An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of tertiary education (such as a university or college) that specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and natural sciences.
Institutes of technology versus polytechnics
The institutes of technology and polytechnics have been in existence since at least the 18th century, but became popular after World War II with the expansion of engineering and applied science education, associated with the new needs created by industrialization. The world's first institution of technology, the Berg-Schola (today its legal successor is the University of Miskolc), was founded by the Court Chamber of Vienna in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia), in 1735 in order to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining according to the requirements of the industrial revolution in Hungary. The oldest German Institute of Technology is the Braunschweig University of Technology, founded in 1745 as "Collegium Carolinum". Another exception is the École Polytechnique, which has educated French élites since its foundation in 1794. In some cases, polytechnics or institutes of technology are engineering schools or technical colleges.
In several countries, like Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Turkey, institutes of technology are institutions of higher education and have been accredited to award academic degrees and doctorates. Famous examples are the Istanbul Technical University, ETH Zurich, İYTE, Delft University of Technology and RWTH Aachen, all considered universities.
In countries like Iran, Finland, Malaysia, Portugal, Singapore or the United Kingdom, there is often a significant and confused distinction between polytechnics and universities. In the UK a binary system of higher education emerged consisting of universities (research orientation) and polytechnics (engineering and applied science and professional practice orientation). Polytechnics offered university equivalent degrees mainly in STEM subjects from bachelor's, master's and PhD that were validated and governed at the national level by the independent UK Council for National Academic Awards. In 1992 UK polytechnics were designated as universities which meant they could award their own degrees. The CNAA was disbanded. The UK's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now the University of Westminster), was founded in 1838 in Regent Street, London. In Ireland the term "institute of technology" is the more favored synonym of a "regional technical college" though the latter is the legally correct term; however, Dublin Institute of Technology is a university in all but name as it can confer degrees in accordance with law, Cork Institute of Technology and other Institutes of Technology have delegated authority from HETAC to make awards to and including master's degree level — Level 9 of the Republic of Ireland's National Framework for Qualifications (NFQ) — for all areas of study and Doctorate level in a number of others.
In a number of countries, although being today generally considered similar institutions of higher learning across many countries, polytechnics and institutes of technology used to have a quite different statute among each other, its teaching competences and organizational history. In many cases "polytechnic" were elite technological universities concentrating on applied science and engineering and may also be a former designation for a vocational institution, before it has been granted the exclusive right to award academic degrees and can be truly called an "institute of technology". A number of polytechnics providing higher education is simply a result of a formal upgrading from their original and historical role as intermediate technical education schools. In some situations, former polytechnics or other non-university institutions have emerged solely through an administrative change of statutes, which often included a name change with the introduction of new designations like "institute of technology", "polytechnic university", "university of applied sciences" or "university of technology" for marketing purposes. Such emergence of so many upgraded polytechnics, former vocational education and technical schools converted into more university-like institutions has caused concern where the lack of specialized intermediate technical professionals lead to industrial skill shortages in some fields, being also associated to an increase of the graduate unemployment rate. This is mostly the case in those countries, where the education system is not controlled by the state and any institution can grant degrees. Evidence have also shown a decline in the general quality of teaching and graduate's preparation for the workplace, due to the fast-paced conversion of that technical institutions to more advanced higher level institutions. Mentz, Kotze and Van der Merwe argue that all the tools are in place to promote the debate on the place of technology in higher education in general and in universities of technology specifically and they posit several questions for the debate.
Institutes by country
In the so-called Latin American docta the main higher institution advocates to the study of technology is the National Technological University which has brand ramifications through all the country geographic space in the way of Regional Faculties. The Buenos Aires Institute of Technology (ITBA) is other important recognized institute of technology with renowned and prestige in the country.
During the 1970s to early 1990s, the term was used to describe state owned and funded technical schools that offered both vocational and higher education. They were part of the College of Advanced Education system. In the 1990s most of these merged with existing universities or formed new ones of their own. These new universities often took the title University of Technology, for marketing rather than legal purposes. AVCC report The most prominent such university in each state founded the Australian Technology Network a few years later.
Since the mid-1990s, the term has been applied to some technically minded technical and further education (TAFE) institutes. A recent example is the Melbourne Polytechnic rebranding and repositioning in 2014 from Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE. These primarily offer vocational education, although some like Melbourne Polytechnic are expanding into higher education offering vocationally oriented applied bachelor's degrees. This usage of the term is most prevalent historically in NSW and the ACT. The new terminology is apt given that this category of institution are becoming very much like the institutes of the 1970s–1990s period.
In 2009, the old college system in Tasmania and TAFE Tasmania have started a 3-year restructure to become the Tasmanian Polytechnic www.polytechnic.tas.edu.au, Tasmanian Skills Institute www.skillsinstitute.tas.edu.au and Tasmanian Academy www.academy.tas.edu.au
In the higher education sector, there are seven designated universities of technology in Australia (though, note, not all use the phrase "university of technology", such as the Universities of Canberra and South Australia, which used to be Colleges of Advanced Education before transitioning into fully-fledged universities with the ability – most important of all – to confer doctorates):
- Curtin University, Western Australia
- Queensland University of Technology, Queensland
- Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Victoria
- Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria
- University of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
- University of South Australia, South Australia
- University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales
- Universities of technology
- Graz University of Technology (13,454 students, founded 1811, Hochschule since 1865, doctoral degrees since 1901, university since 1975)
- TU Wien (27,923 students, founded 1815, Hochschule since 1872, doctoral degrees since 1901, university since 1975)
- University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna focused on agriculture (12,500 students, founded as Hochschule in 1872, doctoral degrees since 1906, university since 1975)
- University of Leoben specialized in mining, metallurgy and materials (4,030 students, founded 1840, Hochschule since 1904, doctoral degrees since 1906, university since 1975)
- Research institutions
These institutions focus only on research.
- Austrian Institute of Technology (founded 1956)
- Institute of Science and Technology Austria (founded 2007)
- Technical faculties at universities
Several universities have faculties of technology that are entitled to confer habilitation and doctoral degrees and which focus on research.
