A teaching hospital is a hospital or medical centre that provides medical education and training to future and current health professionals. Many of these hospitals conduct medical research, as well as provide care to the poor and uninsured. Teaching hospitals are usually affiliated with one or more medical colleges/universities and are often co-located with medical colleges.
Teaching hospitals use a residency program to educate qualified physicians, podiatrists, dentists, pharmacists, and veterinarians. Basically, those who hold the degree of MD, DPM, DDS, DMD, DVM, PharmD, DO, BDS, BDent, MBBS, MBChB, or BMed. Those that attend a teaching hospital or clinic would practice medicine under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior medical clinician registered in that specialty, such as an attending physician or consultant. The point of these residencies is to create an environment where students can learn and grow in a safe setting which is supervised so as to prevent any potential mistakes, but also allows them to use their skills in real life situations.
The first teaching hospital where students were authorized to methodically practice on patients under the supervision of physicians, was reportedly the Academy of Gundishapur in the Persian Empire during the Sassanid era. Some of the earliest teaching hospitals were the Islamic Bimaristans, which included the Al-Adudi Hospital founded in Baghdad in 981 and the Al-Fustat Hospital in Cairo founded in 872.
The following definitions are commonly used in connection with teaching hospitals:
- Medical student–A person enrolled in a four year medical degree program at a Medical school. Medical students must first complete an undergraduate degree from a university or college before being accepted to a medical school.
- Physicians assistant– Medical professionals who have completed training at the Masters level. They are trained to practice medicine alongside physicians on a population level allowing them to work in a wide range of specialties.
- Intern–A person that has a doctorate of medicine from a medical school that only practices with guidance and supervision of a physician.
- Residency or post-graduate program–Individuals that have completed their first year of a medical internship. Residencies may last anywhere from two to seven years, depending on the specialty.
- Attending physician–An attending physician (also known as an attending, rendering doc, or staff physician) is a physician (M.D. or D.O.) who has completed residency and practices medicine in a clinic or hospital, in the specialty learned during residency. An attending physician typically supervises fellows, residents, medical students, and other practitioners. Attending physicians may also maintain professorships at an affiliated medical school.
- Fellowship (medicine)–A period of medical training in the United States and Canada, that a physician, dentist, or veterinarian may undertake after completing a specialty training program (residency). During this time (usually over a year), the physician is known as a fellow. Fellows are capable of acting as an attending physician or a consultant physician in the specialist field in which they were trained.
- Grand rounds–Grand rounds is a methodology of medical education and inpatient care, consisting of presenting the medical problems and treatment of a particular patient to an audience consisting of doctors, pharmacists, residents, and medical students. It was first conceived by clinicians as a way for junior colleagues to round on patients.
- Teaching clinic–A teaching clinic is an outpatient clinic that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. Teaching clinics traditionally are operated by educational facilities and provide free or low-cost services to patients.
- Nurse education–Some teaching hospitals partner with nursing education institutions to provide in-hospital, practical education for nurses, both graduate and undergraduate.
Residents choose the teaching hospital where they want to perform their residency based upon many factors, including the medical specialties offered by the hospital and reputation and credentials of the hospital. The following table shows medical specialties and the residency training times for medical specialties, as reported by the American Medical Association in 2021.
Many teaching hospitals and medical centers are known for the medical research that is performed in their hospitals. Close association with medical colleges and universities enhances the research programs at teaching hospitals. Some of the more notable teaching hospitals include the following:
- Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States
- Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
- Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
- Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
- Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
- Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States
- Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, California, United States
- Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel
- Singapore General Hospital, Bukit Mirah, Singapore
- Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Canada
- University Hospital of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
The Algerian Ministry of Health, Population and Hospital Reform maintains 15 public university teaching hospital centres (French: Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire or CHU) with 13,755 beds and one public university hospital (EHU) with 773 beds.
Three university hospitals, two in Ouagadougou (Pediatrie Charles de Gaull Centre Hospitalier Universitaire National and Yalgado Ouedraogo Centre Hospitalier Universitaire National) and one in Bobo-Dioulasso (Souro Sanou Centre Hospitalier Universitaire National), and one national hospital (Blaise Compaore Centre Hospitalier National).
