmut, Roger (1989). Didn't You Kill My Mother-in-law?: The Story of Alternative Comedy in Britain from The Comedy Store to Saturday Live. Methuen Drama. ISBN 978-0-413-17390-4.
- Johnson, David (1 January 1981). "Something Funny is Happening in Stripland". Over21, page 36, republished at Shapersofthe80s. London. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Jones, Ian. "Blah Blah Blah Ian Jones on The Comic Strip Presents…". Off the Telly. Off the Telly. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Keith Allen (2008). Grow Up. Random House. p. 267. ISBN 978-0091910716.
- Hints over a new Comic Strip series Archived 29 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Comic Strip presents... - Exeter". Starnow.co.uk. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- Guest, Alex. "Comic Strip returns in The Hunt for Tony Blair". TV Pixie. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "Original Comic Strip cast back 'Go Mad' in Totnes 30 years on". Totnes FM. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- "How The Young Ones Changed Comedy". Gold.UKTV, producer Sean Doherty. 28 May 2018.
- "Ian Emes Presents…(15)". Artsfest programme. Birmingham City Council. 2011. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2011.