- Johannes Kepler University Linz (Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences founded 1965, university since 1975)
- University of Innsbruck (Faculty of Civil Engineering founded 1969)
- Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (Faculty of Technical Sciences founded 2007)
Fachhochschule is a German type of tertiary education institution and adopted later in Austria and Switzerland. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science.
In 2010, there were 20 Fachhochschulen in Austria
There are some public engineering universities in Bangladesh.
- Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET)
- Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Chittagong.
- Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Khulna
- Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology (RUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Rajshahi.
- Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET). Formerly known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Dhaka.
There are some general and technological universities in Bangladesh offer engineering programs.
- Dhaka University. Engineering programs offer under the faculty of Engineering and Technology.
- Rajshahi University. Engineering programs offer under the faculty of Engineering and Technology.
- Chittagong University. Engineering programs offer under the faculty of Engineering and Technology.
- Islamic University, Bangladesh (IU). Engineering programs offer under the faculty of Applied Science and Technology.
- Khulna University. Engineering programs offer under the faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology.
- Shahjalal University of Science and Technology. Engineering programs offer under the faculty of Applied Science and Technology.
- Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTex)
There are some private engineering specialized university in Bangladesh.
- Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology (AUST)
- Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST)
There is only one international engineering specialized university in Bangladesh.
There are numerous private and other universities as well as science and technology universities providing engineering education. Most prominent are:
- American International University-Bangladesh
- North South University
- International Islamic University Chittagong
- East West University
- BRAC University
- Independent University, Bangladesh
- European University of Bangladesh
There are numerous Government and other Polytechnic Institute and Engineering College as well as Science and technology Institutes providing engineering education. Most prominent are:
- Bangladesh Institute of Glass and Ceramics
- Dhaka Polytechnic Institute
- Bangladesh Survey Institute
- Govt. Arts Graphics Institute
- Bangladesh Institute of Marine Technology
- Mymensingh Engineering College
- Narayanganj Technical School & College
- Brest State Technical University (Brest, Belarus)
- Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Minsk, Belarus)
- Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) (Minsk, Belarus)
Belgium and the Netherlands
In the Netherlands, there are four technical universities, jointly known as 4TU:
- Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)
- Eindhoven University of Technology (TU Eindhoven)
- Universiteit Twente (U Twente)
- Wageningen University (Wageningen U)
In Belgium and in the Netherlands, Hogescholen or Hautes écoles (also translated into colleges, university colleges or universities of applied science) are applied institutes of higher education that do not award doctorates and do not focus on research but some research does happen. They are generally limited to Bachelor-level education, with degrees called professional bachelors, and only minor Master's programmes. The hogeschool thus has many similarities to the Fachhochschule in the German language areas and to the ammattikorkeakoulu in Finland. A list of all hogescholen in the Netherlands, including some which might be called polytechnics, can be found at the end of this list.
- Federal Centers for Technological Education
- Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology
- Federal Technological University of Paraná
- Instituto Militar de Engenharia
- Federal Institute of São Paulo
- Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica
- Sao Paulo State Technological College
- Federal Institute of Bahia
- Instituto Nacional de Telecomunicações – Inatel
- Technical University of Gabrovo
- Technical University of Sofia
- Technical University of Varna
- University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy
In Cambodia, there are institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes and Universities that offer instruction in a variety of programs that can lead to: certificates, diplomas and degrees. Institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes and universities tend to be independent institutions.
- Institutes of technology/polytechnic institutes
- Institute of Technology of Cambodia (ITC) or Institute of Technology of Cambodia or Institut de Technologie du Cambodge (polytechnic institute in Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
- Phnom Penh Institute of Technology (PPIT) or Phnom Penh Institute of Technology (polytechnic institute in Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
- RUPP or Royal Université de Phnom Penh (polytechnic university in Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
In Canada, there are affiliate schools, colleges, institutes of technology / polytechnic institutes and universities that offer instruction in a variety of programs that can lead to engineering and applied science degrees, apprenticeship and trade programs, certificates and diplomas. Affiliate schools are polytechnic divisions belonging to a national university and offer select technical and engineering programs. Colleges, institutes of technology / polytechnic institutes and universities tend to be independent institutions.
Credentials are typically conferred at the undergraduate level; however, university-affiliated schools like the École de technologie supérieure and the École Polytechnique de Montréal (both of which are located in Quebec), also offer graduate and postgraduate programs, in accordance with provincial higher education guidelines. Canadian higher education institutions, at all levels, undertake directed and applied research with financing allocated through public funding, private equity or industry sources.
Some of Canada's most esteemed colleges and polytechnic institutions also partake in collaborative institute-industry projects, leading to technology commercialization, made possible through the scope of Polytechnics Canada, a national alliance of eleven leading research-intensive colleges and institutes of technology.
- Affiliate schools
- École de technologie supérieure (ETS) or École de technologie supérieure (technical school part of the Université du Québec system in Montreal, Quebec)
- École Polytechnique de Montréal (polytechnic school affiliated with the Université de Montréal in Montreal, Quebec)
- Algonquin College (Ottawa, Ontario)
- Conestoga College (Kitchener, Ontario)
- George Brown College (Toronto, Ontario)
- Humber College (Toronto)
- Red River College (college in Winnipeg, Manitoba offering degrees)
- Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology (Toronto)
- St. Clair College (Windsor)
- Institutes of technology / polytechnic institutes
- British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT; polytechnic institute in Burnaby, British Columbia)
- Kwantlen Polytechnic University (polytechnic university in Surrey, British Columbia)
- Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT; polytechnic institute in Edmonton, Alberta)
- Ryerson University (university in Toronto, Ontario) – While Ryerson doesn't use the name "polytechnic" anymore, Ryerson was one of the originators of applied education in Ontario and Canada. It dropped the term "polytechnic" in 1993 when it was able to grant master's and doctoral degrees, using the term "university" instead and changed the name of some degree designations to bring it in line with other traditional research universities.
