Thatcherism comprises the conviction, economic, social and political style of the British Conservative Party politician Margaret Thatcher, who was leader of her party from 1975 to 1990. It has also been used to describe the principles of the British government under Thatcher as Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and beyond into the governments of John Major, David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson. An exponent of Thatcherism is regarded as a "Thatcherite". Thatcherism represented a systematic, decisive rejection and reversal of the post-war consensus, whereby the major political parties largely agreed on the central themes of Keynesianism, the welfare state, nationalised industry and close regulation of the British economy. There was one major exception, the NHS, which was widely popular. In 1982, she promised the British people that the NHS is "safe in our hands".
Both the exact terms of what makes up Thatcherism as well as its specific legacy in terms of British history over the past decades are controversial. In terms of ideology, Thatcherism has been described by Nigel Lawson, Thatcher's Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1983 to 1989, as a political platform emphasising free markets with restrained government spending and tax cuts, coupled with British nationalism both at home and abroad. The Daily Telegraph stated in April 2008 that the programme of the next non-Conservative British government, Tony Blair's administration with an emphasis on New Labour, basically accepted the central reform measures of Thatcherism such as deregulation, privatisation of key national industries, maintaining a flexible labour market, marginalising the trade unions and centralising power from local authorities to central government.
Thatcherism attempts to promote low inflation, the small state and free markets through tight control of the money supply, privatisation and constraints on the labour movement. It is often compared with Reaganomics in the United States, economic rationalism in Australia and Rogernomics in New Zealand and as a key part of the worldwide economic liberal movement.
Nigel Lawson, Thatcher's Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1983 to 1989, listed the Thatcherite ideals as "free markets, financial discipline, firm control over public expenditure, tax cuts, nationalism, 'Victorian values' (of the Samuel Smiles self-help variety), privatisation and a dash of populism". Thatcherism is thus often compared to classical liberalism. Milton Friedman said that "Margaret Thatcher is not in terms of belief a Tory. She is a nineteenth-century Liberal".
Thatcher herself stated in 1983: "I would not mind betting that if Mr Gladstone were alive today he would apply to join the Conservative Party". In the 1996 Keith Joseph memorial lecture, Thatcher argued: "The kind of Conservatism which he and I [...] favoured would be best described as 'liberal', in the old-fashioned sense. And I mean the liberalism of Mr Gladstone, not of the latter day collectivists". Thatcher once told Friedrich Hayek: "I know you want me to become a Whig; no, I am a Tory". Hayek believed "she has felt this very clearly". The relationship between Thatcherism and liberalism is complicated. Thatcher's former Defence Secretary John Nott claimed that "it is a complete misreading of her beliefs to depict her as a nineteenth-century Liberal".
As Ellen Meiksins Wood has argued, Thatcherite capitalism was compatible with traditional British political institutions. As Prime Minister, Thatcher did not challenge ancient institutions such as the monarchy or the House of Lords, but some of the most recent additions such as the trade unions. Indeed, many leading Thatcherites, including Thatcher herself, went on to join the House of Lords, an honour which William Ewart Gladstone, for instance, had declined. Thinkers closely associated with Thatcherism include Keith Joseph, Enoch Powell, Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman. In an interview with Simon Heffer in 1996, Thatcher stated that the two greatest influences on her as Conservative leader had been Joseph and Powell, who were both "very great men".
Thatcher was a strong critic of communism, Marxism and socialism. Biographer John Campbell reports that in July 1978 when asked by a Labour MP in Commons what she meant by socialism "she was at a loss to reply. What in fact she meant was Government support for inefficient industries, punitive taxation, regulation of the labour market, price controls – everything that interfered with the functioning of the free economy".
Thatcherism before Thatcher
A number of commentators have traced the origins of Thatcherism in post-war British politics. The historian Ewen Green claimed there was resentment of the inflation, taxation and the constraints imposed by the labour movement, which was associated with the so-called Buttskellite consensus in the decades before Thatcher came to prominence. Although the Conservative leadership accommodated itself to the Clement Attlee government's post-war reforms, there was continuous right-wing opposition in the lower ranks of the party, in right-wing pressure groups like the Middle Class Alliance and the People's League for the Defence of Freedom and later in think tanks like the Centre for Policy Studies. For example, in the 1945 general election the Conservative Party chairman Ralph Assheton had wanted 12,000 abridged copies of The Road to Serfdom (a book by the anti-socialist economist Friedrich Hayek later closely associated with Thatcherism), taking up one-and-a-half tons of the party's paper ration, distributed as election propaganda.