Central African Republic
- University Hospital Bambari, Bambari
Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa
Republic of the Congo
- University Hospital of Brazzaville, Brazzaville
- Ain Shams University Hospital El Demerdash, Cairo
- Asyout University Hospital, Cairo
- Hussein University Hospital, Cairo
- October 6 University (O6U) Hospital, Cairo
- Zahraa University Hospital, Cairo
- Alexandria University Hospitals, Alexandria
- Mansoura University Hospitals, Mansoura
- Zagazig University Hospitals
- Ain Shams University Hospital
- Helwan University Center of Elderly Care
- Assiut University Children Hospital
- Qasr El Eyni Hospital
- Aksum University Referral Hospital
- ALERT (medical facility)
- Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar
- Jig-jiga University Referral Hospital
- Soddo University Hospital, Wolayta
- University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar
- Agondje Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Owendo
- Libreville Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Owendo
- Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra
- Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ashanti Region
- Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Hospital, Kumasi
- Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research
- Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale
- University of Ghana Teaching Hospital, Accra
- University Hospital, Cape Coast
- University Hospital, Legon
- University for Development Studies Hospital, Tamale
- Cocody Hospitalier Universitaire, Abidjan
- Treichville Hospitalier Universitaire, Abidjan
- Yopougon Hospitalier Universitaire, Abidjan
- Bouake Hospitalier Universitaire, Vallée du Bandama District
- Tsaralalana Mother-Child University Hospital Center, Antananarivo
- Etablis Univers de Soins Et de Santé Pub Analakely Hospital, Antananarivo
- CHU Cnos Bamako, Bamako
- CHU Gabriel Toure, Bamako
- CHU Point G, Bamako
- CHU Cnos, Bamako
- CHU Gabriel Toure, Bamako
- CHU Point G, Bamako
- Ibn Tofail University Hospital, Marrakesh
- Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital
- Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba
- Delta State University Teaching Hospital
- Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu
- Lagos University Teaching Hospital
- Lagos State University Teaching Hospital
- Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti
- Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital
- UNIOSUN Teaching Hospital
- University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt
- University of Benin Teaching Hospital
- University College Hospital, Ibadan
- University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital
- University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital
- University of Uyo Teaching Hospital
- Abass Ndao University Hospital Center, Dakar Region
- Fann University Hospital Center, Dakar Region
- Njala University Campus Hospital, Bonjema
- Cecilia Makiwane Hospital
- Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital
- Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
- Dr George Mukhari Hospital
- Frere Hospital
- Groote Schuur Hospital
- Helen Joseph Hospital
- Kalafong Hospital
- Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital
- Nelson Mandela Children's Hospital
- Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital
- Somerset Hospital (Cape Town)
- Steve Biko Academic Hospital
- Transvaal Memorial Hospital for Children
- Tygerberg Hospital
- Weskoppies Psychiatric Hospital
- Wits University Donald Gordon Medical Centre, Johannesburg
- Juba Teaching Hospital, Juba
- Khartoum Bahry Teaching Hospital, Khartoum
- Soba University Hospital, Khartoum
- Wad Medani Teaching Hospital, Wad Medani
- Campus University Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lomé
- Kara-University Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Kara
- Tokoin University Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lomé
- Ibn El Jazzar University Hospital, Kairouan Governorate
- Aziza Othmana Hospital, Tunis Governorate
- Farhat-Hached University Hospital, Sousse Governorate
- Fattouma-Bourguiba Hospital, Monastir Governorate
- Sahloul Hospital, Sousse Governorate
- Tahar-Sfar University Hospital, Mahdia Governorate
- Habib Bougatfa University Hospital, Bizerte Governorate
- Aga Khan University Hospital, Kampala
- Buluba Hospital
- Butabika Hospital
- Gulu Hospital
- International Hospital Kampala
- International Specialized Hospital of Uganda
- Kabale Hospital
- Kalongo Hospital
- Kampala International University School of Health Sciences
- Kibuli Hospital
- Lubaga Hospital
- Makerere University Hospital, Makerere
- Makerere University Teaching Hospital
- Masaka Regional Referral Hospital
- Mbale Hospital
- Mbarara Hospital
- Mengo Hospital
- Mubende Hospital
- Mulago National Specialised Hospital
- Mulago Women's Referral Hospital
- Mutolere Hospital
- Naggalama Hospital
- Nkozi Hospital
- Nsambya Hospital
- Nyenga Mission Hospital
- Restoration Gateway Hospital
- Soroti Hospital
- St. Charles Lwanga Buikwe Hospital
- St. Francis Hospital Nkokonjeru
- St. Mary's Hospital Lacor
- Uganda Martyrs’ Hospital Ibanda
- Villa Maria Hospital
- Virika Hospital
Below are some of the more notable teaching hospitals in Asia.