- Saskatchewan Polytechnic, formerly SIAST (polytechnic institute; multiple campuses with headquarters in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan)
- Sheridan College (polytechnic institute in Oakville, Ontario)
- Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT; polytechnic institute in Calgary, Alberta)
- University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT; university in Oshawa, Ontario)
China's modern higher education began in 1895 with the Imperial Tientsin University which was a polytechnic plus a law department. Liberal arts were not offered until three years later at Capital University. To this day, about half of China's elite universities remain essentially polytechnical. Harbin Institute of Technology is among the best engineering school in China and the world.
- Federico Santa María Technical University (UTFSM), currently the only active technical university of Chile, founded initially in 1931 as School of Crafts and Arts and School of Engineering José Miguel Carrera, 18,000 students
- Technical universities
- Brno University of Technology (VUT), founded in 1899, 24.000 students
- Collegium Nobilium in Olomouc, 1725–1847
- Czech Technical University in Prague (ČVUT), college founded in 1707, university since 1806, 23.000 students, belongs to the oldest technical universities in the world
- Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (ČZU), founded in 1904, focused on agriculture, 18.000 students
- Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague (VŠCHT), founded in 1952, 3,000 student
- Mendel University Brno (MENDELU), founded in 1919, focused on agriculture, 9.000 students
- Technical University of Liberec (TUL), founded in 1953, 8.000 students
- Technical University of Ostrava (VŠB TUO), founded in 1849, 22.000 students
- Tomáš Baťa University in Zlín (UTB), founded in 2000, 10,000 students
- Research institutions
- Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (AV ČR), dates back to 1784, 14,000 research staff altogether
- Technical faculties at universities
- Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem (Faculty of Production Technology and Management, University founded in 1991)
- University of Pardubice (Faculty of Chemical Technology since 1950, Jan Perner Faculty of Transportation since 1991, Institute of Electrical Engineering and Informatics since 2002)
- University of West Bohemia (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering; University founded in 1991)
EPN is known for research and education in the applied science, astronomy, atmospheric physics, engineering and physical sciences. The Geophysics Institute monitors the country's seismic, tectonic and volcanic activity in the continental territory and in the Galápagos Islands.
One of the oldest observatories in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory. It was founded in 1873 and located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is the National Observatory of Ecuador and is located in the Historic Center of Quito and is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
- Alexandria Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology (AIET)
- Higher Technological Institute
- Institute of Aviation Engineering and Technology
- Tallinn University of Technology (TalTech), a public research university
- Tallinn University of Applied Sciences, a public vocational university
- Estonian Entrepreneurship University of Applied Sciences, a private institution in Tallinn
- Universities of technology
Universities of technology are categorised as universities, are allowed to grant B.Sc. (Tech.), Diplomi-insinööri (M.Sc. (Tech.), Lic.Sc. (Tech.), Ph.D. and D.Sc. (Tech.) degrees and roughly correspond to Instituts de technologie of French-speaking areas and Technische Universität of Germany in prestige. In addition to universities of technology, some universities, e.g. University of Oulu and Åbo Akademi University, are allowed to grant the B.Sc. (tech.), M.Sc. (tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degrees.
Universities of technology are academically similar to other (non-polytechnic) universities. Prior to Bologna process, M.Sc. (Tech.) required 180 credits, whereas M.Sc. from a normal university required 160 credits. The credits between universities of technology and normal universities are comparable.
Some Finnish universities of technology are:
- Aalto University, formed from Helsinki University of Technology and other universities
- Lappeenranta University of Technology
- Tampere University of Technology
Polytechnic schools are distinct from academic universities in Finland. Ammattikorkeakoulu is the common term in Finland, as is the Swedish alternative "yrkeshögskola" – their focus is on studies leading to a degree (for instance insinööri, engineer; in international use, Bachelor of Engineering) in kind different from but in level comparable to an academic bachelor's degree awarded by a university. Since 2006 the polytechnics have offered studies leading to master's degrees (Master of Engineering). After January 1, 2006, some Finnish ammattikorkeakoulus switched the English term "polytechnic" to the term "university of applied sciences" in the English translations of their legal names. The ammattikorkeakoulu has many similarities to the hogeschool in Belgium and in the Netherlands and to the Fachhochschule in the German language areas.
Some recognized Finnish polytechnics are:
- Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences
- Lapland University of Applied Sciences
- Tampere University of Applied Sciences
- Turku University of Applied Sciences
A complete list may be found in List of polytechnics in Finland.
France and Francophone regions
- Instituts de technologie (grandes écoles)
Collegiate universities grouping several engineering schools or multi-site clusters of French grandes écoles provide sciences and technology curricula as autonomous higher education engineering institutes. They include:
- Arts et Métiers ParisTech
- Centrale Graduate School
- Grenoble Institute of Technology
- Institut national des sciences appliquées
- Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace
- Paris Institute of Technology
- ESTIA Institute of Technology
They provide science and technology master's degrees and doctoral degrees.
- Universités technologiques / instituts universitaires de technologie / polytechs
The universities of technology (French: universités de technologie) are public institutions awarding degrees and diplomas that are accredited by the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. Although called "universities", the universities of technology are in fact non-university institutes (écoles extérieures aux universités), as defined by Chapter I, Section II (Articles 34 through 36) of French law 84-52 of 26 January 1984 regarding higher education (the loi Savary).
They possess the advantage of combining all the assets of the engineering Grandes Écoles and those of universities as they develop simultaneously and coherently three missions: Education, Research, Transfer of technology. They maintain close links with the industrial world both on national and international levels and they are reputed for their ability to innovate, adapt and provide an education that matches the ever-changing demands of industry.
This network includes three institutions:
- The University of Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard (Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard or UTBM)
- The University of Technology of Compiègne (Université de Technologie de Compiègne or UTC)
- The University of Technology of Troyes (Université de Technologie de Troyes or UTT)
In addition, France's education system includes many institutes of technology, embedded within most French universities. They are referred-to as institut universitaire de technologie (IUT). Instituts universitaires de technologie provide undergraduate technology curricula. 'Polytech institutes', embedded as a part of eleven French universities provide both undergraduate and graduate engineering curricula.
