San Diego, California
|City of San Diego|
"America's Finest City", "Sandi"
Semper Vigilans (Latin for "Ever Vigilant")
Location within San Diego County
|Established||July 16, 1769|
|Incorporated||March 27, 1850|
|Named for||Saint Didacus of Alcalá|
|• Type||Strong mayor|
|• Body||San Diego City Council|
|• Mayor||Kevin Faulconer (R)|
|• City Attorney||Mara Elliott|
|• City Council|
|• State Assembly Members|
|• State Senators|
|• Total||372.39 sq mi (964.50 km2)|
|• Land||325.19 sq mi (842.25 km2)|
|• Water||47.20 sq mi (122.24 km2) 12.68%|
|Elevation||62 ft (19 m)|
|Highest elevation||1,591 ft (485 m)|
|Lowest elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||2nd in California|
8th in the United States
|• Density||4,325.50/sq mi (1,670.08/km2)|
|• Urban||2,956,746 (15th)|
|• Metro||3,317,749 (17th)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 (Pacific)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−7 (PDT)|
92101–92124, 92126–92132, 92134–92140, 92142, 92143, 92145, 92147, 92149–92155, 92158–92161, 92163, 92165���92179, 92182, 92186, 92187, 92190–92199
|Area codes||619, 858|
|GNIS feature IDs||1661377, 2411782|
|Primary Airport||San Diego International Airport|
|Secondary Airports||Tijuana International Airport |
San Diego (/
With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U.S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, and recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center.
San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later. The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.
The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Sports
- 7 Government
- 8 Education
- 9 Media
- 10 Infrastructure
- 11 Notable people
- 12 Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but possibly born in Portugal. Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, and named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego.
Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, and the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez. An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary, explorer, and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president (and now saint) Junípero Serra.
In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. It was the first settlement by Europeans in what is now the state of California. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks.
In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, and most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers. The 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, and Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde ("municipal magistrate"), defeating Pío Pico in the vote. (See, List of pre-statehood mayors of San Diego.) However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy.
Americans gained increased awareness of California, and its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the often officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At first they had an easy time of it capturing the major ports including San Diego, but the Californios in southern Alta California struck back. Following the successful revolt in Los Angeles, the American garrison at San Diego was driven out without firing a shot in early October 1846. Mexican partisans held San Diego for three weeks until October 24, 1846, when the Americans recaptured it. For the next several months the Americans were blockaded inside the pueblo. Skirmishes occurred daily and snipers shot into the town every night. The Californios drove cattle away from the pueblo hoping to starve the Americans and their Californio supporters out. On December 1 the Americans garrison learned that the dragoons of General Stephen W. Kearney were at Warner's Ranch. Commodore Robert F. Stockton sent a mounted force of fifty under Captain Archibald Gillespie to march north to meet him. Their joint command of 150 men, returning to San Diego, encountered about 93 Californios under Andrés Pico. In the ensuing Battle of San Pasqual, fought in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego, the Americans suffered their worst losses in the campaign. Subsequently, a column led by Lieutenant Gray arrived from San Diego, rescuing Kearny's battered and blockaded command.
Stockton and Kearny went on to recover Los Angeles and force the capitulation of Alta California with the "Treaty of Cahuenga" on January 13, 1847. As a result of the Mexican–American War of 1846–48, the territory of Alta California, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States by Mexico, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The Mexican negotiators of that treaty tried to retain San Diego as part of Mexico, but the Americans insisted that San Diego was "for every commercial purpose of nearly equal importance to us with that of San Francisco," and the Mexican–American border was eventually established to be one league south of the southernmost point of San Diego Bay, so as to include the entire bay within the United States.
The state of California was admitted to the United States in 1850. That same year San Diego was designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city. Joshua H. Bean, the last alcalde of San Diego, was elected the first mayor. Two years later the city was bankrupt; the California legislature revoked the city's charter and placed it under control of a board of trustees, where it remained until 1889. A city charter was reestablished in 1889, and today's city charter was adopted in 1931.
