|Father||Duqaq Temür Yalığ|
Seljuk was the son of Duqaq or Tuqaq Beg (دوقاق دمور یالیق Dûqâq Demur Yalığ), known as Temür Yalığ (meaning "iron bow") because of his skills in his works. In Oghuz culture, arrow and bow are considered as a sign of sovereignty and considering Duqaq's nickname, he wasn't an ordinary soldier, but a sü-başı (commander-in-chief). According to various sources, Duqaq was a powerful statesman and possessed great power and influence alongside to Oghuz Yabgu and passed away around 924.
Seljuk had great power and influence like his father and located near of Oghuz Yabgu. The relationship between Seljuk and Oghuz Yabgu was overshadowed by an incident that we don't know very well because lack of sources and finally, after Seljuk's retirement from Oghuz Yabgu State and immigrating to Jand, was replaced with hostility and fight.
After that Seljuk emigrated to the city of Jand along with his tribe, located on the left bank of the Syr Darya. It is rumored that there were 100 horseman, 1.500 camels and 50.000 sheep with Seljuk Beg during this migration. If each horseman equates to a family, the Seljuks who migrated to Jand were likely a small nomadic community of about 500 people.
Jand was an important border town between settled geography and steppes for X-XIII centuries. This town, which is inhabited by both nomadic and settled residents and is the gateway to the steppes, was a popular destination for Muslims and religious propagandists from Transoxiana as well as merchants from various places. Seljuq, who reviewed the conditions in Cend, accepted Islam together with his Oghuz tribe. This event took place between 985-986 when Seljuks migrated to Jand, and 992 when the Seljuk was sent to Transoxiana to help the Samanians.
After accepting Islam, Seljuk expelled the officials sent by the Oghuz Yabgu to Jand to collect the annual tax, saying "Muslims will not pay tribute to the unbelievers" and set up a war against the non-Muslim Turks. Also Seljuk Beg was mentioned by Al-Bayhaqi as al-Malik al-Ghâzî Seljuk (meaning "ruler and veteran Seljuk").
The most important event that took place during this period is the death of Seljuk's elder son Mikâ'îl, who was the father of Tughrul and Chaghri Beg's. After this incident, the wife of Mikâ'îl (Tughril and Chaghri's mother) was married to Yusuf, the other son of Seljuk, according to the old Turkish traditions -The reason for such a tradition was that someone could use a widowed noblewoman to gain strength among the tribe/country-, while two of his sons, Tughrul and Chaghri, who were to establish the Seljuk State, were raised by their grandfather Seljuk Beg.
Seljuk, who gained power with his war activities in Jand and its vicinity, gradually began to enter into political events in Transoxiana. After Kara-khanid Bughra Khan Harun b. Musa captured Samanid city Bukhara, Samanid's requested Seljuk to help against Bughra Khan. Upon this, Seljuk sent his son Arslân (Isrâ'il) to Transoxiana.
Since Seljuk was getting old in this period, the administration was now actually in the hands of his eldest son Arslân (Isrâ'il). In the meantime, the Samani state, which lost its power thoroughly, was subjected to frequent renewed attacks by Kara-khanids, which gave Arslan the opportunity to prove his military power. In a period when the Samani state was shaken by the internal turmoil caused by Fâ'ik, Abû 'Alî Simcûr and Bek-tüzün, and the Kara-khanids who entered Transoxiana and seized Bukhara for the second time (999), Seljuks under Arslân gave military assistance to Abû İbrâhîm İsma'îl al-Muntasir (1000-1005), the last member of the Samani dynasty (1003). Although al-Muntasir gained some success against the Kara-khanid army under the command of Ilig Khan Nasr with the support he received from the Seljuks, he couldn't prevent the collapse of the Samani state. After this incident, the entire Transoxiana came under the Kara-khanid administration and the Seljuks had to recognize the administration of Kara-khanids.
Seljuk Beg died in Jand at the age of about a hundred towards the year 1009. After his death, Arslân, one of his three surviving sons, took over the administration under the old Oghuz traditions. His son Arslân, who had the title of yabgu, was assisted by Yusuf, who had the title of inal and Mûsâ, who had the title of inanç from his brothers. Meanwhile, Mikâ'îl's sons Tughrul and Chaghri took their place in the administration as "beg" at the age of 14-15. Although Arslan Yabgu was the head of the family, the sons and grandchildren of Seljuk ruled the Turkoman Begs and other forces affiliated to them in a semi-connected manner in the line with the old Oghuz traditions.
According to sources, Seljuk had four or five sons: Isrâ'îl (Israel, Arslân), Mikâ'îl (Michael), Mûsâ (Moses), Yusuf (Joseph) and/or Yûnus (Jonah). All five names mentioned are related to Judaism. Some researchers who pointed out the religious status of the names have concluded that the Seljuk family was either Khazar Judaic or Nestorian Christianity before accepting Islam. However, given that the names of these individuals are widely used in the Islamic world, Turkish historians state that such an interpretation cannot be solely based on names.
It is speculated that according to some sources, Seljuk began his career as an officer in the Khazar army. These sources provide information about the ancestors of the Seljuks, records that Duqaq is connected to Khazar Melik. The fact that these records, which appear ambiguous in Melik-nâme, was repeated by Ibn Hassûl who wrote his work during the time of Tughrul Beg, does not leave any doubt about the Seljuk's relationship with the Khazars. Due to a lack of resources, it is not possible to reveal the nature of this relationship nor to fully define its framework, yet it is difficult to say whether this relationship was done via Oghuz Yabgu state or independent. However, if political contact has been established between the ancestors of the Seljuks and the Khazars, the most appropriate date for this must be the middle of the second quarter of the X. century, when the Khazar Khaganate needed military help. As a result, it is possible that Duqaq had political and military relations with the Khazars during their collapse either directly or through the Oghuz Yabgu State, and that these memories could only be spoken verbally in the family reflect only the vague records of the Seljuk histories written about one hundred and fifty years later.
Under Mikâîl's sons Tughrul and Chaghri, the Seljuqs migrated into Khurasan. Ghaznavid attempts to stop Seljuqs raiding the local Muslim populace led to the Battle of Dandanaqan on 23 May 1040. Victorious Seljuqs became masters of Khurasan, expanding their power into Transoxiana and across Iran. By 1055, Tuğrul had expanded his control all the way to Baghdad, setting himself up as the champion of the Abbasid caliph, who honored him with the title sultan. Earlier rulers may have used this title but the Seljuqs seem to have been the first to inscribe it on their coins.
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