In the French-speaking part of Switzerland exists also the term haute école specialisée for a type of institution called Fachhochschule in the German-speaking part of the country. (see below).
- Écoles polytechniques
Higher education systems, that are influenced by the French education system set at the end of the 18th century, use a terminology derived by reference to the French École polytechnique. Such terms include Écoles Polytechniques (Algeria, Belgium, Canada, France, Switzerland, Tunisia), Escola Politécnica (Brasil, Spain), Polytechnicum (Eastern Europe).
In French language, higher education refers to écoles polytechniques, providing science and engineering curricula:
- École polytechnique or X (near Paris)
- École polytechnique de Bruxelles
- École polytechnique de Montréal
- École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne
- National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine
- National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse
Fachhochschulen were first founded in the early 1970s. They do not focus exclusively on technology, but may also offer courses in social science, medicine, business and design. They grant bachelor's degrees and master's degrees and focus more on teaching than research and more on specific professions than on science.
- Technische Universität
Technische Universität (abbreviation: TU) is the common term for universities of technology or technical university. These institutions can grant habilitation and doctoral degrees and focus on research.
The nine largest and most renowned Technische Universitäten in Germany have formed TU9 German Institutes of Technology as community of interests. Technische Universitäten normally have faculties or departements of natural sciences and often of economics but can also have units of cultural and social sciences and arts. RWTH Aachen, TU Dresden and TU M��nchen also have a faculty of medicine associated with university hospitals (Klinikum Aachen, University Hospital Dresden, Rechts der Isar Hospital).
There are 17 universities of technology in Germany with about 290,000 students enrolled. The four states of Bremen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein are not operating a Technische Universität. Saxony and Lower Saxony have the highest counts of TUs, while in Saxony three out of four universities are universities of technology.
Greece has Technical Universities (also known as Polytechnic Universities) and had Technological Educational Institutes (TEIs) (1982–2019) also known as Higher Educational Institute of Technology, Technological Institute, Institute of Technology (provides at least 4-year undergraduate degree qualification πτυχίο, latinised version: Ptychion, in line with the Bologna Process legally equivalent to Bachelor's honours degree 240 ECTS, ISCED 6. Previoulsy it was three and a half years studies from 1983 to 1995, 210 ECTS). All the Technical Universities and Technological Educational Institutes are Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) with university title (UT) and degree awarding powers (DAPs). TEIs existed from 1983 to 2019; they were reformed between 2013 and 2019 and their departments incorporated into existing higher education institutions (HEIs). In Greece, all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are public university owned and government-funded, with free education undergraduate programmes that can be attended without any payment of tuition fee. About 1 out of 4 (one-fourth of) HEIs postgraduate programmes are offered free without any payment of tuition fee, especially about a 30% percentage of students can be entitled without tuition fee to attend all the HEIs statutory tuition fee postgraduate programmes after they be assessed on an individual basis of determined criteria as set out in the Ministry of Education.
The first polytechnic in Hong Kong is The Hong Kong Polytechnic, established in 1972 through upgrading the Hong Kong Technical College (Government Trade School before 1947). The second polytechnic, the City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, was founded in 1984. These polytechnics awards diplomas, higher diplomas, as well as academic degrees. Like the United Kingdom, the two polytechnics were granted university status in 1994 and renamed The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the City University of Hong Kong respectively. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, a university with a focus in applied science, engineering and business, was founded in 1991.
The world's first Institute of Technology the Berg-Schola (Bergschule) established in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary by the Court Chamber of Vienna in 1735 providing Further education to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining. In 1762 the institute ranked up to be Academia providing Higher Education courses. After the Treaty of Trianon the institute had to be moved to Sopron.
- University of Miskolc re-established in 1949 as Technical University of Heavy Industry in Miskolc and in 1990 as University of Miskolc. The university is the successor of the University of Mining and Metallurgy of Selmecbánya (est. as Bergshule 1735).
- Budapest University of Technology and Economics, one of the oldest institute of technology of the world is located in Budapest (est. 1782). The BME was the first University in Europe to award engineering degrees.
- University of Debrecen – Faculty of Engineering
- University of Dunaújváros
- Pallasz Athéné University – GAMF
- University of Nyíregyháza – Institute of Technical and Agricultural Sciences
- University of Sopron
- University of Szeged – Faculty of Engineering
- Szent István University
- Széchenyi István University
- University of Pannonia
- University of Pécs – Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology
- Óbuda University
There are also Indian Institutes of Technology and National Institutes of Technology in India which are autonomous government institutions. These institutions are Institutes of National Importance. In addition to these, there are many other universities which offer higher technical courses. The authority controlling technical education in India is All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA)
There are polytechnic institutes in India that offer three years Diploma in Engineering after Tenth grade. These institutes have affiliation from state boards of technical education and industrial training from respective state governments. After successfully completion of diploma at a polytechnic, students can get employment or take admission in direct second year of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech)/Bachelor of Engineering (BE) (Lateral Entry).
There are four public institutes of technology in Indonesia that are owned by the government of Indonesia. Other than that, there are hundreds of other institutes that are owned by private or other institutions.
Four public institutes are:
- Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung
- Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya
- Kalimantan Institute of Technology, Balikpapan
- Sumatera Institute of Technology, Bandar Lampung
Politeknik provides vocational education offers either three-year Diploma degrees, which is similar to an associate degree or four-year bachelor's degree. The more advanced Master's and doctoral degrees are still in progress.
There are 18 technological universities in Iran.
- Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran
- Sharif University of Technology, Tehran
- Technical and Vocational University, 172 branches in Iran
- Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran
- K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran
- Petroleum University of Technology, Tehran and Ahwaz
- Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan
- Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz
- Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz
- Arak University of Technology, Arak
- Urmia University of Technology, Urmia
- Babol University of Technology, Babol
- Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood
- Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan
- Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah
- Qom University of Technology, Qom
- Birjand University of Technology, Birjand
- Jondi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful
- Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan
An "Institute of Technology" was formerly referred to as Regional Technical College (RTCs) system. The abbreviation IT is now widely used to refer to an Institute of Technology. These institutions offer sub-degree, degree and masters level studies. Unlike the Irish university system an Institute of Technology also offers sub-degree programmes such as 2-year Higher Certificate programme in various academic fields of study. Some institutions have "delegated authority" that allows them to make doctoral awards in their own name, after authorisation by the Quality and Qualifications Ireland.
Dublin Institute of Technology developed separately from the Regional Technical College system and after several decades of association with the University of Dublin, Trinity College it acquired the authority to confer its own degrees before becoming a member of the T.U. Dublin.
The Technological Higher Education Association is the representative body for the various Institutes of Technology in Ireland.
The approval of Ireland's first Technological University, TU Dublin was announced in July 2018. It is the result of a merger of the three ITs in the County Dublin area. Planning is underway for the formation similar merged institutions across the country.
- Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, ranked 38 in the world in 2010.
In higher education, Politecnico refers to a technical university awarding bachelor, master and PhD degrees in engineering. Historically there were two Politecnici, one in each of the two largest industrial cities of the north:
A third Politecnico was added in the south in 1990:
- Politecnico di Bari, established 1990.
However, many other universities have a faculty of engineering.
In 2003, the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy) and the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Italy) jointly established the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology), headquartered in Genoa with 10 laboratories around Italy, which however focuses on research, not entirely in the fields of engineering and does not offer undergraduate degrees.
- University of Technology, Jamaica, in Kingston, Jamaica
In Japan, an institute of technology (工業大学, kōgyō daigaku) is a type of university that specializes in the sciences. See also the Imperial College of Engineering, which was the forerunner of the University of Tokyo's engineering faculty.
- Tokyo Institute of Technology, 1929
- Chiba Institute of Technology, 1942
- Kyoto Institute of Technology, 1949
- Muroran Institute of Technology, 1949
- Nagoya Institute of Technology, 1949
- Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1949
- University of Electro-Communications, 1949
- Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 1949
- Osaka Institute of Technology, 1949
- Shibaura Institute of Technology, 1949
- Kobe Institute of Computing, 1958
- Aichi Institute of Technology, 1959
- Hiroshima Institute of Technology, 1963
- Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 1963
- Shonan Institute of Technology, 1963
- Tohoku Institute of Technology, 1964
- Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 1965
- Fukui University of Technology, 1965
- Kitami Institute of Technology, 1966
- Nippon Institute of Technology, 1967
- Hokkaido Institute of Technology, 1967
- Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 1967
- Hachinohe Technical University, 1972
- Kanagawa Institute of Technology, 1975
- Nagaoka University of Technology, 1976
- Toyohashi University of Technology, 1976
- Saitama Institute of Technology, 1976
- Japan Advanced Institute of Science And Technology, 1986
- Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, 1986
- Tokyo University of Technology, 1986
- Kobe Design University, 1989
- Tohoku University of Art and Design, 1991
- Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology, 1991
- Niigata Institute of Technology, 1995
- Maebashi Institute of Technology, 1997
- Kochi University of Technology, 1997
- Aichi University of Technology, 2000
- Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 2006
- Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 2006
- Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology,2011
In Kenya, Technical Universities are special Universities that focus on technical and engineering courses and offer certifications in the same from Artisan, Craft, Diploma, Higher Diploma, Degree, Masters and Doctorate levels. They are former national polytechnics and are the only institutions of learning that offer the complete spectrum of tertiary education programs. They Include
- Technical University of Kenya, Formerly Kenya National Polytechnic in Nairobi
- Technical University of Mombasa, Formerly Mombasa National Polytechnic in Mombasa
- Princess Sumaya University for Technology in Amman
- Jordan University of Science and Technology in Irbid
- Balqa Applied University in Salt
- Tafila Technical University in Tafila
Polytechnics in Malaysia has been operated for almost 44 years. The institutions provide courses for bachelor's degree & Bachelor of Science (BSc) (offer at Premier Polytechnics for September 2013 intake & 2014 intake), Advanced Diploma, Diploma and Special Skills Certificate. It was established by the Ministry of Education with the help of UNESCO in 1969. The amount of RM24.5 million is used to fund the pioneer of Politeknik Ungku Omar located in Ipoh, Perak from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
At present, Malaysia have developed 32 polytechnic at all over states in engineering, agriculture, commerce, hospitality and design courses with 60,840 students in 2009 to 87,440 students in 2012.