The historian Dr. Christopher Cooper traced the formation of the monetarist economics at the heart of Thatcherism back to the resignation of Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer Peter Thorneycroft in 1958.
As early as 1950, Thatcher accepted the consensus of the day about the welfare state, claiming the credit belonged to the Conservatives in a speech to the Conservative Association annual general meeting. Biographer Charles Moore states:
Neither at the beginning of her career nor when she was prime minister, did Margaret Thatcher ever reject the wartime foundations of the welfare state, whether in health, social policy or education. In this she was less radical than her critics or some of her admirers supposed. Her concern was to focus more on abuse of the system, on bureaucracy and union militancy, and on the growth of what later came to be called the dependency culture, rather than on the system itself.
Historian Richard Vinen is sceptical about there being Thatcherism before Thatcher.
Thatcherism is often described as a libertarian ideology. Thatcher saw herself as creating a libertarian movement, rejecting traditional Toryism. Thatcherism is associated with libertarianism within the Conservative Party, albeit one of libertarian ends achieved by using strong and sometimes authoritarian leadership. British political commentator Andrew Marr has called libertarianism the "dominant, if unofficial, characteristic of Thatcherism". Whereas some of her heirs, notably Michael Portillo and Alan Duncan, embraced this libertarianism, others in the Thatcherite movement such as John Redwood sought to become more populist.
Some commentators have argued that Thatcherism should not be considered properly libertarian. Noting the tendency towards strong central government in matters concerning the trade unions and local authorities, Andrew Gamble summarised Thatcherism as "the free economy and the strong state". Simon Jenkins accused the Thatcher government of carrying out a nationalisation of Britain. Libertarian political theorist Murray Rothbard did not consider Thatcherism to be libertarian and heavily criticised Thatcher and Thatcherism stating that "Thatcherism is all too similar to Reaganism: free-market rhetoric masking statist content".
Thatcherism as a form of government
Another important aspect of Thatcherism is the style of governance. Britain in the 1970s was often referred to as "ungovernable". Thatcher attempted to redress this by centralising a great deal of power to herself, as the Prime Minister, often bypassing traditional cabinet structures (such as cabinet committees). This personal approach also became identified with personal toughness at times such as the Falklands War, the IRA bomb at the Conservative conference and the miners' strike.
Sir Charles Powell, the Foreign Affairs Private Secretary to the Prime Minister (1984–1991 and 1996) described her style as such: "I've always thought there was something Leninist about Mrs Thatcher which came through in the style of government: the absolute determination, the belief that there's a vanguard which is right and if you keep that small, tightly knit team together, they will drive things through ... there's no doubt that in the 1980s, No. 10 could beat the bushes of Whitehall pretty violently. They could go out and really confront people, lay down the law, bully a bit".
Thatcherism is associated with the economic theory of monetarism, notably put forward by Friedrich Hayek's The Constitution of Liberty which Thatcher had banged on a table while saying "this is what we believe". In contrast to previous government policy, monetarism placed a priority on controlling inflation over controlling unemployment. According to monetarist theory, inflation is the result of there being too much money in the economy. It was claimed that the government should seek to control the money supply to control inflation. By 1979, it was not only the Thatcherites who were arguing for stricter control of inflation. The Labour Chancellor Denis Healey had already adopted some monetarist policies, such as reducing public spending and selling off the government's shares in BP.
Moreover, it has been argued that the Thatcherites were not strictly monetarist in practice. A common theme centres on the Medium Term financial Strategy, issued in the 1980 Budget, which consisted of targets for reducing the growth of the money supply in the following years. After overshooting many of these targets, the Thatcher government revised the targets upwards in 1982. Analysts have interpreted this as an admission of defeat in the battle to control the money supply. The economist C. F. Pratten claimed that "since 1984, behind a veil of rhetoric, the government has lost any faith it had in technical monetarism. The money supply, as measured by £M3, has been allowed to grow erratically, while calculation of the PSBR is held down by the ruse of subtracting the proceeds of privatisation as well as taxes from government expenditure. The principles of monetarism have been abandoned".
Thatcherism is also associated with supply-side economics. Whereas Keynesian economics holds that the government should stimulate economic growth by increasing demand through increased credit and public spending, supply-side economists argue that the government should instead intervene only to create a free market by lowering taxes, privatising state industries and increasing restraints on trade unionism.