The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water at its port at La Playa. In 1850, William Heath Davis promoted a new development by the bay shore called "New San Diego", several miles south of the original settlement; however, for several decades the new development consisted only of a pier, a few houses and an Army depot for the support of Fort Yuma. After 1854, the fort became supplied by sea and by steamboats on the Colorado River and the depot fell into disuse. From 1857 to 1860, San Diego became the western terminus of the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line, the earliest overland stagecoach and mail operation from the Eastern United States to California, coming from Texas through New Mexico Territory in less than 30 days.
In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton promoted a move to the bayside area, which he called "New Town" and which became Downtown San Diego. Horton promoted the area heavily, and people and businesses began to relocate to New Town because its location on San Diego Bay was convenient to shipping. New Town soon eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Town, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city. Still, San Diego remained a relative backwater town until the arrival of a railroad connection in 1878.
In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego hosted two World's Fairs: the Panama-California Exposition in 1915–16 and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935–36. Both expositions were held in Balboa Park, and many of the Spanish/Baroque-style buildings that were built for those expositions remain to this day as central features of the park. The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. Most were eventually rebuilt, using castings of the original façades to retain the architectural style. The menagerie of exotic animals featured at the 1915 exposition provided the basis for the San Diego Zoo. During the 1950s there was a citywide festival called Fiesta del Pacifico highlighting the area's Spanish and Mexican past. In the 2010s there was a proposal for a large-scale celebration of the 100th anniversary of Balboa Park, but the plans were abandoned when the organization tasked with putting on the celebration went out of business.
The southern portion of the Point Loma peninsula was set aside for military purposes as early as 1852. Over the next several decades the Army set up a series of coastal artillery batteries and named the area Fort Rosecrans. Significant U.S. Navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma, and expanded greatly during the 1920s. By 1930, the city was host to Naval Base San Diego, Naval Training Center San Diego, San Diego Naval Hospital, Camp Matthews, and Camp Kearny (now Marine Corps Air Station Miramar). The city was also an early center for aviation: as early as World War I, San Diego was proclaiming itself "The Air Capital of the West". The city was home to important airplane developers and manufacturers like Ryan Airlines (later Ryan Aeronautical), founded in 1925, and Consolidated Aircraft (later Convair), founded in 1923. Charles A. Lindbergh's plane The Spirit of St. Louis was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines.
During World War II, San Diego became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers. The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865). During the final months of the war, the Japanese had a plan to target multiple U.S. cities for biological attack, starting with San Diego. The plan was called "Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night" and called for kamikaze planes filled with fleas infected with plague (Yersinia pestis) to crash into civilian population centers in the city, hoping to spread plague in the city and effectively kill tens of thousands of civilians. The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22, 1945, but was not carried out because Japan surrendered five weeks earlier.
After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post-Cold War cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.
From the start of the 20th century through the 1970s, the American tuna fishing fleet and tuna canning industry were based in San Diego, "the tuna capital of the world". San Diego's first tuna cannery was founded in 1911, and by the mid-1930s the canneries employed more than 1,000 people. A large fishing fleet supported the canneries, mostly staffed by immigrant fishermen from Japan, and later from the Portuguese Azores and Italy whose influence is still felt in neighborhoods like Little Italy and Point Loma. Due to rising costs and foreign competition, the last of the canneries closed in the early 1980s.
Downtown San Diego was in decline in the 1960s and 1970s, but experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s, including the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter, and the construction of the San Diego Convention Center; Petco Park opened in 2004.
According to SDSU professor emeritus Monte Marshall, San Diego Bay is "the surface expression of a north-south-trending, nested graben". The Rose Canyon and Point Loma fault zones are part of the San Andreas Fault system. About 40 miles (64 km) east of the bay are the Laguna Mountains in the Peninsular Ranges, which are part of the backbone of the American continents.
The city lies on approximately 200 deep canyons and hills separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural open space scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography. Traditionally, San Diegans have built their homes and businesses on the mesas, while leaving the urban canyons relatively wild. Thus, the canyons give parts of the city a segmented feel, creating gaps between otherwise proximate neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered environment. The San Diego River runs through the middle of San Diego from east to west, creating a river valley which serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. During the historic period and presumably earlier as well, the river has shifted its flow back and forth between San Diego Bay and Mission Bay, and its fresh water was the focus of the earliest Spanish explorers. Miguel Costansó, a cartographer, wrote in 1769, "When asked by signs where the watering-place was, the Indians pointed to a grove which could be seen at a considerable distance to the northeast, giving to understand that a river or creek flowed through it, and that they would lead our men to it if they would follow." That river was the San Diego River. Several reservoirs and Mission Trails Regional Park also lie between and separate developed areas of the city.
Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain, the highest point in the city at 1,591 feet (485 m); Black Mountain at 1,558 feet (475 m); and Mount Soledad at 824 feet (251 m). The Cuyamaca Mountains and Laguna Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. The Cleveland National Forest is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city.
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that San Diego had the 9th-best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes acreage, access, and service and investment.
Communities and neighborhoods
The City of San Diego recognizes 52 individual areas as Community Planning Areas. Within a given planning area there may be several distinct neighborhoods. Altogether the city contains more than 100 identified neighborhoods.
Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park. To the east and southeast lie City Heights, the College Area, and Southeast San Diego. To the north lies Mission Valley and Interstate 8. The communities north of the valley and freeway, and south of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, include Clairemont, Kearny Mesa, Tierrasanta, and Navajo. Stretching north from Miramar are the northern suburbs of Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Rancho Bernardo. The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges and the San Pasqual Valley, which holds an agricultural preserve. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. To their south are Torrey Pines State Reserve and the business center of the Golden Triangle. Further south are the beach and coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach, Mission Beach, and Ocean Beach. Point Loma occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay from downtown. The communities of South San Diego, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the Mexico–United States border, and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. A narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city.
For the most part, San Diego neighborhood boundaries tend to be understood by its residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns. The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 General Plan around the concept of a "City of Villages".
San Diego was originally centered on the Old Town district, but by the late 1860s the focus had shifted to the bayfront, in the belief that this new location would increase trade. As the "New Town" – present-day Downtown – waterfront location quickly developed, it eclipsed Old Town as the center of San Diego.
The development of skyscrapers over 300 feet (91 m) in San Diego is attributed to the construction of the El Cortez Hotel in 1927, the tallest building in the city from 1927 to 1963. As time went on, multiple buildings claimed the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, including the Union Bank of California Building and Symphony Towers. Currently the tallest building in San Diego is One America Plaza, standing 500 feet (150 m) tall, which was completed in 1991. The downtown skyline contains no super-talls, as a regulation put in place by the Federal Aviation Administration in the 1970s set a 500 feet (152 m) limit on the height of buildings within a one-mile (1.6 km) radius of the San Diego International Airport. An iconic description of the skyline includes its skyscrapers being compared to the tools of a toolbox.
San Diego has one of the top-ten best climates according to the Farmers' Almanac and has one of the two best summer climates in America as scored by The Weather Channel. Under the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system, the San Diego area has been variously categorized as having either a semi-arid climate (BSh in the original classification and BSkn in modified Köppen classification with the n denoting summer fog) or a Mediterranean climate (Csa and Csb). San Diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters, with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has a mild climate year-round, with an average of 201 days above 70 °F (21 °C) and low rainfall (9–13 inches [230–330 mm] annually).
The climate in San Diego, like most of Southern California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances, resulting in microclimates. In San Diego, this is mostly because of the city's topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover keeps the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but yields to bright cloudless sunshine approximately 5–10 miles (8.0–16.1 km) inland. Sometimes the June gloom lasts into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day. Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of 50 °F (10 °C) and August highs of 78 °F (26 °C). The city of El Cajon just 10 miles (16 km) inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of 42 °F (6 °C) and August highs of 88 °F (31 °C).
A sign of global warming, the average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California Current has increased by almost 3 degrees since 1950, according to scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Annual rainfall along the coast averages 10.65 inches (271 mm) and the median is 9.6 inches (240 mm). The months of December through March supply most of the rain, with February the only month averaging 2 inches (51 mm) or more. The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. Although there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. Rainfall is usually greater in the higher elevations of San Diego; some of the higher areas can receive 11–15 inches (280–380 mm) per year. Variability from year to year can be dramatic: in the wettest years of 1883/1884 and 1940/1941 more than 24 inches (610 mm) fell, whilst in the driest years there was as little as 3.2 inches (80 mm). The wettest month on record is December 1921 with 9.21 inches (234 mm).
Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only five times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. In 1949 and 1967, snow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher locations like Point Loma and La Jolla. The other three occasions, in 1882, 1946, and 1987, involved flurries but no accumulation.
|Climate data for San Diego Int'l Airport (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1874–present)[b]|
|Record high ��F (°C)||88
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||78.4
|Average high °F (°C)||65.1
|Average low °F (°C)||49.0
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||41.9
|Record low °F (°C)||25
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||1.98
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||6.7||7.1||6.5||4.0||1.4||0.8||0.7||0.4||1.2||2.8||4.1||5.8||41.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||63.1||65.7||67.3||67.0||70.6||74.0||74.6||74.1||72.7||69.4||66.3||63.7||69.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||239.3||227.4||261.0||276.2||250.5||242.4||304.7||295.0||253.3||243.4||230.1||231.3||3,054.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||75||74||70||71||58||57||70||71||68||69||73||74||69|
|Source: NOAA (sun and relative humidity 1961–1990)|
Like much of southern California, the majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied on the west by coastal sage scrub and on the east by chaparral, plant communities made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs. The steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons. The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire, and the rates of fire increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires starting near the borders of urban and wild areas.
San Diego's broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve, Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve, and Mission Trails Regional Park. Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute one of only two locations where the rare species of Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana, is found.
Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Switzer Canyon, Tecolote Canyon Natural Park, and Marian Bear Memorial Park in San Clemente Canyon, as well as a number of small parks and preserves.
San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered list of counties in the United States. Because of its diversity of habitat and its position on the Pacific Flyway, San Diego County has recorded 492 different bird species, more than any other region in the country. San Diego always scores high in the number of bird species observed in the annual Christmas Bird Count, sponsored by the Audubon Society, and it is known as one of the "birdiest" areas in the United States.
San Diego and its backcountry suffer from periodic wildfires. In October 2003, San Diego was the site of the Cedar Fire, at that time the largest wildfire in California over the past century. The fire burned 280,000 acres (1,100 km2), killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes. In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; the poor air quality caused San Diego County schools to close for a week. Wildfires four years later destroyed some areas, particularly within Rancho Bernardo, as well as the nearby communities of Rancho Santa Fe and Ramona.
|Population History of Western|
U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990
U.S. Decennial Census
|Black or African American||6.7%||9.4%||7.6%||2.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||28.8%||20.7%||10.7%||n/a|
The city had a population of 1,307,402 according to the 2010 census, distributed over a land area of 372.1 square miles (963.7 km2). The urban area of San Diego extends beyond the administrative city limits and had a total population of 2,956,746, making it the third-largest urban area in the state, after that of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and San Francisco metropolitan area. They, along with the Riverside–San Bernardino, form those metropolitan areas in California larger than the San Diego metropolitan area, which had a total population of 3,095,313 at the 2010 census.
The 2010 population represents an increase of just under 7% from the 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families reported in 2000. The estimated city population in 2009 was 1,306,300. The population density was 3,771.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,456.3/km2). The racial makeup of San Diego was 58.9% White, 6.7% African American, 0.6% Native American, 15.9% Asian (5.9% Filipino, 2.7% Chinese, 2.5% Vietnamese, 1.3% Indian, 1.0% Korean, 0.7% Japanese, 0.4% Laotian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Thai). 0.5% Pacific Islander (0.2% Guamanian, 0.1% Samoan, 0.1% Native Hawaiian), 12.3% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. The ethnic makeup of the city was 28.8% Hispanic or Latino (of any race); 24.9% of the total population were Mexican American, and 0.6% were Puerto Rican. Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older.
As of December 2012[update], San Diego has the third-largest homeless population in the United States; the city's homeless population has the largest percentage of homeless veterans in the nation. The population of homeless veterans in San Diego has been reduced to 1,150 people in 2016, from 2,100 in 2009.
In 2000 there were 451,126 households, out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. Households made up of individuals account for 28.0%, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61, and the average family size was 3.30.
The U.S. Census Bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of San Diego residents were under 18, and 10.5% were 65 and over. As of 2011[update] the median age was 35.6; more than a quarter of residents were under age 20 and 11% were over age 65. Millennials (ages 18 through 34) constitute 27.1% of San Diego's population, the second-highest percentage in a major U.S. city. The San Diego County regional planning agency, SANDAG, provides tables and graphs breaking down the city population into five-year age groups.
