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|Proximal tibiofibular articulation|
Right knee-joint, from the front, showing interior ligaments.
Capsule of right knee-joint (distended). Lateral aspect.
- Anterolateral dislocation (most common)
- Posteromedial dislocation
- Superior dislocation (uncommon, associated with shortened tibia fractures or severe ankle injuries)
- Inferior dislocation (rare, associated with lengthened tibia fractures or avulsion of the foot, usually extensive soft tissue injury and poor prognosis)
- Chronic instability (subluxation)
As there are often concomitant fractures and ligamentous injuries (e.g., ankle fracture), anterolateral and posteromedial dislocations may be overlooked on first examination, with the potential to cause chronic instability. If the dislocation is recognized and treated properly, prognosis is typically good, although injury to the common peroneal nerve may occur. Inferior dislocations are exceptional as they usually only occur in avulsion (traumatic amputation) injuries. Subluxation may also occur in diseases with ligamentous laxity (e.g., Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome), muscle weakness (e.g., muscular dystrophy), or secondarily to degeneration (e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis).
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