The following is a list of the polytechnics in Malaysia in order of establishment:-
|Official Name in Malay||Acronym||Foundation||Type||Location|
|Politeknik Ungku Omar||PUO||1969||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Ipoh, Perak|
|Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah||POLISAS||1976||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuantan, Pahang|
|Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah||POLIMAS||1984||Conventional Polytechnic||Jitra, Kedah|
|Politeknik Kota Bharu||PKB||1985||Conventional Polytechnic||Ketereh, Kelantan|
|Politeknik Kuching Sarawak||PKS||1987||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuching, Sarawak|
|Politeknik Port Dickson||PPD||1990||Conventional Polytechnic||Si Rusa, Negeri Sembilan|
|Politeknik Kota Kinabalu||PKK||1996||Conventional Polytechnic||Kota Kinabalu, Sabah|
|Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah||PSA||1997||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Shah Alam, Selangor|
|Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan||PIS||1998||Premier Polytechnic (University Status)||Pasir Gudang, Johor|
|Politeknik Seberang Perai||PSP||1998||Conventional Polytechnic||Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang|
|Politeknik Melaka||PMK||1999||Conventional Polytechnic||Melaka|
|Politeknik Kuala Terengganu||PKKT||1999||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu|
|Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin||PSMZA||2001||Conventional Polytechnic||Dungun, Terengganu|
|Politeknik Merlimau||PMM||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Merlimau, Melaka|
|Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah||PSAS||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Behrang, Perak|
|Politeknik Tuanku Sultanah Bahiyah||PTSB||2002||Conventional Polytechnic||Kulim, Kedah|
|Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah||PSIS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Sungai Air Tawar, Selangor|
|Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin||PTSS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Arau, Perlis|
|Politeknik Muadzam Shah||PMS||2003||Conventional Polytechnic||Muadzam Shah, Pahang|
|Politeknik Mukah Sarawak||PMU||2004||Conventional Polytechnic||Mukah, Sarawak|
|Politeknik Balik Pulau||PBU||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang|
|Politeknik Jeli||PJK||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Jeli, Kelantan|
|Politeknik Nilai||PNS||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Negeri Sembilan|
|Politeknik Banting||PBS||2007||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Langat, Selangor|
|Politeknik Mersing||PMJ||2008||Conventional Polytechnic||Mersing, Johor|
|Politeknik Hulu Terengganu||PHT||2008||Conventional Polytechnic||Kuala Berang, Terengganu|
|Politeknik Sandakan||PSS||2009||Conventional Polytechnic||Sandakan, Sabah|
|Politeknik METrO Kuala Lumpur||PMKL||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Kuala Lumpur|
|Politeknik METrO Kuantan||PMKU||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Kuantan, Pahang|
|Politeknik METrO Johor Bahru||PMJB||2011||METrO Polytechnic||Johor Bahru, Johor|
|Politeknik METrO Betong||PMBS||2012||METrO Polytechnic||Kuching, Sarawak|
|Politeknik METrO Tasek Gelugor||PMTG||2012||METrO Polytechnic||George Town, Pulau Pinang|
|Politeknik Pagoh||TBD||2013||Conventional Polytechnic||Muar, Johor|
- Technical University
There are 4 technical universities in Malaysia and all are belongs to Malaysian Technical University Network:
- Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
- Universiti Malaysia Perlis
- Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
- Universiti Malaysia Pahang
The only technical university in Mauritius is the University of Technology, Mauritius with its main campus situated in La Tour Koenig, Pointe aux Sables. It has a specialized mission with a technology focus. It applies traditional and beyond traditional approaches to teaching, training, research and consultancy. The university has been founded with the aim to play a key role in the economic and social development of Mauritius through the development of programmes of direct relevance to the country’s needs, for example in areas like technology, sustainable development science and public sector policy and management.
In Mexico, the main campus of the National Polytechnic Institute (Instituto Politécnico Nacional) is located in the northern region of Mexico City. The IPN offers university-level degrees.
New Zealand polytechnics are established under the Education Act 1989 as amended and are typically considered state-owned tertiary institutions along with universities, colleges of education and wānanga; there is today often much crossover in courses and qualifications offered between all these types of Tertiary Education Institutions. Some have officially taken the title 'institute of technology' which is a term recognized in government strategies equal to that of the term 'polytechnic'. One has opted for the name 'Universal College of Learning' (UCOL) and another 'Unitec New Zealand'. These are legal names but not recognized terms like 'polytechnic' or 'institute of technology'. Many if not all now grant at least bachelor-level degrees. Some colleges of education or institutes of technology are privately owned, however, the qualification levels vary widely.
Since the 1990s, there has been consolidation in New Zealand's state-owned tertiary education system. In the polytechnic sector: Wellington Polytechnic amalgamated with Massey University. The Central Institute of Technology explored a merger with the Waikato Institute of Technology, which was abandoned, but later, after financial concerns, controversially amalgamated with Hutt Valley Polytechnic, which in turn became Wellington Institute of Technology. Some smaller polytechnics in the North Island, such as Waiarapa Polytechnic, amalgamated with UCOL. (The only other amalgamations have been in the colleges of education.)
The Auckland University of Technology is the only polytechnic to have been elevated to university status; while Unitec has had repeated attempts blocked by government policy and consequent decisions; Unitec has not been able to convince the courts to overturn these decisions.
In mid-February 2019, the Minister of Education Minister Chris Hipkins proposed merging the country's sixteen polytechnics into a "NZ Institute of Skills and Technology" in response to deficits and a decline in domestic enrollments. The proposed merger will be subject to a six-week consultation period until 27 March.
Virtually, every state in Nigeria has a polytechnic university operated by either the federal or state government. In Rivers State for example, there are two state-owned polytechnic universities; Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori City and the Rivers State College of Arts and Science, Port Harcourt. The former was established on 13 May 1988 while the latter–though founded in 1984–was approved by the NBTE in 2006. The first private polytechnic university in the state is the Eastern Polytechnic, established in 2008.
The polytechnic institutes in Pakistan offer Diploma in Engineering spanning three years in different engineering branches. This diploma is known as Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE). Students are admitted to the diploma program based on their results in the 10th grade standardized exams. The main purpose of the diploma offered in polytechnic institutes is to train people in various trades.
These institutes are located throughout Pakistan and started in early 1950s.
Universities of Engineering & Technology in Pakistan offer undergraduate (BE/BS/BSc Engineering) and postgraduate (ME/MS/MSc Engineering and PhD) degree programs in engineering. BE/BS/BSc Engineering is a professional degree in Pakistan. It is a 4 years full-time program after HSSC (higher secondary school certificate).
- Mapúa University, the premier engineering school of the Philippines. Being an internationally accredited engineering school, it consistently tops various board exams for engineering students in the Philippines.
- Technological Institute of the Philippines, a premier engineering school with an international accreditation.
- Bicol University, center in teaching excellence, offers IT courses and a well known university.
- Cebu Institute of Technology – University, a premier engineering school, this university is known to have high selectivity in admissions as well as excellence in engineering research and education.
- Cebu Technological University
- Far Eastern University – Institute of Technology, a premier engineering school known for its technological academic teaching and board topnotchers operating under the Far Eastern University system.
