A supercluster is a large group of smaller galaxy clusters or galaxy groups; it is among the largest-known structures of the cosmos. The Milky Way is part of the Local Group galaxy group (which contains more than 54 galaxies), which in turn is part of the Virgo Supercluster, which is part of the Laniakea Supercluster. The large size and low density of superclusters means they, unlike clusters, expand with the Hubble expansion. The number of superclusters in the observable universe is estimated to be 10 million.
The existence of superclusters indicates that the galaxies in the Universe are not uniformly distributed; most of them are drawn together in groups and clusters, with groups containing up to some dozens of galaxies and clusters up to several thousand galaxies. Those groups and clusters and additional isolated galaxies in turn form even larger structures called superclusters.
Superclusters form massive structures of galaxies, called "filaments", "supercluster complexes", "walls" or "sheets", that may span between several hundred million light-years to 10 billion light-years, covering more than 5% of the observable universe. These are the largest known structures to date. Observations of superclusters can give information about the initial condition of the universe, when these superclusters were created. The directions of the rotational axes of galaxies within superclusters may also give insight and information into the early formation process of galaxies in the history of the Universe.
Although superclusters are supposed to be the largest structures in the universe, according to the Cosmological principle, larger structures have been observed in surveys, including the Sloan Great Wall.
List of superclusters
|Laniakea Supercluster||The Laniakea Supercluster is the supercluster that contains the Virgo Cluster, Local Group, and by extension on the latter, our galaxy; the Milky Way.|
||It contains the Local Group with our galaxy, the Milky Way. It also contains the Virgo Cluster near its center, and is sometimes called the Local Supercluster. It is thought to contain over 47,000 galaxies.|
|Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster||It is composed of two lobes, sometimes also referred to as superclusters, or sometimes the entire supercluster is referred to by these other two names
|Saraswati Supercluster||Distance = 4000 Million light years (1.2 Gpc)
Length = 652 Million light-years
|The Saraswati Supercluster consists of 43 massive galaxy clusters such as Abell 2361 and has a mass of about 2 x 1016 M☉ and is seen in the Pisces constellation|
|Coma Supercluster||Forms most of the CfA Homunculus, the center of the CfA2 Great Wall galaxy filament|
|Sculptor Superclusters||SCl 9|
|Hercules Superclusters||SCl 160|
|Leo Supercluster||SCl 93|
||Forming the far wall of the Ophiuchus Void, it may be connected in a filament, with the Pavo-Indus-Telescopium Supercluster and the Hercules Supercluster. This supercluster is centered on the cD cluster Ophiuchus Cluster, and has at least two more galaxy clusters, four more galaxy groups, several field galaxies, as members.|
||The second supercluster found, after the Local Supercluster.|
|Boötes Supercluster||SCl 138|
|Corona Borealis Supercluster|
|Aquarius B Supercluster|
|Bootes A Supercluster|
||The largest galaxy supercluster|
|Draco-Ursa Major Supercluster|
|Leo A Supercluster|
|Leo-Virgo Supercluster||SCl 107|
|Microscopium Supercluster||SCl 174|
|Pegasus-Pisces Supercluster||SCl 3|
|Perseus-Pisces Supercluster||SCl 40|
|Ursa Majoris Supercluster|
|Virgo-Coma Supercluster||SCl 111|
Incredibly distant superclusters
|Hyperion proto-supercluster||z=2.45||This supercluster at the time of its discovery in 2018 was the earliest and largest proto-supercluster found to date.|
|Lynx Supercluster||z=1.27||Discovered in 1999 (as ClG J0848+4453, a name now used to describe the western cluster, with ClG J0849+4452 being the eastern one), it contains at least two clusters RXJ 0848.9+4452 (z=1.26) and RXJ 0848.6+4453 (z=1.27) . At the time of discovery, it became the most distant known supercluster. Additionally, seven smaller groups of galaxies are associated with the supercluster.|
|SCL @ 1338+27 at z=1.1||
|A rich supercluster with several galaxy clusters was discovered around an unusual concentration of 23 QSOs at z=1.1 in 2001. The size of the complex of clusters may indicate a wall of galaxies exists there, instead of a single supercluster. The size discovered approaches the size of the CfA2 Great Wall filament. At the time of the discovery, it was the largest and most distant supercluster beyond z=0.5 |
|SCL @ 1604+43 at z=0.9||z=0.91||This supercluster at the time of its discovery was the largest supercluster found so deep into space, in 2000. It consisted of two known rich clusters and one newly discovered cluster as a result of the study that discovered it. The then known clusters were Cl 1604+4304 (z=0.897) and Cl 1604+4321 (z=0.924), which then known to have 21 and 42 known galaxies respectively. The then newly discovered cluster was located at 16h 04m 25.7s, +43° 14′ 44.7″|
|SCL @ 0018+16 at z=0.54 in SA26||z=0.54||This supercluster lies around radio galaxy 54W084C (z=0.544) and is composed of at least three large clusters, CL 0016+16 (z=0.5455), RX J0018.3+1618 (z=0.5506), RX J0018.8+1602 .|
|This supercluster has at least three member clusters, the eastern cluster CL 0303+1706, southern cluster MS 0302+1659 and northern cluster MS 0302+1717.|
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