Student loans in Canada help post-secondary students pay for their education in Canada. The federal government funds the Canada Student Loan Program (CSLP) and the provinces may fund their own programs or run in parallel with the CSLP. In addition, Canadian banks offer commercial loans targeted for students in professional programs.
Canadian citizens, permanent residents of Canada living in any province for over a year, and protected persons are normally eligible for loans provided by the federal government, through the CSLP, in addition to loans provided by their province of residence.
Loans issued to full-time students are interest free while a student is in full-time studies. Students receiving a Canada Student Loan (CSL) for the first time on or after August 1, 1995, are eligible for up to 340 weeks (~6.5 years) of interest-free assistance. Students in doctoral programs are eligible for an additional 60 weeks, up to 400 weeks (~7.5 years). Students with permanent disabilities and students who received their first CSL prior to August 1, 1995 are eligible for up to 520 weeks of assistance (10 years).
As the length of North American graduate degree programs often exceed this 400 week maximum, students considering graduate study are advised to think carefully before taking out student loans. For example, an honours BA from a Canadian University takes four years, assuming satisfactory progress. MA programs in Canada vary in length from 1–3 years, with two years being the average minimum. A PhD takes, on average, 5 years to complete, although many students take significantly longer than this. Assuming a graduate student completes an honours BA (5 years), an MA (2 years), and a PhD (5 years), one can expect to be in university for at least 12 years. This is significantly longer than the 400 weeks maximum allotted to complete a degree by the National student loan program, and graduate students can easily find themselves in a position where they no longer qualify for student loans. Whether in receipt of student loans or not, students in full-time study are not required to repay their student loans; however, interest begins to accumulate immediately upon reaching the lifetime limit: quoting directly from NSLSC, "Once a lifetime limit has been reached, interest starts to accumulate on your loan.".
Student financial assistance is available for students in part-time studies. Beginning January 1, 2012, the Government of Canada eliminated interest on student loans while borrowers are in-study. Student loan borrowers begin repaying their student loans six months after they graduate or leave school, although interest begins accumulating right away. Grants may supplement loans to aid students who face particular barriers to accessing post-secondary education, such as students with permanent disabilities or students from low-income families.
Students must apply for the Canadian and provincial loans through their provincial government. The rules for what determines your province of residence vary, but normally it is defined as where you have most recently lived for at least 12 consecutive months, not including any time you spent as a full-time student at a post-secondary institution. In most cases, the province of residence is the province one lived in before becoming a post-secondary student.
Canada Student Loans of up to $210 per week of full-time study or 60% of the student's assessed need (the lesser of these) can be issued per loan year (August 1–July 31). Loans issued through provincial programs will normally provide students with enough funding to cover the balance of their assessed need. Part-time loans can be made, but a student cannot be more than $10,000 in debt on part-time loans at any one time. All Canadian students were also eligible for the Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation Bursary (CMS Grant) until the program ended in 2008. There are also other grants provided by students' province of residence.
Prior to 1964, the national student loan program was known as the Dominion-Provincial Student Loan Program. This program was a matching grant partnership system between the federal and provincial governments. It was started in 1939 and ended with the start to the CSLP in 1964.
Some text from the Department of Human Resources and Social Development Canada:
The CSLP was created in 1964. Since its inception, the Program has supplemented the financial resources available to eligible students from other sources to assist in their pursuit of post-secondary education. Between 1964 and 1995, loans were provided by financial institutions to post-secondary students who were approved to receive financial assistance. The financial institutions also administered the loan repayment process. In return, the Government of Canada guaranteed each Canada Student Loan that was issued, by reimbursing the financial institution the full amount of loans that went into default.