- Mindanao State University–Iligan Institute of Technology, the premier state university in the southern Philippines and the science and technology flagship campus of the Mindanao State University System (the second biggest university system in the Philippines after the University of the Philippines).
- Polytechnic University of the Philippines, a state university in the Philippines that consistently tops various board exams for engineering students in the Philippines, also referred to as the National Comprehensive University of the Philippines.
- Quezon City Polytechnic University, a local university, this university is well known in engineering, IT and technical education.
- Rizal Technological University, the only university that offers degree courses in astronomy.
- Technological University of the Philippines, the premier state university of technology education in the Philippines.
Politechnika (translated as a "technical university" or "university of technology") is the designation of a technical university in Poland. Here are some of the larger polytechnics in Poland:
- Politechnika Śląska
- Politechnika Wrocławska
- Politechnika Warszawska
- Politechnika Poznańska
- Politechnika Krakowska
- Politechnika Gdańska
- Politechnika Łódzka
- Politechnika Białostocka
- Politechnika Lubelska
Other polytechnic universities:
- Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza
- Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy im. Jana i Jędrzeja Śniadeckich w Bydgoszczy (University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz)
- Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny (West Pomeranian University of Technology)
Till recently, there was a Technical University of Lisbon (UTL). It included several of the most prestigious schools, including, an engineering school (Instituto Superior Tecnico) and one of the most ancient business schools in the world (ISEG Lisbon). But UTL merged with the University of Lisbon. In this field, here are also a number of non-university higher educational institutions which are called polytechnic institutes since 1970s. Some of these institutions existed since the 19th century with different designations (industrial and commercial institutes, agricultural managers, elementary teachers and nurses schools, etc.). In theory, the polytechnics higher education system is aimed to provide a more practical training and be profession-oriented, while the university higher education system is aimed to have a stronger theoretical basis and be highly research-oriented. The polytechnics are also oriented to provide shorter length studies aimed to respond to local needs. The Portuguese polytechnics can then be compared to the US community colleges.
Since the implementation of Bologna Process in Portugal in 2007, the polytechnics offer the 1st cycle (licentiate degree) and 2nd cycle (master's degree) of higher studies. Until 1998, the polytechnics only awarded bachelor (Portuguese: bacharelato) degrees (three-year short-cycle degrees) and were not authorized to award higher degrees. They however granted post-bachelor diplomas in specialized higher studies (DESE, diploma de estudos superiores especializados), that could be obtained after the conclusion of a two-year second cycle of studies and were academical equivalent to the university's licentiate degrees (licenciatura). After 1998, they started to be allowed to confer their own licentiate degrees, which replaced the DESE diplomas.
- Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1864
- Polytechnic University of Timișoara, 1920
- Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iași, 1937
- Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 1948
- Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, 1948
- Oil & Gas University of Ploieşti, 1948
- Technical Military Academy of Bucharest, 1949
- Bauman Moscow State Technical University
- Saint Petersburg Polytechnical University
- Novosibirsk State Technical University
- Tomsk Polytechnic University
- Moscow Polytechnic University
The Polytechnics in Singapore do not offer bachelors, masters or PhD degrees. However, the Polytechnics in Singapore offers three-year diploma courses in fields such as information technology, engineering subjects and other vocational fields, like psychology and nursing. The Polytechnic diploma certification in Singapore is equivalent to a junior college in the UK or a community college in the United States. There are 5 polytechnics in Singapore. They are namely: Singapore Polytechnic, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Temasek Polytechnic, Nanyang Polytechnic and Republic Polytechnic.
A Polytechnic diploma in Singapore is known to be parallel and sometimes equivalent to the first years at a bachelor's degree-granting institution, thus, Polytechnic graduates in Singapore have the privilege of being granted transfer credits or module exemptions when they apply to local and overseas universities, depending on the university's policies on transfer credits.
The only university in Singapore with the term "institute of technology", most notably the Singapore Institute of Technology were developed in 2009 as an option for Polytechnic Diploma graduates who desire to pursue a bachelor's degree. Other technological university in Singapore includes the Nanyang Technological University (1981) and the Singapore University of Technology and Design (2009).
- Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
The world's first institution of technology or technical university with tertiary technical education is the Banská Akadémia in Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia, founded in 1735, Academy since December 13, 1762 established by queen Maria Theresa in order to train specialists of silver and gold mining and metallurgy in neighbourhood. Teaching started in 1764. Later the department of Mathematics, Mechanics and Hydraulics and department of Forestry were settled. University buildings are still at their place today and are used for teaching. University has launched the first book of electrotechnics in the world.
- Technical University of Košice
- University of Žilina
- Technical University in Zvolen
- Trenčín University in Trenčín
- Dubnica Technology Institute
South Africa has completed a process of transforming its "higher education landscape". Historically a division has existed in South Africa between Universities and Technikons (polytechnics) as well between institutions servicing particular racial and language groupings. In 1993 Technikons were afforded the power to award certain technology degrees. Beginning in 2004 former Technikons have either been merged with traditional Universities to form Comprehensive Universities or have become Universities of Technology, however the Universities of Technology have not to date acquired all of the traditional rights and privileges of a University (such as the ability to confer a wide range of degrees).
- Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
- Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
- Universitat Politècnica de València
- University of Moratuwa
- University of Vocational Technology
- Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology
- Technical College
- KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
- Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg
- Faculty of Engineering (LTH), Lund University, Lund
- Luleå University of Technology, Luleå
- Blekinge Institute of Technology, Blekinge
- Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zurich)
- École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Most of Thailand's institutes of technology were developed from technical colleges, in the past could not grant bachelor's degrees; today, however, they are university level institutions, some of which can grant degrees to the doctoral level. Examples are Pathumwan Institute of Technology (developed from Pathumwan Technical School), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (Nondhaburi Telecommunications Training Centre) and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology North Bangkok (Thai-German Technical School).
There are two former institutes of technology, which already changed their name to "University of Technology": Rajamangala University of Technology (formerly Institute of Technology and Vocational Education) and King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Thonburi Technology Institute).