Trade union legislation
Reduction in the power of the trades unions was made gradually, unlike the approach of the Edward Heath government and the greatest single confrontation with the unions was the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) strike of 1984–1985, in which the miners' union was eventually defeated. There is evidence that this confrontation with the trade unions was anticipated by both the Conservative Party and the NUM. The outcome contributed to the resurgence of the power of capital over labour.
All too often the ills of this country are passed off as those of society. Similarly, when action is required, society is called upon to act. But society as such does not exist except as a concept. Society is made up of people. It is people who have duties and beliefs and resolve. It is people who get things done. [Margaret Thatcher] prefers to think in terms of the acts of individuals and families as the real sinews of society rather than of society as an abstract concept. Her approach to society reflects her fundamental belief in personal responsibility and choice. To leave things to society is to run away from the real decisions, practical responsibility and effective action.— No.10, Statement, The Sunday Times (10 July 1988)
Thatcherism is associated with a conservative stance on morality. The Marxist sociologist and founder of the New Left Review, Stuart Hall, for example, argued that Thatcherism should be viewed as an ideological project promoting "authoritarian populism" since it is known for its reverence of "Victorian values". The Social Democratic Party supporter David Marquand claimed that Thatcher exploited "authoritarian populist" sentiment in 1970s Britain: "Go back, you flower people, back where you came from, wash your hair, get dressed properly, get to work on time and stop all this whingeing and moaning".[non-primary source needed] Norman Tebbit, a close ally of Thatcher, laid out in a 1985 lecture what he thought to be the permissive society that conservatives should oppose:[relevant? ]
Bad art was as good as good art. Grammar and spelling were no longer important. To be clean was no better than to be filthy. Good manners were no better than bad. Family life was derided as an outdated bourgeois concept. Criminals deserved as much sympathy as their victims. Many homes and classrooms became disorderly; if there was neither right nor wrong there could be no basis for punishment or reward. Violence and soft pornography became accepted in the media. Thus was sown the wind; and we are now reaping the whirlwind.
Examples of this conservative morality in practice include the video nasties scare, where in reaction to a moral panic over the availability of a number of provocatively named horror films on video cassette she introduced state regulation of the British video market for the first time.
Despite her association with social conservatism, Thatcher voted in 1966 to legalise homosexuality, one of the few Conservative MPs to do so. That same year, she also voted in support of legal abortion. However, in the 1980s during her time as Prime Minister, the Thatcher government enacted Section 28, a law that opposed the "intentional promotion" of homosexuality by local authorities and "promotion" of the teaching of "the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship" in schools. In her 1987 speech to the Conservative Party conference, Thatcher stated:
Children who need to be taught to respect traditional moral values are being taught that they have an inalienable right to be gay ... All of those children are being cheated of a sound start in life—yes cheated.
The law was opposed by many gay rights advocates such as Stonewall and OutRage! and was later repealed by Tony Blair's Labour government in 2003. Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron later issued an official apology for previous Conservative policies on homosexuality, specifically the introduction of the controversial Section 28 laws from the 1980s, viewing past ideological views as "a mistake" with his own ideological direction.
Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite has argued that Thatcherism married conservatism with free-market economics.
Sermon on the Mound
In May 1988, Thatcher gave an address to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. In the address, Thatcher offered a theological justification for her ideas on capitalism and the market economy. She said "Christianity is about spiritual redemption, not social reform" and she quoted St. Paul by saying "If a man will not work he shall not eat". Choice played a significant part in Thatcherite reforms and Thatcher said that choice was also Christian, stating that Jesus Christ chose to lay down his life and that all individuals have the God-given right to choose between good and evil.
Whilst Thatcher was Prime Minister, she greatly embraced transatlantic relations with the U.S. President Ronald Reagan. She often publicly supported Reagan's policies even when other Western allies were not as vocal. For example, she granted permission for American planes to use British bases for raids on Libya and allowed American cruise missiles and Pershing missiles to be housed on British soil in response to Soviet deployment of SS-20 nuclear missiles targeting Britain and other Western European nations.
Towards the end of the 1980s, Thatcher (and so Thatcherism) became increasingly vocal in its opposition to allowing the European Community to supersede British sovereignty. In a famous 1988 Bruges speech, Thatcher declared: "We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them reimposed at a European level, with a European superstate exercising a new dominance from Brussels".
