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Aleppo, Idlib, and Coastal dialects
Aleppo and surroundings
- Muslim Aleppine
- Christian Aleppine
- Rural dialects similar to Muslim Aleppine
- Mountain dialects
- Rural dialects
- Bēbi (əlBāb)
- Mixed dialects
Idlib and surroundings
These dialects are transitional between the Aleppine and the Coastal and Central dialects. They are characterized by *q > ʔ, ʾimāla of the type the type sāfaṛ/ysēfer and ṣālaḥ/yṣēliḥ, diphthongs in every position, a- elision (katab+t > ktabt, but katab+it > katabit), išṛab type perfect, ʾimāla in reflexes of *CāʔiC, and vocabulary such as zbandūn "plow sole".
Coast and coastal mountains
These dialects are characterized by diphthongs only in open syllables: bēt/bayti ‘house/my house’, ṣōt/ṣawti ‘voice/my voice’, but ā is found in many lexemes for both *ay and *aw (sāf, yām). There is pronounced ʾimāla. Unstressed a is elided or raised to i and u whenever possible: katab+t > ktabt, katab+it > katbit, sallam+it > sallmit, sallam+t > sillamt, ḥaṭṭ+ayt > ḥiṭṭayt, trawwaq+t > truwwaqt, *madrasa > madrsa > mádǝrsa ~ madírsi, *fallāḥ > fillāḥ. The feminine plural demonstrative pronoun is hawdi, or haydi. It can be divided into several subdialects:
- Transitional between Idlib and the northern coastal dialects
- Northern coastal dialects (Swaydīye)
- Northern coastal dialects
- Central coastal dialects
- Southern coastal dialects
- Tartūs, Arwad
- Alawite and Ismaelite dialects
In this area, predominantly *ay, aw > ē, ō. Mostly, there is no ʾimāla, and a-elision is only weakly developed. Word-final *-a > -i operates. Several dialects exist in this area:
Leans toward the Idlib and Coastal dialects. Preservation of *q, 2nd masc. inti, 2nd fem. inte, feminine forms in the plural intni katabtni, hinni(n) katabni
Tayybet əlʔImām / Sōrān
Preservation of interdentals. 2/3 pl. masc. ending -a: fatahta, falaha, tuktúba, yuktúba. 2nd plural m/f inta - intni. 3rd plural m/f hinhan - hinhin. The perfect of the primae alif verbs are ake, axe. In the imperfect, yāka, yāxa. The participle is mēke.
Characterized by *q > ʔ
Central-South w/ *q > q
Preservation of *q
Central-South w/ *q > ʔ
Characterized by *q > ʔ
Bedouin-Sedentary mixed dialect
Preservation of interdentals and terms like alhaz "now".
Central Syrian dialect continuum, steppe dialects and steppe's edge
Characterized by *q > k, *g > c [ts], *k > č, and ʾimāla of type *lisān > lsīn. Distinctive pronouns are 3pl.c. aham and 2sg.f. suffix -či. The suffix of the verbal 3sg a-Type is -at, and i-Type perfects take the form ʾílbis "he got dressed".
Characterized by perserved *q, *g > č, and unconditioned ʾimāla in hēda. Distinctive pronouns are 3pl. ahu - hinna, and 2sg.f. suffix -ki. The suffix of the verbal 3sg a-Type is -at, and i-Type perfects take the form ʾílbis "he got dressed".
Characterized by perserved *q and unconditioned ʾimāla in hēda. Distinctive pronouns are 3pl. hunni - hinni. The suffix of the verbal 3sg a-Type is -at, and i-Type perfects take the form lbīs "he got dressed".
Characterized by perserved *q and pronouns 3pl. hūwun - hīyin. The suffix of the verbal 3sg a-Type is -at.
Characterized by perserved *q and the changes masaku > masakaw# and masakin > masake:n# in pause. Distinctive pronouns are 3pl.c. hinne, and the suffix of the verbal 3sg a-Type is -at.
Characterized by *q > ʔ, and *ay, *aw > ā. The shifts *CaCC > CiCC/CuCC and *CaCaC > CaCōC take place. The ʾimāla is of the i-umlaut type. Distinctive pronouns are 2sg.f. suffix -ke. The a-Type perfects take the form ḍarōb and the i-type lbēs. The suffix of the verbal 3sg a-Type is -et, with allophony ḍarbet - ḍárbatu.
Characterized by *q > ʔ and unconditioned ʾimāla in hēda. Distinctive pronouns are 2sg.f. suffix -ki. The 1sg perfect conjugation is of the type katabtu, similar to the qǝltu dialects of Iraq. Also like qǝltu dialects, it has lengthened forms like ṣafṛā "yellow [fem.]".
The Qalamūn dialects have strong links to Central Lebanese. The short vowels i/u are found in all positions. Pasual kbīr > kbeyr# and yrūḥ > yrawḥ#. The a-elision is not strongly pronounced. Shortening of unstressed long vowels is characteristic: *sakākīn > sakakīn ‘knives’, fallōḥ/fillaḥīn ‘peasant/peasants’, or fillōḥ/filliḥīn, as in Northwest Aramaic. Conservation of diphthongs and *q > ʔ are common, as well as splitting of ā into ē and ō. As for negation, the type mā- -š is already attested along with the simple negation.
Conservation of interdentals, subdialects:
- ʿĒn itTīne
- Central, tends to East Qalamūn
- Rās ilMaʿarra
Conservation of interdentals, a-elision katab+t > ktabt, distinctive pronouns are 3pl.c. hunni. Subdialects are:
- ʿAssāl ilWard, ilHawš
- ʿAkawbar, Tawwane, Hile
- Hafīr ilFawqa, Badda
- Maʿarrit Sēdnāya
- Hafīr itTahta
Northern Barada valley
No interdentals, conservation of diphthongs
Damascus and surroundings
Transitional Damascus - Qalamūn
These dialects have no interdentals, no diphthongs, and a reflex of *g > ž. The suffix of the verbal 3sg a-Type is -it, ḍarab+it > ḍárbit. The short vowels i/u are found in all positions. Demonstrative plural pronoun hadunke.
Other dialects, accents, and varieties
- Central dialects
- Gēdūri (transitional)
- Mountain dialects
- Zāwye (transitional)
- Mixed dialect Čanāčer/Zāčye
Mount Hermon and Jabal idDrūz area
Dialects of Mount Hermon and Druze have a Lebanese origin
- Autochthonous sedentary dialects
- Mount Hermon dialect
- Druze dialect
Sedentary East Syrian
- Tall Bēdar
- Azxēni (ǝlMālkīye)
- Dēr izZōr
- Albū Kmāl