|Supreme Order of Christ|
Ordine Supremo del Cristo
|Awarded by Holy See|
|Type||Papal order of knighthood|
|Eligibility||Catholic heads of state|
|Awarded for||Services to the Church|
|Grand Master||Pope Francis|
|Next (higher)||None (highest); clerics, such as theologians, philosophers, or diplomats, can be named Cardinals or Bishops for meritorious services to the Pope and the Holy See, without being given an actual office|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Golden Spur|
Ribbon bar of the order
The Supreme Order of Christ (Italian: Ordine Supremo del Cristo) was the highest order of chivalry awarded by the pope. According to some scholars it owes its origin to the same Order of Christ of the Knights Templar, from which came the Order of Christ that was awarded by the kings of Portugal and the emperors of Brazil. The Portuguese order had originally both a secular and religious component; by the 18th century, the religious component had died out.
The papacy insisted that the right of the Portuguese monarchs to award the honour had been granted by a pope in the Papal Bull Ad ea ex quibus issued in Avignon on 14/15 March 1319. While the bull in itself does not explicitly grant to the pope the right to issue the order, successive popes since John XXII have done so. For many years the Portuguese monarchy disputed the right of the papacy to award the order, and in one famous case arrested someone for wearing the papal order. The position of the Crown of Portugal was that the only legitimate fount of honour was the Crown. The position of the Catholic Church is that the pope is the head of every religious order and may appoint, at his discretion without the permission of its superior general, any individual he deems worthy.
Senior papal order
As part of the general re-organisation of papal honours in 1905 by Pope Pius X, the papal Order of Christ was made the most senior papal honour. It was traditionally awarded to Catholic heads of state, notably President Éamon de Valera of Ireland by Pope John XXIII.
The usage of the order was restricted by Pope Paul VI in his 15 April 1966 Papal Bull Equestres Ordinis to Catholic heads of state to whom it might be given only to commemorate very special occasions at which the pope himself was present. It has rarely been awarded since; the last award was made by Pope John Paul II in 1987 to Frà Angelo de Mojana, 77th prince and grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. With the death of King Baudouin of Belgium in 1993 there are no living members of the Order of Christ.
- Francesco Borromini (1599-1667)
- Peter Anton von Verschaffelt (1710-1793)
- Frederick Ferdinand, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen (1769-1830)
- Johann Franz Anton von Olry, Bavarian diplomat.
- Heinrich von Heß (1788-1870)
- Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
- Prince Charles III of Monaco (1818-1889)
- Adolf von Auersperg (1821-1885)
- George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (1827-1909)
- Scipione Salviati, 1st Duke of Salviati, President of L'Opera dei Congressi
- Antonio Aguilar y Correa, 8th Marquis of Vega de Armijo (1824-1908)
- Alejandro Groizard y Gómez de la Serna (1830–1919)
- Marcantonio VII Colonna, 18th Prince and Duke of Paliano
- Claudio López, 2nd Marquess of Comillas (1853-1925)
- Prince Henry of Prussia (1862-1929)
- Archduke Eugen of Austria (1863-1954)
- Fra' Ludovico Chigi Albani della Rovere (1866-1951)
- King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (1869-1947)
- Alessandro Ruspoli, 7th Prince of Cerveteri (1869-1952)
- Albert Lebrun (1871-1950)
- Wilhelm Miklas (1872-1956)
- Luigi Einaudi (1874-1961)
- Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967)
- René Coty (1882-1962)
- Éamon de Valera (1882-1975)
- Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)
- Antonio Segni (1891-1972)
- Francisco Franco (1892-1975)
- Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma (1893-1970)
- King Umberto II of Italy (1904-1983)
- Cardinal Maximilien de Furstenberg (1904-1988)
- Fra' Angelo de Mojana di Cologna (1905-1988)
- King Baudouin of Belgium (1930-1993)
- José Vicente de Bragança, The Military Order of Christ and the Papal Croce di Cristo
- MacErlean, Andrew Alphonsus (1912). The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, Volume 4. Robert Appleton Co. pp. 667–668.
- Noonan, Jr., James-Charles (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. Viking. p. 196. ISBN 0-670-86745-4.
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