- Hangzhou Binjiang Hospital
- Peking University Third Hospital
- Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University
- Sheng Jing Hospital
- Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University
- Yiwu Hospital
- Children's Hospital of Fudan University
- Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University
- Huadong Hospital
- Huashan Hospital
- Red House Hospital
- Renji Hospital
- Ruijin Hospital
- Shanghai Cancer Center
- Shanghai Chest Hospital
- Shanghai Children's Hospital
- Shanghai Children's Medical Center
- Shanghai East Hospital
- Shanghai Mental Health Center
- Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital
- Xinhua Hospital
- Zhongshan Hospital
- Prince of Wales Hospital
- Prince Philip Dental Hospital
- Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong)
- Basaveshwara Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga
- Bhagat Phool Singh Medical College
- Bowring & Lady Curzon Hospitals
- Burdwan Medical College and Hospital
- Christian Medical College Vellore
- College of Medicine & JNM Hospital
- Dr. H. Gordon Roberts Hospital, Shillong
- Government Rajaji Hospital
- Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital
- Jorhat Medical College and Hospital
- Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute
- Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College
- Kamla Nehru Hospital
- KPC Medical College and Hospital
- Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research
- Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana
- Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital
- Minto Eye Hospital
- Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayaya University of Health Sciences
- PSG Institute of Medical Sciences & Research
- Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
- SDS Tuberculosis Sanatorium
- Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Government Medical College
- Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University
- Silchar Medical College and Hospital
- Sir Sunderlal Hospital
- Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre
- St Stephen's Hospital, Delhi
- Tezpur Medical College and Hospital
- Tripura Medical College & Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Memorial Teaching Hospital
- Vanivilas Women and Children Hospital
- Victoria Hospital (Bangalore Medical College)
- Aga Khan University Hospital (Aga Khan Hospital and Medical College) is a 721-bed teaching hospital that trains doctors and hospital administrators with support from American and Canadian universities. The hospital also coordinates a network of over 100 health care units primarily in rural or remote areas.
- Abbasi Shaheed Hospital
- Allied Hospital
- Ayub Teaching Hospital
- Benazir Bhutto Hospital
- DHQ Faisalabad
- Doctors Hospital, Lahore
- Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi
- Lady Aitchison Hospital
- Lady Willingdon Hospital
- Lahore General Hospital
- Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad
- Nishtar Hospital
- Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
- Punjab Institute of Cardiology
- Punjab Social Security Hospital
- Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology
- Saidu Teaching Hospital
- Services Hospital
- Shaikh Zayed Hospital
- Shalamar Hospital
- Sir Ganga Ram Hospital (Pakistan)
- WAPDA Hospital
- Asan Medical Center
- CHA University Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam
- CHA University Bundang Woman Hospital, Seongnam
- CHA University Daegu Woman Hospital, Daegu
- CHA University Gangnam Medical Center, Gangnam-gu, Seoul
- CHA University Gumi Medical Center, Gyeongsangbuk-do
- CHA University ilsan Medical Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do
- Dong-a University Hospital
- Gangneung Asan Hospital
- Kosin University Gospel Hospital
- Kyungpook National University Hospital
- Korea University Medical Center
- Pohang Wooridul Hospital
- Samsung Medical Center
- Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
- Seoul National University Hospital
- Severance Hospital
- Soonchunhyang University Hospital
Below are some of the more notable teaching hospitals in Europe.
The teaching hospitals in England include the following:
- Barts and the London NHS Trust
- Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust
- Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
- King's College Hospital
- King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
- Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust
- Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust
- Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust
- Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
- University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust
- University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust
- University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust
- University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust
- University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust
- University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust
In France, the teaching hospitals are called CHU (Centre hospitalier universitaire). They are regional hospitals with an agreement within a university, or possibly several universities. A part of the medical staff are both medical practitioners and teachers under the two institutions agreement, and receive dual compensation.
There are at least one per French administrative region. In the city of Paris and its suburbs, it is the local public hospital system called Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) which has an agreement with the universities of Paris 5, Paris 6, Paris 7, Paris 11, Paris 12 and Paris 13. However, it is divided into small groups of hospitals and universities which are commonly called CHU as if they were separate CHU.
There are 32 teaching hospitals in France. Amongst these are 30 University hospitals and only two Regional teaching hospitals.