In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $35,199. According to Forbes in 2005, San Diego was the fifth wealthiest U.S. city but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. San Diego was rated the fifth-best place to live in the United States in 2006 by Money magazine, although it was no longer rated in the top 100 places by 2017. As of January 1, 2008 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments revealed that the household median income for San Diego rose to $66,715, up from $45,733 in 2000.
San Diego was named the ninth-most LGBT-friendly city in the U.S. in 2013. The city also has the seventh-highest percentage of gay residents in the U.S. Additionally in 2013, San Diego State University (SDSU), one of the city's prominent universities, was named one of the top LGBT-friendly campuses in the nation.
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 68% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 22% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 32% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. while 27% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 5% of the population.
The largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense/military, tourism, international trade, and research/manufacturing. In 2014, San Diego was designated by a Forbes columnist as the best city in the country to launch a small business or startup company.
Defense and military
The economy of San Diego is influenced by its deepwater port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast. Several major national defense contractors were started and are headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic, and NASSCO.
San Diego hosts the largest naval fleet in the world: In 2008 it was home to 53 ships, over 120 tenant commands, and more than 35,000 sailors, soldiers, Department of Defense civilian employees and contractors. About 5 percent of all civilian jobs in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in San Diego County rely on Department of Defense contracts.
Military bases in San Diego include US Navy facilities, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard stations. The city is "home to the majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface combatants, all of the Navy's West Coast amphibious ships and a variety of Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command vessels".
Tourism is a major industry owing to the city's climate, beaches, and tourist attractions such as Balboa Park, Belmont amusement park, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and SeaWorld San Diego. San Diego's Spanish and Mexican heritage is reflected in many historic sites across the city, such as Mission San Diego de Alcala and Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. Also, the local craft brewing industry attracts an increasing number of visitors for "beer tours" and the annual San Diego Beer Week in November; San Diego has been called "America's Craft Beer Capital."
San Diego County hosted more than 32 million visitors in 2012; collectively they spent an estimated $8 billion. The visitor industry provides employment for more than 160,000 people.
San Diego's cruise ship industry used to be the second-largest in California. Numerous cruise lines operate out of San Diego. However, cruise ship business has been in decline since 2008, when the Port hosted over 250 ship calls and more than 900,000 passengers. By 2016-2017 the number of ship calls had fallen to 90.
Local sight-seeing cruises are offered in San Diego Bay and Mission Bay, as well as whale-watching cruises to observe the migration of gray whales, peaking in mid-January. Sport fishing is another popular tourist attraction; San Diego is home to southern California's biggest sport fishing fleet.
San Diego's commercial port and its location on the United States–Mexico border make international trade an important factor in the city's economy. The city is authorized by the United States government to operate as a Foreign Trade Zone.
The city shares a 15-mile (24 km) border with Mexico that includes two border crossings. San Diego hosts the busiest international border crossing in the world, in the San Ysidro neighborhood at the San Ysidro Port of Entry. A second, primarily commercial border crossing operates in the Otay Mesa area; it is the largest commercial crossing on the California-Baja California border and handles the third-highest volume of trucks and dollar value of trade among all United States-Mexico land crossings.
One of the Port of San Diego's two cargo facilities is located in Downtown San Diego at the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. This terminal has facilities for containers, bulk cargo, and refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of many commodities. In 2009 the Port of San Diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade; foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tons.
Historically tuna fishing and canning was one of San Diego's major industries, and although the American tuna fishing fleet is no longer based in San Diego, seafood companies Bumble Bee Foods and Chicken of the Sea are still headquartered there.
San Diego hosts several major producers of wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm was founded and is headquartered in San Diego, and is one of the largest private-sector employers in San Diego. Other wireless industry manufacturers headquartered here include Nokia, LG Electronics, Kyocera International, Cricket Communications and Novatel Wireless. The largest software company in San Diego is security software company Websense Inc. San Diego also has the U.S. headquarters for the Slovakian security company ESET. San Diego has been designated as an iHub Innovation Center for potential collaboration between wireless and the life sciences.