While Euroscepticism has for many become a characteristic of Thatcherism, Thatcher was far from consistent on the issue, only becoming truly Eurosceptic in the last years of her time as Prime Minister. Thatcher supported Britain's entry into the European Economic Community in 1973, campaigned for a "Yes" vote in the 1975 referendum and signed the Single European Act in 1986.
Dispute over the term
It is often claimed that the word "Thatcherism" was coined by cultural theorist Stuart Hall in a 1979 Marxism Today article, However, this is not true as the phrase "Thatcherism" was first used by Tony Heath in an article he wrote that appeared in Tribune on 10 August 1973. Writing as Tribune's Education Correspondent, Heath wrote: "It will be argued that teachers are members of a profession which must not be influenced by political considerations. With the blight of Thatcherism spreading across the land that is a luxury that only the complacent can afford". Although the term had in fact been widely used before then, not all social critics have accepted the term as valid, with the High Tory journalist T. E. Utley believing "There is no such thing as Thatcherism".
Utley contended that the term was a creation of Thatcher's enemies who wished to damage her by claiming that she had an inflexible devotion to a certain set of principles and also by some of her friends who had little sympathy for what he called "the English political tradition" because it facilitated "compromise and consensus". Utley argued that a free and competitive economy, rather than being an innovation of Thatcherism, was one "more or less permanent ingredient in modern Conservative philosophy":
It was on that principle that Churchill fought the 1945 election, having just read Hayek's Road to Serfdom. [...] What brought the Tories to 13 years of political supremacy in 1951 was the slogan 'Set the people free'. [...] There is absolutely nothing new about the doctrinal front that she presents on these matters. [...] As for 'privatisation', Mr. Powell proposed it in [...] 1968. As for 'property-owning democracy', I believe it was Anthony Eden who coined the phrase.
In foreign policy, Utley claimed Thatcher's desire to restore British greatness did not mean "primarily a power devoted to the preservation of its own interests", but that she belonged "to that militant Whig branch of English Conservatism...her view of foreign policy has a high moral content". In practical terms, he claimed this expressed itself in her preoccupation in "the freedom of Afghanistan rather than the security of Ulster".
Rather than by any specific logic of capitalism, the reversal was brought about by voluntary reductions in social expenditures, higher taxes on low incomes and the lowering of taxes on higher incomes. This is the reason why in Great Britain in the mid 1980s the members of the top decile possessed more than a half of all the wealth. To justify this by means of economic "objectivities" would be an ideology. What is at play here are interests and power.
The Conservative historian of Peterhouse, Maurice Cowling, also questioned the uniqueness of "Thatcherism". Cowling claimed that Thatcher used "radical variations on that patriotic conjunction of freedom, authority, inequality, individualism and average decency and respectability, which had been the Conservative Party's theme since at least 1886". Cowling further contended that the "Conservative Party under Mrs Thatcher has used a radical rhetoric to give intellectual respectability to what the Conservative Party has always wanted".
Historians Emily Robinson, Camilla Schofield, Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite and Natalie Thomlinson have argued that by the 1970s Britons were keen about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. They demanded greater personal autonomy and self-determination and less outside control. They angrily complained that the establishment was withholding it. They argue this shift in concerns helped cause Thatcherism and was incorporated into Thatcherism's appeal.
Critics of Thatcherism claim that its successes were obtained only at the expense of great social costs to the British population.[how?] There were nearly 3.3 million unemployed in Britain in 1984, compared to 1.5 million when she first came to power in 1979, though that figure had reverted to some 1.6 million by the end of 1990.
While credited with reviving Britain's economy, Thatcher also was blamed for spurring a doubling in the relative poverty rate. Britain's childhood-poverty rate in 1997 was the highest in Europe. When she resigned in 1990, 28% of the children in Great Britain were considered to be below the poverty line, a number that kept rising to reach a peak of nearly 30% during the government of Thatcher's successor, John Major. During her government, Britain's Gini coefficient reflected this growing difference, going from 0.25 in 1979 to 0.34 in 1990, at about which value it remained for the next 20 years, under both Conservative and Labour governments.
The extent to which one can say Thatcherism has a continuing influence on British political and economic life is unclear. In 2002, Peter Mandelson, a member of parliament belonging to the British Labour Party closely associated with Tony Blair, famously declared that "we are all Thatcherites now".
