|Federal subject||Leningrad Oblast|
|Administrative district||Vyborgsky District|
|Settlement municipal formation||Svetogorskoye Settlement Municipal Formation|
|• Body||City Council of Deputies|
|• Total||50 km2 (20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||44 m (144 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||320/km2 (830/sq mi)|
|• Capital of||Svetogorskoye Settlement Municipal Formation|
|• Municipal district||Vyborgsky Municipal District|
|• Urban settlement||Svetogorskoye Urban Settlement|
|• Capital of||Svetogorskoye Urban Settlement|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 81378|
Svetogorsk (Russian: Светого́рск; Finnish: Enso) is an industrial town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus, on the Vuoksa River. It is located 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) from the Finnish–Russian border, 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) from the Finnish town of Imatra, and 207 kilometers (129 mi) from St. Petersburg. Population: 15,981 (2010 Census); 15,698 (2002 Census); 15,594 (1989 Census).
Originally called Enso, it was founded in 1887 to serve a paper mill. At the time, Enso was part of Viipuri Province and the Jääski Municipality in the Grand Duchy of Finland, which was an autonomic state within the Russian Empire. When Finland became independent in 1917, Enso remained part of Finland.
The territory was ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union by the Moscow Peace Treaty as a result of the Winter War. After the Winter War, the Finns and the Soviets disagreed on the interpretation of the peace treaty regarding Enso. The former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Finland Väinö Tanner wrote in his memoirs: "Already now a dispute about the district of Enso developed. According to the map attached to the peace treaty Enso was clearly intended to belong to Finland but the Russians claimed that it should belong to them. Later the map was redrawn according to the interests of the Russians so that the border bends at Enso."
In March 1940, Enso became a part of Yaskinsky District with the administrative center in the work settlement of Yaski. It was a part of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, after March 31, 1940 of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic.
Enso was recaptured by Finns between 1941 and 1944 during the Continuation War but was again ceded to Soviets by the Moscow Armistice. This secession was formalized after signing the Paris Peace Treaty in 1947. The Finnish population was resettled to Finland, while migrants from Central Russia resettled the Karelian Isthmus.
On November 24, 1944, Yaskinsky District was transferred from Karelo-Finnish SSR to Leningrad Oblast. On October 1, 1948, the district was renamed Lesogorsky and on January 13, 1949, all Finnish names of the localities were replaced with Russian names. In particular, Enso was renamed Svetogorsk. On December 9, 1960, Lesogorsky District was abolished and merged into Vyborgsky District.
In 1972, the Soviet Union awarded Finland a construction project for a large new cellulose and paper mill in Svetogorsk. The project was paid with Soviet crude oil. The project also gave a start to cross-border relations. Notably, the construction workers in Svetogorsk were called "builders", and the project also had intent to "build friendship between peoples".
On April 18, 2008, about five hundred inhabitants of Svetogorsk participated in a protest which included a road barricade on the Finnish–Russian border as a protest against poor road conditions and lack of investment in road improvement at both federal and municipal level. According to the Finnish public service broadcaster Yle, the militia[clarification needed] participated in effectively cutting off through traffic. The main issue of discontent was the lack of a bypass, which, according to reports, should have already been built.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the urban-type settlement of Lesogorsky and two rural localities, incorporated within Vyborgsky District as Svetogorskoye Settlement Municipal Formation. As a municipal division, Svetogorskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Vyborgsky Municipal District as Svetogorskoye Urban Settlement.
Before the Winter War, the town was a major factory site for Enso-Gutzeit Oy, the Finnish pulp and paper company (now Stora Enso). In the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty, the new Finnish-Soviet border was deliberately drawn to leave the factory complex on the Soviet side. The town's major industry is still pulp and paper.
OAO Svetogorsk, one of the biggest paper mills in Russia, is the major employer. Covering 2 square kilometers (0.77 sq mi), OAO Svetogorsk produces pulp, printing paper, and packaging board. Its brands include Svetocopy and Ballet office paper. Since December 1998, OAO Svetogorsk has been majority owned by International Paper. At end of 2001, the plant employed 3,000 people; by 2008 this had fallen to 2,200.
Immediately adjacent to OAO Svetogorsk is a tissue mill. This formed part of the original mill complex but was split-away and resold by International Paper to SCA during the acquisition of OAO Svetogorsk from Tetra Laval, which controlled the plant since 1995. Svetogorsk Tissue, as the separate entity was to be called, became fully integrated into SCA Hygiene Products Division in 2003 (called Essity since 2017). It employs around four hundred people. Its products include Zewa and Tork brands of paper towels and toilet paper.
The Imatra–Svetogorsk border crossing plays a key role in the transportation of timber between Russia and Finland. Also, around 150 employees commute daily from Imatra to the paper mills. The border crossing, which had temporary status, was a frequent cause of bottlenecks due to lengthy customs checks and inadequate facilities. A Russia-Finland agreement in 1997 allowed the development and eventual permanence of the border crossing. This €7 million European Union TACIS-funded project ran from 1999 and the new international frontier, capable of handling 1,300 cars per day, opened on July 3, 2002.
Svetogorsk is connected by railway with Kamennogorsk, where it has connection to the old Vyborg–Joensuu railroad. There is suburban traffic to Vyborg. The continuation of the railroad beyond Svetogorsk to the Finnish–Russian border is disused.
Svetogorsk is connected by roads with Kamennogorsk and Vyborg, as well as with Imatra across the border.
References in fiction
Svetogorsk is a key location in the book "The Tightrope Men" by Desmond Bagley 1973 The Tightrope Men
- Oblast Law #32-oz
- Official website of Leningrad Oblast. "Town of Svetogorsk". lenobl.ru. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Law #17-oz
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- Телефонный код города Светогорск - 81378 (in Russian). Телефонные коды городов России. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- Яскинский район (ноябрь 1944 г. - октябрь 1948 г.), Лесогорский район (октябрь 1948 г. - декабрь 1960 г.) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Tanner, Väinö (1950). Olin ulkoministerinä talvisodan aikana [I Was Foreign Minister During Winter War] (in Finnish). Tammi. p. 415.
- Карело-Финская ССР (PDF) (in Russian). Handbook of administrative divisions of Soviet Union. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- История Выборгского района, история Выборгской земли [The history of the Vyborgsky District, the history of the Vyborg land] (in Russian). Муниципальное образование Выборгский район Ленинградской Области. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- "Mielenosoittajat sulkivat rajaliikenteen Svetogorskissa". YLE. YLE Uutiset. May 24, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
- Svetogorsk is getting a sister city
- Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №17-оз от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований Всеволожский район и Выборгский район и муниципальных образований в их составе», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебыч��вское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №27, 11 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #17-oz of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formations of Vsevolozhsky District and Vyborgsky District and to the Municipal Formations Comprising It, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).