In 1995, several important changes were made to Canada Student Loans. First, the Canada Student Financial Assistance Act was proclaimed, replacing the existing Canada Student Loans Act (which still remains in force to this day) reflecting the changing needs of the parties involved in the loan process, including the conferred responsibility of the collection of defaulted loans to the banks themselves. The Government of Canada developed a formalized "risk-shared" agreement with several financial institutions, whereby the institution would assume responsibility for the possible risk of defaulted loans in return for a fixed payment from the Government which correlated with the amount of loans that were expected to be, or were, in default in each calendar year. During this period, the weekly federal loan amount was increased to a maximum of $165.
On July 31, 2000, the risk-shared arrangement between the Government of Canada and participating financial institutions came to an end. The Government of Canada now directly finances all new loans issued on or after August 1, 2000. The administration of Canada Student Loans has become the responsibility of the National Student Loans Service Centre (NSLSC). There are two divisions of the NSLSC, one to manage loans for students attending public institutions and the other to administer loans for students attending private institutions. Defaulted Canada Student Loans disbursed under this new regime are now collected by the Canada Revenue Agency which, by Order in Council dated August 1, 2005, became responsible for the collection of all debts due under programs administered by Human Resources and Social Development Canada.
Due to the close nature of the CSLP and the provincial student loan programs, the changes in 1995 and 2000 were largely mirrored by the provincial programs. As a result of these changes, students who attended school before and after these transition years may find that they have up to 6 different loans to manage (pre-1995 federal & provincial; 1995-2000 federal & provincial; and post-2000 federal & provincial). The extent to which this is possible depends largely on a student's province of residence.
Students in professional programs
Most charter banks in Canada have specific programs for students in professional programs (e.g., medicine) that can provide more funds than usual in the form of a line of credit, sometimes with lower interest rates as well. Students may also be eligible for government loans that are interest free while in school on top of this line of credit, as private loans do not count against government loans/grants.
The March 2011 federal budget announced a Canada Student Loan forgiveness programme for medical and nursing students to complement other health human resources strategies to expand the provision of primary health services. The programme is meant to encourage and support new family physicians, nurse practitioners and nurses to practise in underserved rural or remote communities of the country, including communities that provide health services to First Nations and Inuit populations.
Loan administration and repayment
The Canada Student Loan (sometimes referred to as the National Student Loan) is administered by National Student Loan Service Centre under contract to Human Resources and Social (Skills) Development Canada (HRSDC). Students have the choice of opting for a fixed interest rate of prime interest rate + 5%, or a floating interest rate of prime interest rate + 2.5%. Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island were the only provinces where there was no interest on the provincial loan, but as of March 28, 2014, the government of Nova Scotia also eliminated interest for all graduates who entered repayment after Nov. 1, 2007.
Based on the HRSDC student loan calculator, and assuming an average prime interest rate of 4.5%, (as of December 2011, the rate is 5.5%) a standard 10-year (114 month) repayment period, and a loan of $30,000:
- if the Floating Interest option is selected, monthly payments will be $361.02 (principal and interest), resulting in total payments of $41,156.77 ($30,000 principal + $11,156.77 interest) over the life of the repayment.
- if the Fixed Interest option is selected, monthly payments will be $400.50 (principal and interest), resulting in payments of $45,657.54 ($30,000 principal + $16,657.54 interest).
- Fixed Rate: Fixed rate is a stable rate of interest. If you negotiate a fixed rate with your loan providers, you will be charged the same interest rate throughout your repayment period. The Loan Repayment Estimator uses a fixed rate of prime + 5%. For example, if the prime rate is 4.5%, fixed rate on the Loan Repayment Estimator will be 9.5% (4.5% + 5% = 9.5%). See also prime rate and floating rate.
- Floating rate: Floating rate is a rate of interest that varies over time with the prime rate. If you negotiate a floating rate with your loan providers, the interest you are charged during repayment of your loan will increase and decrease along with the prime rate. The Loan Repayment Estimator uses a floating rate of prime + 2.5%. For example, if the prime rate is 4.5%, floating rate on the Loan Repayment Estimator will be 7% (4.5% + 2.5% = 7%).