Institutes of technology with different origins are Asian Institute of Technology, which developed from SEATO Graduate School of Engineering and Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, an engineering school of Thammasat University. Suranaree University of Technology is the only government-owned technological university in Thailand that was established (1989) as such; while Mahanakorn University of Technology is the most well known private technological institute. Technology/Technical colleges in Thailand is associated with bitter rivalries which erupts into frequent off-campus brawls and assassinations of students in public locations that has been going on for nearly a decade, with innocent bystanders also commonly among the injured and the military under martial law still unable to stop them from occurring.
In Turkey and the Ottoman Empire, the oldest technical university is Istanbul Technical University. Its graduates contributed to a wide variety of activities in scientific research and development. In 1950s, 2 technical universities were opened in Ankara and Trabzon. In recent years, Yildiz University is reorganized as Yildiz Technical University and 2 institutes of technology were founded in Kocaeli and Izmir. In 2010, another technical university named Bursa Technical University was founded in Bursa. Moreover, a sixth technical university is about to be opened in Konya named Konya Technical University.
|Istanbul Technical University (ITU)||Istanbul||1773||21000||Ranked 108th in THES QS University ranking in the field of technology|
|Yıldız Technical University (YTU)||Istanbul||1911||21000|
|Karadeniz Technical University (KTU)||Trabzon||1955||First technical university in Turkey outside Istanbul|
|Middle East Technical University (ODTU)||Ankara||1956||23000||ODTU is the best university in Middle East. Ranked 100 in Times Higher Education.|
|Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE)||Kocaeli||1992|
|İzmir Institute of Technology (IYTE)||Izmir||1992|
|Bursa Technical University (BTU)||Bursa||2010|
|Erzurum Technical University (ETU)||Erzurum||2010|
|Adana Science and Technology University (ABTU)||Adana||2011|
|Eskişehir Technical University (ESTU)||Eskisehir||2018||12000+||}
From 1965 to 1992, UK polytechnics operated under the binary system of education along with universities. Polytechnics offered diplomas and degrees (bachelor's, master's, PhD) validated at the national level by the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA). Initially they excelled in engineering and applied science degree courses and other STEM subjects similar to technological universities in the US and continental Europe. Polytechnics were associated with innovations including women’s studies, the academic study of communications and media, sandwich degrees and the rise of management and business studies.
Britain's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution later known as the Polytechnic of Central London (now the University of Westminster) was established in 1838 at Regent Street in London and its goal was to educate and popularize engineering and scientific knowledge and inventions in Victorian Britain "at little expense." The London Polytechnic led a mass movement to create numerous polytechnic institutes across the UK in the late 19th century. Most polytechnic institutes were established at the centre of major metropolitan cities and their focus was on engineering, applied science and technology education.
The designation "institute of technology" was occasionally used by polytechnics (Bolton), Central Institutions (Dundee, Robert Gordon's) and postgraduate universities, (Cranfield and Wessex), most of which later adopted the designation university and there were two "institutes of science and technology": UMIST and UWIST (part of the University of Wales). Loughborough University was called Loughborough University of Technology from 1966 to 1996, the only institution in the UK to have had such a designation.
Polytechnics were granted university status under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. This meant that polytechnics could confer degrees without the oversight of the national CNAA organization. These institutions are sometimes referred to as post-1992 universities.
In 1956, some colleges of technology received the designation college of advanced technology. They became universities in 1966 meaning they could award their own degrees.
Institutions called "technical institutes" or "technical schools" that were formed in the early 20th century provided further education between high school and university or polytechnic. Most technical institutes have been merged into regional colleges and some have been designated university colleges if they are associated with a local university.
In 2016 the UK government announced plans to establish new "institutes of technology" in England as part of its reforms to post-16 skills provision "to provide technical education in STEM subjects at levels 3, 4 and 5. Each IoT is likely to build on infrastructure that already exists but will have its own independent identity, governance arrangements which directly involve employers and national branding".
Polytechnic institutes in the USA are elite technological universities, many dating back to the mid-19th century. A handful of American universities include the phrases "Institute of Technology", "Polytechnic Institute", "Polytechnic University" or similar phrasing in their names; these are generally research-intensive universities with a focus on engineering, science and technology. The earliest of these institutions include: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI, 1824), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT, 1829), Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute (1854), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, 1861), Worcester Polytechnic Institute (1865), Stevens Institute of Technology (1870), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI or VT, 1872), Case Institute of Technology (1881), New Jersey Institute of Technology (1881), Georgia Institute of Technology (1885), California Institute of Technology (Caltech, 1891), Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry (1891) and Carnegie Institute of Technology (1900). Conversely, schools dubbed "technical colleges" or "technical institutes" generally provide post-secondary training in technical and mechanical fields, focusing on training vocational skills primarily at a community college level, parallel and sometimes equivalent to the first two years at a bachelor's degree-granting institution.
Institutes of technology in Venezuela were developed in the 1950s as an option for post-secondary education in technical and scientific courses, after the polytechnic French concepts. At that time, technical education was considered essential for the development of a sound middle class economy.
Nowadays, most of the Institutos de Tecnología are privately run businesses, with varying degrees of quality.
Most of these institutes award diplomas after three or three and a half years of education. The institute of technology implementation (IUT, from Instituto universitario de tecnologia in Spanish) began with the creation of the first IUT at Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela, called IUT. Dr. Federico Rivero Palacio adopted the French "Institut Universitaire de Technologie"s system, using French personnel and study system based on three-year periods, with research and engineering facilities at the same level as the main national universities to obtain French equivalent degrees. This IUT is the first and only one in Venezuela having French equivalent degrees accepted, implementing this system and observing the high-level degrees some other IUTs were created in Venezuela, regardless of this the term IUT was not used appropriately resulting in some institutions with mediocre quality and no equivalent degree in France. Later, some private institutions sprang up using IUT in their names, but they are not regulated by the original French system and award lower quality degrees.