In reference to modern British political culture, it could be said that a "post-Thatcherite consensus" exists, especially in regards to economic policy. In the 1980s, the now defunct Social Democratic Party adhered to a "tough and tender" approach in which Thatcherite reforms were coupled with extra welfare provision. Neil Kinnock, leader of the Labour Party from 1983 to 1992, initiated Labour's rightward shift across the political spectrum by largely concurring with the economic policies of the Thatcher governments. The New Labour governments of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown were described as "neo-Thatcherite" by some on the left, since many of their economic policies mimicked those of Thatcher.
Most of the major British political parties today accept the trade union legislation, privatisations and general free market approach to government that Thatcher's governments installed. At present, no major political party in the United Kingdom is committed to reversing the Thatcher government's reforms of the economy,[needs update], although in the aftermath of the Great Recession from 2007 to 2012, the then Labour Party leader Ed Miliband had indicated he would support stricter financial regulation and industry-focused policy in a move to a more mixed economy. In 2011, Miliband declared his support for Thatcher's reductions in income tax on top earners, her legislation to change the rules on the closed shop and strikes before ballots as well as her introduction of Right to Buy, claiming Labour had been wrong to oppose these reforms at the time.
Moreover, the United Kingdom's comparative macroeconomic performance has improved since the implementation of Thatcherite economic policies. Since Thatcher resigned as British Prime Minister in 1990, British economic growth was on average higher than the other large European economies (i.e. Germany, France and Italy). Additionally, since the beginning of the 2000s the United Kingdom has also experienced lower unemployment compared with some other big economies. Such an enhancement in relative macroeconomic performance is perhaps another reason for the apparent "Blatcherite" economic consensus, 
Tony Blair wrote in his 2010 autobiography A Journey that "Britain needed the industrial and economic reforms of the Thatcher period". He described Thatcher's efforts as "ideological, sometimes unnecessarily so" while also stating that "much of what she wanted to do in the 1980s was inevitable, a consequence not of ideology but of social and economic change".
To her supporters, she was a revolutionary figure who transformed Britain's stagnant economy, tamed the unions and re-established the country as a world power. Together with US presidents Reagan and Bush, she helped bring about the end of the Cold War. But her 11-year premiership was also marked by social unrest, industrial strife and high unemployment. Her critics claim British society is still feeling the effect of her divisive economic policies and the culture of greed and selfishness they allegedly promoted.
From the viewpoint of late 2019, the state of British politics showed that Thatcherism had suffered a "sad fate," according to The Economist magazine columnist Bagehot. As a political-economic philosophy Thatcherism was originally built upon four components: commitment to free enterprise; British nationalism; a plan to strengthen the state by improving efficiency; and a belief in traditional Victorian values especially hard work and civic responsibility. The tone of Thatcherism was establishment bashing, with intellectuals a prime target, and that tone remains sharp today. Bagehot argues that some Thatcherisms have become mainstream, such as a more efficient operation of the government. Others have been sharply reduced, such as insisting that deregulation is always the answer to everything. The dream of restoring traditional values by creating a property owning democracy has failed in Britain– ownership in the stock market has plunged, as has the proportion of young people who are homebuyers. Her program of privatization became suspect when it appeared to favour investors rather than customers. Under Tony Blair in the 1990s, it appeared that Labour had joined the Thatcherite parade, but today the anti-Thatcherite left controls that party.
Recent developments in Britain reveal a deep conflict between Thatcherite free enterprise and Thatcherite nationalism. She wanted to reverse Britain's decline by fostering entrepreneurship – but in Britain the entrepreneurial leadership comes from immigrants and cosmopolitan elements in London, bypassing much of the nation. Bagehot says Britain is "more successful at hosting world-class players than producing them." In the course of the Brexit process, nationalists have denounced European controls over Britain's future, while business leaders often instead prioritize maintenance of their leadership of the European market. Thatcher herself showed a marked degree of Euroskepticism, as when she warned against a "European superstate."
- Gladstonian liberalism
- New Public Management
- Political positions of David Cameron
- Alexander Gallas (12 October 2015). The Thatcherite Offensive: A Neo-Poulantzasian Analysis. BRILL. p. 1. ISBN 978-90-04-29221-5.
- Rudolf Klein, "Why Britain's conservatives support a socialist health care system." Health Affairs 4#1 (1985): 41–58. online
- Lawson, Nigel (1992). The View From No. 11: Memoirs of a Tory Radical. London: Bantam. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-593-02218-4.