- Ambroise Paré Hospital (Boulogne-Billancourt)
- Amiens University Hospital
- Angers University Hospital (University of Angers)
- André Mignot Hospital
- Avicenne Hospital
- Bégin Military Teaching Hospital
- Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital
- Broussais University Hospital
- Centre hospitalier intercommunal de Poissy-Saint-Germain-en-Laye
- Centre hospitalier Sud Seine et Marne
- Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes
- CHU de Caen
- CHU Nice
- Foch Hospital
- Grenoble University Hospital
- Henri Poincaré University Hospital, Nancy
- Hôpital civil, Strasbourg
- Hospices Civils de Lyon
- Hôtel-Dieu, Paris
- Jean Minjoz Hospital
- Limoges University Hospital, Limoges
- Nantes University Hospital
- Necker–Enfants Malades Hospital
- Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital
- René Huguenin Hospital
- Rennes University Hospital
- Reims University Hospital
- Rouen University Hospital, Rouen
- Saint-Antoine University Hospital
- Stell Hospital
- University Hospital CAREMEAU, Nîmes
- University Hospital of Montpellier
- Bayreuth Medical Center
- Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannstrost Halle
- Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitätsklinikum Bergmannsheil
- Greifswald University Hospital
- Rechts der Isar Hospital
- Uniklinikum Aachen
- Universitäts-Augenklinik Düsseldorf
- University Hospital Bonn
- University Hospital Heidelberg
- University Hospital of Giessen and Marburg
- University Hospital of Düsseldorf
- University Hospitals of the Ruhr-University of Bochum
- University Medical Center Freiburg
- University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
- University Medical Center Schleswig Holstein
Hungary has four medical universities:
- Budapest (Semmelweis - SOTE)
- Debrecen (DOTE)
- Szeged (SzOTE)
- University of Pécs Hospital (PTE AOK).
Below are some of the more notable teaching hospitals in North America.
- Brampton Civic Hospital
- Cape Breton Regional Hospital
- Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke
- Centre hospitalier de l'Université Laval
- Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec
- Children's Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre
- Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario
- Douglas Mental Health University Institute
- Dr. Everett Chalmers Regional Hospital
- Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre
- Hôpital Saint-François d'Assise
- Hotel Dieu Hospital (Kingston, Ontario)
- Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal
- Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal
- IWK Health Centre
- Hospital Infantil Universitario - Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Torreón, Coah.
- Hospital General Universitario - Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Av. Juarez 900 Ote, Torreón, Coahuila
The following are some of the most notable teaching hospitals in the United States:
- Grady Memorial Hospital located in Atlanta, GA, is a teaching hospital affiliated with Emory University and Morehouse School of Medicine. The hospital runs the city's only emergency ambulance fleet. Grady is one of the nation’s largest safety-net hospitals, as well as also being a charity hospital.
- Massachusetts General Hospital located in Boston, MA is a teaching hospital affiliated with Harvard Medical School. The hospital is known for having the first public demonstration of ether anesthesia in 1846.
- The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD, is a teaching hospital affiliated with Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Below are some of the more notable teaching hospitals in Oceania.
- Auckland City Hospital
- Christchurch Hospital
- Dunedin Public Hospital
- Middlemore Hospital
- North Shore Hospital
- Starship Children's Health
- Waikato Hospital
- Wellington Hospital, New Zealand
Below are some of the more notable teaching hospitals in South America.
- Hospital de Clínicas "José de San Martín" is a teaching hospital owned by a major university's school of medicine.
- Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires is a JCI accredited and HIMSS level 7 teaching hospital of Argentina].
- Hospital Universitario Japonés, Santa Cruz
- Hospital das Clínicas da Unicamp is a teaching hospital and the largest public hospital in the region of Sao Paulo.
- Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho - HUCFF/UFRJ is the main teaching hospital complex at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) located at Rio de Janeiro. It is one of the most important teaching hospital at the Brazil.