- Prime rate: The rate used as a base to calculate the interest applied to a Canada Student Loan. This prime rate is calculated using the interest rates declared by the five largest Canadian financial institutions as their prime rate. The Canada Student Loans Program calculates its prime rate by eliminating both the highest and the lowest of those five rates and taking the average of the remaining three. The five institutions include the Bank of Montreal, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, the Bank of Nova Scotia, the Royal Bank of Canada and TD Canada Trust.
CSLP offers a number of programs to assist students who find themselves facing financial difficulty during repayment. Among these programs are:
- Interest Relief
- Interest Relief is designed to help students meet repayment obligations if they are temporarily unable to make payments on their government student loans because of unemployment or low income. Interest Relief is granted for periods of six months, up to a maximum of 30 months. Some exceptions, such as Canadian residency, may apply. Students may also be eligible for a further 24 months of Extended Interest Relief. Once approved for Interest Relief, students are not required to make payments on either the monthly interest or the outstanding principal of their loan(s) (the federal and/or provincial government will pay the interest on a student's behalf).
- Debt Reduction in Repayment
- Debt Reduction in Repayment is designed to help students facing long-term financial difficulties manage the repayment of their Student Loan(s). DRR lowers the principal amount of a loan, thereby reducing the monthly loan payment to an affordable level based on family income. A student can receive up to three reductions (totalling up to $26,000) on their Canada Student Loan principal during their lifetime, depending on financial circumstances.
- Revision of Terms
- Revision of Terms is a feature that provides students with the flexibility to manage loan repayment in a way that is responsive to individual situations. It can be used to decrease the monthly payments by increasing the repayment period (from the standard 10 years up to 15 years) should a student find the standard terms difficult to maintain. It can also be used to increase loan payments by reducing the repayment period, allowing more rapid repayment of a loan.
- Permanent Disability Benefit
- Permanent Disability Benefit allows for the reduction of loans for students who are experiencing exceptional financial hardship due to a permanent disability. The eligibility criteria varies based on date of loan negotiation and lender. A recent Access to Information request indicated that over 60% of applicants to this program were denied loan forgiveness.
- These programs are currently under revision and will gradually be replaced by the Repayment Assistance Program beginning in August 2009.
- To qualify for these programs one must be a resident of Canada. Graduate students who are studying abroad and have exceeded their maximum allowable weeks of study do not qualify for any assistance in repaying their loans. Neither do other Canadians who no longer reside in Canada.
- "Determining Eligibility for Canada Student Loans". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- "How long can I apply for and receive student financial assistance? - Page 9" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - 13". Archived from the original on 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- "Lifetime Limits on Student Financial Assistance". Archived from the original on 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "Part-Time Canada Student Loan (PTCSL)". Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance Issue Briefing on Student Financial Assistance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- "Building the Third Pillar: Reforming Ontario's Student Financial Aid System" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- Government of Canada. 2011. Canada's Economic Action Plan: Forgiving Loans for New Doctors and Nurses in Under-Served Rural and Remote Areas. Ottawa, 22 March 2011. Accessed 23 March 2011.
- "The National Student Loan Service Centre". Archived from the original on 2007-05-07. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- https://novascotia.ca/news/release/?id=20140328001. Retrieved 2014-10-01. Missing or empty
- "HRDC Student Loan Calculator". Archived from the original on 2008-05-26. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- "HRSDC - Interest Relief". Archived from the original on 2007-06-17. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- "HRSDC - Debt Reduction in Repayment". Archived from the original on 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- "HRSDC - Revision of Terms". Archived from the original on 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- "HRSDC - Permanent Disability Benefit". Archived from the original on 2007-09-19. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- Provincial and Territorial Student Financial Assistance Offices
- Canadian Alliance of Student Associations
- Canadian Federation of Students
- Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance Issue Briefings
- StudentAid BC - Ministry of Advanced Education - Province of British Columbia