- "Margaret Thatcher, inspiration to New Labour". The Daily Telegraph. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- Berlinski, Claire. There is No Alternative: Why Margaret Thatcher Matters. New York: Basic Books, 2008, p. 115
- The Observer, 26 September 1982, quoted in Robert Leach, 'What is Thatcherism?', in Martin Burch and Michael Moran (eds.), British Politics: A Reader (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987), p. 157.
- Speech to Conservative Party Conference (14 October 1983)
- Keith Joseph Memorial Lecture (11 January 1996)
- Hayek, Friedrich (2008). Kresege, Stephen; Wenar, Leif (eds.). Hayek on Hayek. An Autobiographical Dialogue. Indianapolis, Indiana: LibertyFund. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-86597-740-2. OCLC 229020962.
- Nott, John (2003). Here Today, Gone Tomorrow. Recollections of an Errant Politician. Politico's. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-84275-030-8.
- Meiksins Wood, Ellen (1991). The Pristine Culture of Capitalism: A Historical Essay on Old Regimes and Modern States. Verso. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-86091-362-7.
- Matthew, H. C. G. (1997). Gladstone, 1809–1898. Clarendon Press. p. 608. ISBN 978-0-19-820696-5.
- Heffer, Simon (1999). Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell. Phoenix. p. 958. ISBN 978-0-7538-0820-7.
- John Campbell, The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher from grocer's daughter to Prime Minister (2009) p 95.
- Vinen, p. 7
- Green, E. H. H. (2002). Ideologies of Conservatism: Conservative Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 214–39. ISBN 978-0-19-927033-0.
- Cooper, Dr. Christopher (June 2011). "Little Local Difficulties Revisited: Peter Thorneycroft, the 1958 Treasury Resignations of the Origins of Thatcherism". Contemporary British History. 25 (2): 227–250. doi:10.1080/13619462.2011.570113.
- Charles Moore (2013). Margaret Thatcher: From Grantham to the Falklands. Knopf Doubleday. p. 87. ISBN 9780307958952.
- Vinen, Richard (2009). Thatcher's Britain : the politics and social upheaval of the Thatcher era. London: Simon & Schuster. p. 6. ISBN 9781847371751.
- Oakley, Robin (23 November 1990). "Thatcherism's end begins debate over style and ideology". The Sunday Times.
- d'Ancona, Matthew (5 March 1991). "Into the age of the individual – Labour's chance to write the next chapter of political history". The Guardian.
- "What Was Right With the 1980s". Financial Times. 5 April 1994.
- Heppell, Timothy (June 2002). "The ideological composition of the Parliamentary Conservative Party 1992–97". British Journal of Politics and International Relations. 4 (2): 299–324. doi:10.1111/1467-856X.t01-1-00006.
- "Resignation of Thatcher – Strident heroine of the corner shop who fought for hard-headed virtues". The Sunday Times. 25 November 1990.
- Marr, Andrew (3 January 1994). "Why unhappy British are yearning for days of order". The Straits Times.
- Shrimsley, Robert (17 August 1995). "Redwood Pushes for Populist Right". Financial Times.
- Shrimsley, Robert (18 August 1995). "Think Right – The Thatcherites are Divided, but May Yet Rule". The Times.
- Gamble, Andrew (1988). The Free Economy and the Strong State: the politics of Thatcherism. Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-36310-2.
- Jenkins, Simon (1995). Accountable to none: the Tory nationalization of Britain. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-13591-4.
- Rothbard, Murray (1995). Making Economic Sense. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 978-0-945466-46-8.
- Hennessy, Peter (2001). The Prime Minister: The Office and its Holders since 1945. Penguin. p. 397. ISBN 978-0-14-028393-8.
- Pratten, C. F. (1987). "Mrs Thatcher's Economic Legacy". In Minogue, Kenneth; Biddiss, Michael (eds.). Thatcherism: Personality and Politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-333-44725-3.
- http://rifin.com/images/stories/2011/04/casopis_EE_17_2.pdf Daniel Jakopovich, Roots of Neoliberalism: Factors Behind the "Thatcherite" Revolution, Ekonomija/Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2011, pp. 429–44
- "Interview for Woman's Own ("no such thing as society") with journalist Douglas Keay". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 23 September 1987. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
Most unusually a statement elucidating the remark was issued by No.10, at the request of the Sunday Times and published on 10 July 1988 in the 'Atticus' column.