- Hospital Universitario San Ignacio
- Hospital Universitario Metropolitano
- Hospital Universitario del Norte
- CAMINO Universitario Distrital Adelita de Char
- Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose
- Hospital Universitario de la Samaritana ESE (HUS)
- Hospital Universitario Fundacion Santa Fe de Bogota
- Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia (HUN)
- Hospital Universitario San Ignacio (HUSI)
- Hospital Universitario San Rafael ESE
- Hospital Universitario Santa Clara ESE
- Hospital Universitario de Santander HUS ESE
- Hospital Universitario de Bucaramanga - Los Comuneros
- Hospital Universitario del Valle "Evaristo García"
- Clínica Rafael Uribe Uribe (Universidad Libre-Comfenalco)
- Hospital Departamental Psiquiátrico Universitario del Valle
- Hospital Universitario del Caribe
- Clínica Universidad de la Sabana
- Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana
- Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl
- University Hospital - Maracaibo
- Hospital Clínico Universitario
- "Teaching Hospitals". American Hospital Association. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
- "Our role and the Medical Act 1983".
- "Career Development".
- "Advance Education Program Options and Descriptions". www.ada.org.
- "Hospital dentistry". bda.org.
- "Definition of PHYSICIAN". www.merriam-webster.com.
- E. Browne, Islamic Medicine, 2002, p.16, ISBN 81-87570-19-9.
- Syed, Ibrahim B. "Islamic Hospital". www.irfi.org. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- "Attending Physician Vs. Intern Vs. Resident—What's The Difference?". UHP Hawaii. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
- "What is a PA? Learn more about the PA profession". AAPA. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
- "General Internal Medicine Fellowship Directory". Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM). Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L. (2014). "Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students". Psychology Learning & Teaching. 13 (3): 261–269. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1031.9151. doi:10.2304/plat.2014.13.3.261. S2CID 147487820.
- Dowling S (1979). "The teaching clinic: a supervisory alternative". ASHA. 21 (9): 646–9. PMID 391248.
- "Teaching hospital". Mott Childrens. Retrieved February 7, 2021.
- Murphy, Brenda. "How long residency training lasts, by specialty". American Mecical Association. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
- "Newsweek's 10 best hospitals in the world". Beckers Hospital Review. March 6, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- "State Public Health Establishments". Ministry of Health, Population, and Hospital Reform. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- "A spatial database of health facilities managed by the public health sector in sub-Saharan Africa". World Health Organization. February 11, 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- Gaonyadiwe G. Mokone; Maikutlo Kebaetse; et al. (August 2014). "Establishing A New Medical School: Botswana's Experience". Acad. Med. 89 (8 0): 83–87. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000329. PMC 4116079. PMID 25072587.
- "Harvard to aid in developing Paktistani Teaching Hospital". The New York Times. December 21, 1981.
- S.A. Mathieson (June 29, 2011). "England's NHS teaching hospitals: a capital affair". The Guardian. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
- Christian Guy-Coichard; Gabriel Perraud; Anne Chailleu; Véronique Gaillac; Paul Scheffer; Barbara Mintzes (November 1, 2019). "Inadequate conflict of interest policies at most French teaching hospitals: A survey and website analysis". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0224193. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1424193G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0224193. S2CID 207833754.
- Burgridge, Charles E. (May 1957). "The Historical Background of the Teaching Hospital in the United States". Journal of the National Medical Association. 3 (49): 176–179. PMC 2641043. PMID 13429346., PMCID: PMC2641043, PMID: 13429346
- "About Us". Grady Health. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- Dewan, Shaila; Sack, Kevin (January 8, 2008). "A Safety-Net Hospital Falls Into Financial Crisis". The New York Times.
- "Our History & Timeline". Massachusetts General Hospital. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- "Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires". Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- "Hospital das Clínicas da Unicamp". HC Unicamp.
- Modanlou, H D (January 13, 2011). "Historical evidence for the origin of teaching hospital, medical school and the rise of academic medicine". Journal of Perinatology. 31 (4): 236–239. doi:10.1038/jp.2010.162. PMID 21233794. S2CID 24701906.
- Thomson, Arthur (September 10, 1960). "History And Development Of Teaching Hospitals In England". The British Medical Journal. 2 (5201): 749–751. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5201.749. JSTOR 20350438. PMC 2098046. PMID 13838143.
- Ash, Joan S.; Hartzog, Timothy H. (2015). The Transformation of Academic Health Centers, Meeting the Challenges of Healthcare's Changing Landscape, Chapter 23. pp. 3–12.
- Laura G. Burke, MD, MPH1,2; Austin B. Frakt, PhD; Dhruv Khullar, MD, MPP5; John Orav, PhD1; Ashish K. Jha, MD, MPH1 (May 23, 2017). "Association Between Teaching Status and Mortality in US Hospitals". JAMA. 317 (20): 2105–2113. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.5702. PMC 5815039. PMID 28535236.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: date and year (link)