These techniques borrow from stealth aircraft technology, although some aspects such as wake and acoustic signature reduction (Acoustic quieting) are unique to stealth ships' design. Though radar cross-section (RCS) reduction is a fairly new concept many other forms of masking a ship have existed for centuries or even millennia.
In designing a ship with reduced radar signature, the main concerns are radar beams originating near or slightly above the horizon (as seen from the ship) coming from distant patrol aircraft, other ships or sea-skimming anti-ship missiles with active radar seekers. Therefore, the shape of the ship avoids vertical surfaces, which would perfectly reflect any such beams directly back to the emitter. Retro-reflective right angles are eliminated to avoid causing the cat's eye effect. A stealthy ship shape can be achieved by constructing the hull and superstructure with a series of slightly protruding and retruding surfaces. Furthermore, round shapes on the ship are eliminated or covered up, examples include smokestacks and gun turrets. Also, cavities that present a horizontal face are to be eliminated since they act like a trap and are very visible to radar. To get around these limitations many ships use features such as panels that cover reflective surfaces or use alternate designs of hardware. Also, every effort must be made to have the smallest gaps on the ship as possible. Common hull shapes include tumblehome hull designs which slope inward from the waterline, and SWATHhulls which allow for better stability when using a tumblehome hull. These RCS design principles were developed by several navies independently in the 1980s using work done on aircraft RCS reduction as the starting point.
The currently developed U.S. Zumwalt-class destroyer — or DD(X) — is the US version of a stealth ship. Despite being 40% larger than an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer the radar signature is more akin to a fishing boat, according to a spokesman for Naval Sea Systems Command; sound levels are compared to the Los Angeles-class submarines. The tumblehome hull reduces radar return and the composite material deckhouse also has a low radar return. Water sleeting along the sides, along with passive cool air induction in the mack reduces infrared signature. Overall, the destroyer's angular build makes it "50 times harder to spot on radar than an ordinary destroyer.
The Swedish Navy's Visby class corvette is designed to elude visual detection, radar detection, acoustic detection, and infrared detection. The hull material is a sandwich construction comprising a PVC core with a carbon fibre and vinyl laminate. Avoidance of right angles in the design results in a smaller radar signature, reducing the ship's detection range.
Britain's Type 45 anti-air warfare destroyer has similarities to the Visby class, but is much more conventional, employing traditional steel instead of carbon fiber. Like Visby, its design reduces the use of right angles.
Taiwan's' Tuo Chiang-class stealth corvette are a class of fast stealth multi-mission corvettes currently in service with the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy. The ships is designed to have a low radar cross-section and evade radar detection making it difficult to detect the ship when operating closer to the coastline 
Stealth technology represents more than just a low RCS; noise reduction plays a huge role in naval stealth because sound travels much better in water than air. Some of the techniques used include muffled exhaust systems, modified propeller shapes, and pump-jets. The shape of the hull can also have a great effect on the reduction of the noise from a ship. Another major element is signal emission control. Modern warships emit much electromagnetic radiation in the form of radar, radio, and even bleed-off from the ship's electrical systems. All of this can be used to track a ship and thus modern stealth ships often have a mode that switches off many of the electronic emissions, the downside of course is that the ship then has to rely on passive sensors and can't easily send messages further than line of sight.
Also of great importance is thermal emissions. A heat signature can make a ship stand out like a candle in a dark ocean making it easier to spot and because it is possible to see infra-red emissions through features that would normally hide a ship such as fog, or a smoke screen, many detection platforms like patrol aircraft, UAV's, and satellites often have the ability to see multiple bands in the infrared spectrum including heat. This necessitates the control of these emissions. The most common way is to mix any hot gasses emitted by the main source of heat which is the engines exhaust with cold air to dilute the signature and make it harder to pick out the ship from the background warmth. Another method vents the exhaust into the water though this increases the ship's acoustic signature. For the hull water can be actively distributed across the hull of the ship cooling the ship. Another less crucial but still relevant part of a stealth ship is visual camouflage. This area is probably the oldest form of stealth, with records going back almost as far as the writing of ancient mariners using visual tricks to make their ships harder to spot. Though still relevant this area has taken on lesser importance with the advent of long-range radar.
Just like choices in shaping, the choice of materials affects the RCS of a ship. Composites such as fiberglass and carbon fiber are great blockers of radar and give smaller vessels an advantage in further RCS reductions. However, composites are fragile and often unsuited to larger ships or ships that expect to take fire, though new laminates can partially negate some of the weaknesses. This restricts larger ships to metals such as steel and aluminum alloys. To compensate a ship may include a coating of a radar absorbing material though this can be quite expensive and may not stand up to the corrosive effects of salt water.
Fully stealth ships
(Year of commission)
- Sea Shadow (IX-529) (1985, experimental platform)
- La Fayette-class frigate (1996)
- Hamina-class missile boat (1998)
- Skjold-class corvette (1999)
- Formidable-class frigate (2007)
- Visby-class corvette (2009)
- Independence-class littoral combat ship (2010)
- Ada-class corvette (2011)
- Tuo Chiang-class Stealth Corvette (2014)
- 49m Stealth FAC(M) of Myanmar Navy(2016)
- Zumwalt-class destroyer (2016)
- Gowind-class corvette (2017)
- Type 055 destroyer (2020)
- Maharaja Lela-class frigate (2020)
Ships with moderate radar cross-section reduction
- Durango class patrol vessel
- Sierra-class corvette
- Admiral Gorshkov-class frigate
- Type 052C destroyer
- Type 052D destroyer
- Type 45 destroyer
- Kolkata-class destroyer
- Type 22 missile boat (2004)
- Visakhapatnam-class destroyer
- Freedom-class littoral combat ship
- De Zeven Provinciën-class frigate
- Horizon-class frigate
- F125-class frigate
- Sachsen-class frigate
- Talwar-class frigate
- Type 054A frigate
- Tatarstan/Gepard-class frigate
- Holland-class offshore patrol vessel
- Kamorta-class corvette
- Buyan-class corvette
- Legend-class security cutter
- Steregushchiy-class corvette
- Gremyashchiy-class corvette
- Shivalik-class frigate
- FREMM multipurpose frigate
- Ambassador MK III missile boat
- Inlay-class offshore patrol vessel of Myanmar Navy
- Fridtjof Nansen-class frigate
- Iver Huitfeldt-class frigate
Reduced radar cross-section ships
- Kyan Sittha-class frigate
- Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier
- Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carrier
- Rotterdam-class amphibious transport dock
- San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock
- Type 071 amphibious transport dock
- Type 23 frigate
- Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
- Atago-class destroyer
- Kongo class destroyer
- Sejong the Great-class destroyer (KDX-III)
- Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin-class destroyer (KDX-II)
- Martadinata-class frigate
- Gumdoksuri-class patrol vessel
- Neustrashimyy-class frigate
- Kedah-class offshore patrol vessel
- Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate
- Braunschweig-class corvette
- Jose Rizal-class frigate
- Sigma-class corvette
- Nongo class
- Admiral Grigorovich-class frigate
- PZM patrol vessel
- Valour-class frigate
- Oaxaca-class patrol vessel
- Project 17A-class frigate
- Project 21956 destroyer
- TF-2000-class destroyer
- Type 26 Frigate
- Type 31 Frigate
- 135m Frigate of Myanmar Navy
- 63m Anti-Submarine Fast Attack Craft of Myanmar Navy
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German Braunschweig-class corvette
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- DDG 1000 information; formerly DD(X)
- Shivalik class frigate
- Stealth ships steam ahead article by Chris Summers on BBC news, 10 June 2004