- Tracey, Michael; Herzog, Christian (2014). "Thatcher, Thatcherism and British Broadcasting Policy" (PDF). Rundfunk und Geschichte. 40 (1–2): 63–76. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- Radical History Review (1991). Radical History Review. Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-521-40559-1.
- Marquand, David (1988). "The Paradoxes of Thatcherism". In Robert; Skidelsky (eds.). Thatcherism. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-7011-3342-9.
- Norman Tebbit, "Back to the old traditional values", The Guardian Weekly, 24 November 1985, quoted in Robert Eccleshall, English Conservatism Since the Restoration: An Introduction and Anthology (London: Routledge, 2002), p. 247.
- "Sexual Offences (No. 2)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 731. House of Commons. 5 July 1966. p. 267.
- Margaret Thatcher's Legacy on Gay Rights
- MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY BILL (Hansard, 22 July 1966)
- Local Government Act 1988 (c. 9), section 28. Accessed 1 July 2006 on opsi.gov.uk.
- "Speech to Conservative Party Conference". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 9 October 1987. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- "When gay became a four-letter word". BBC. 20 January 2000. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Local Government Act 2003 (c. 26) – Statute Law Database
- British Conservatives lead charge for gay marriage – The Washington Post
- Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, Florence (2012). "Neo-Liberalism and Morality in the Making of Thatcherite Social Policy". The Historical Journal. 55 (2): 497–520. doi:10.1017/S0018246X12000118. JSTOR 23263347.
- Berlinski, Claire. There is No Alternative: Why Margaret Thatcher Matters. New York: Basic Books, 2008. 275-8. Print
- Ronald Tiersky, ed. (2001). Euro-skepticism: A Reader. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 103–111. ISBN 9780742510548.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Cockerell, Michael (4 June 2005). "How Britain first fell for Europe". BBC News. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- Rudd, Roland (18 December 2007). "Thatcher would have backed the EU treaty". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- Hall, Stuart (January 1979). "The Great Moving Right Show" (PDF). Marxism Today.
- Tribune, 10 August 1973.
- Procter, James (2004). Stuart Hall. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-415-26266-8.
- Vinen, p. 4; Oxford English Dictionary Online, s.v. 'Thatcherite, n. and adj.'.
- Utley, T. E. (9 August 1986). "Monstrous invention". The Spectator.
- T. E. Utley, 'Monstrous invention', The Spectator (9 August 1986), reprinted in Charles Moore and Simon Heffer (eds.), A Tory Seer: The Selected Journalism of T. E. Utley (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1989), pp. 76-77.
- Moore and Heffer, pp. 77-78.
- Giddens 1993, 233
- Drago, Sreco; Leskosek, Vesna (2003). "Social Inequality and Social Capital" (PDF). Ljubljana: Institute for Contemporary and Political Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) p. 37.
- Cowling, Maurice (1990). Mill and Liberalism: Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. pp. xxvii–xxviii. ISBN 978-0-521-38872-6.
- Emily Robinson, et al. "Telling stories about post-war Britain: popular individualism and the ‘crisis’ of the 1970s." Twentieth Century British History 28.2 (2017): 268-304.
- Nelson, Emily; Whalen, Jeanne (22 December 2006). "With U.S. Methods, Britain Posts Gains in Fighting Poverty". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
- Shephard, Andrew (2003). "Income Inequality under the Labour Government" (PDF). Briefing Note No. 33. Institute for Fiscal Studies. Retrieved 18 October 2007. p. 4.
- Burns, Conor (11 April 2008). "Margaret Thatcher's greatest achievement: New Labour". ConservativeHome. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
Late in 2002 Lady Thatcher came to Hampshire to speak at a dinner for me. Taking her round at the reception one of the guests asked her what was her greatest achievement. She replied, "Tony Blair and New Labour. We forced our opponents to change their minds."
- Tempest, Matthew (10 June 2002). "Mandelson: we are all Thatcherites now". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 September 2006.
- "New Labour Neo-Thatcherite". New Statesman. 6 June 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- "Labour conference: Miliband threat to break up banks". BBC News. 30 September 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Patriotic economic policy needed to boost British industry, Miliband says". The Guardian. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Labour Party Conference: Ed Miliband's speech in full". The Daily Telegraph. London. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Blair, Tony (2010). A Journey. Random House. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-307-37578-0.
- "Evaluating Thatcher's legacy". BBC News. 4 May 2004. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
- Bagehot, "Thatcherism today" The Economist Oct 12, 2019 p 59.
- Stephen Evans, "Touching from a Distance: The Younger Generation of One Nation Conservatives and Thatcherism." Parliamentary History 33.2 (2014): 321-341.
- David Dixon, "Thatcher's People: The British Nationality Act 1981." Journal of Law and Society 10.2 (1983): 161-180 online.
- Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, "Neo-liberalism and morality in the making of Thatcherite social policy." Historical Journal 55.2 (2012): 497-520 online.
- Brian Harrison, "Mrs Thatcher and the intellectuals." Twentieth Century British History 5.2 (1994): 206-245.
- David Marsh, "Privatization under Mrs. Thatcher: a review of the literature." Public Administration 69.4 (1991): 459-480 online.
- Agnès Alexandre-Collier, "Euroscepticism under Margaret Thatcher and David Cameron: From Theory to Practice." Observatoire de la Societé britannique 17 (2015): 115-133 online in English.
- Bagehot, Oct 12, 2019
- Campbell, John. The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher from grocers daughter to prime minister (2009), abridged version of his two-volume biography.
- Cannadine, David. Margaret Thatcher: A Life and Legacy (2017)
- Cannadine, David. "Thatcher, Margaret Hilda, Baroness Thatcher (1925–2013)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Jan 2017 online Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/106415 35,000 words, by a scholar
- Evans, Eric J. (2013) Thatcher and Thatcherism (Routledge, 2013).
- Gallas, Alexander (2015). The Thatcherite Offensive: A Neo-Poulantzasian Analysis. Brill.
- Giddens, Anthony (2006). Sociology (5th ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-3379-4.
- Gilmour, Sir Ian (1992). Dancing with Dogma: Thatcherite Britain in the Eighties. Simon & Schuster.
- Hall, Stuart; Jacques, Martin (1983). The Politics of Thatcherism. Lawrence & Wishart.
- Bull, David; Wilding, Paul (1983). Thatcherism and the poor. ISBN 978-0-9039-6357-2.
- Jessop, Bob. (2015) "Margaret Thatcher and Thatcherism: Dead but not buried." British Politics 10.1 (2015): 16-30. online
- Jessop, Bob; Bonnett, Kevin; Bromley, Simon; Ling, Tom (1988). Thatcherism: A Tale of Two Nations. Cambridge: Polity Press.
- Kavanagh, Dennis. (2015) "Thatcher and Thatcherism. Do They Still Matter?." Observatoire de la société britannique]] 17 (2015): 211-221. online
- Kavanagh, Dennis (1990). Thatcherism and British Politics: The End of Consensus?. Oxford University Press.
- Letwin, Shirley Robin (1992). The Anatomy of Thatcherism. Flamingo.
- Roots of Neoliberalism: Factors Behind the "Thatcherite" Revolution', an essay by Daniel Jakopovich in Ekonomija/Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2011, pp. 429–44
- Moore, Charles. Margaret Thatcher: The Authorized Biography: Volume I: From Grantham to the Falklands (2013); Margaret Thatcher : the authorized biography, volume two : everything she wants (2015); Margaret Thatcher: The Authorized Biography, Volume Three: Herself Alone (2019)
- Skidelsky, Robert, ed. (1989). Thatcherism. Blackwell.
- Vinen, Richard (2009). Thatcher's Britain: The Politics and Social Upheaval of the 1980s. London: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-84737-175-1.
- Williamson, Adrian. (2016) Conservative Economic Policymaking and the Birth of Thatcherism, 1964-1979 (Springer, 2016).
- Bevir, Mark, and Rod A.W. Rhodes. "Narratives of 'Thatcherism'." West European Politics 21.1 (1998): 97–119. online
- Jones, Harriet and Michael Kandiah, eds. The Myth of Consensus: New Views on British History, 1945–64 (1996) excerpt
- Marquand, David. "The literature on Thatcher." Contemporary British History 1.3 (1987): 30–31. online
- Marsh, David. "Privatization under Mrs. Thatcher: a review of the literature." Public Administration 69.4 (1991): 459-480 online.
- The dictionary definition of Thatcherism at Wiktionary
- "What is Thatcherism?". BBC News.
- "What is Thatcherism?". Brit Politics.