The University of California, San Diego and other research institutions have helped to fuel the growth of biotechnology. In 2013, San Diego had the second-largest biotech cluster in the United States, below the Boston area and above the San Francisco Bay Area. There are more than 400 biotechnology companies in the area. In particular, the La Jolla and nearby Sorrento Valley areas are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies. Major biotechnology companies like Illumina and Neurocrine Biosciences are headquartered in San Diego, while many other biotech and pharmaceutical companies have offices or research facilities in San Diego. San Diego is also home to more than 140 contract research organizations (CROs) that provide contract services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.
According to the City's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|United States Navy||38,455|
|University of California, San Diego||29,986|
|County of San Diego||17,384|
|San Diego Unified School District||14,120|
|City of San Diego||11,387|
|San Diego Community College District||5,580|
San Diego has high real estate prices. San Diego home prices peaked in 2005, and then declined along with the national trend. As of December 2010, prices were down 36 percent from the peak, having declined by more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010. As of May 2015, the median price of a house was $520,000. In November 2018 the median home price was $558,000. The San Diego metropolitan area had one of the worst housing affordability rankings of all metropolitan areas in the United States.
Consequently, San Diego has experienced negative net migration since 2004. A significant number of people moved to adjacent Riverside County, commuting daily to jobs in San Diego, while others are leaving the region altogether and moving to more affordable regions.
Many popular museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego Museum of Man, the Museum of Photographic Arts, and the San Diego Air & Space Museum, are located in Balboa Park, which is also the location of the San Diego Zoo. The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego (MCASD) is located in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot downtown. The downtown branch consists of two buildings on two opposite streets. The Columbia district downtown is home to historic ship exhibits belonging to the San Diego Maritime Museum, headlined by the Star of India, as well as the unrelated San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum featuring the USS Midway aircraft carrier.
The San Diego Symphony at Symphony Towers performs on a regular basis; from 2004 to 2017 its director was Jahja Ling. The San Diego Opera at Civic Center Plaza, now directed by David Bennett, was ranked by Opera America as one of the top 10 opera companies in the United States. Old Globe Theatre at Balboa Park produces about 15 plays and musicals annually. The La Jolla Playhouse at UCSD is directed by Christopher Ashley. Both the Old Globe Theatre and the La Jolla Playhouse have produced the world premieres of plays and musicals that have gone on to win Tony Awards or nominations on Broadway. The Joan B. Kroc Theatre at Kroc Center's Performing Arts Center is a 600-seat state-of-the-art theatre that hosts music, dance, and theatre performances. The San Diego Repertory Theatre at the Lyceum Theatres in Westfield Horton Plaza produces a variety of plays and musicals. Hundreds of movies and a dozen TV shows have been filmed in San Diego, a tradition going back as far as 1898.
Major League teams
|San Diego Padres||Baseball||1969||Major League Baseball||Petco Park (41,200)||27,103|
Minor League teams
|San Diego Gulls||Ice hockey||2015||American Hockey League||Valley View Casino Center (12,920)||8,541|
|San Diego Seals||Box lacrosse||2017||National Lacrosse League|
|San Diego 1904 FC||Soccer||2017||under negotiation||Torero Stadium (6,000)|
|San Diego Legion||Rugby union||2018||Major League Rugby|
|San Diego Fleet||Football||2018||Alliance of American Football||SDCCU Stadium (70,561)||-|
|San Diego Warriors||Football||2018||Freedom Football League||-|
|San Diego State Aztecs||Football||NCAA D-I (Mtn West)||SDCCU Stadium (54,000)||49,053|
|San Diego State Aztecs||Basketball||NCAA D-I (Mtn West)||Viejas Arena (12,414)||12,414|
|San Diego Toreros||Basketball||NCAA D-I (West Coast)||Jenny Craig Pavilion (5,100)||5,100|
|San Diego State Aztecs||Soccer||NCAA D-I (Mtn West)||SDSU Sports Deck (1,000)||811|
In two separate stints, the National Basketball Association had a franchise in San Diego, the San Diego Rockets from 1967 to 1971 and the San Diego Clippers from 1978 to 1984. The franchises moved to Houston and Los Angeles respectively.
From 1972 to 1975, San Diego was home to an American Basketball Association team. First named the Conquistadors (a.k.a. "The Q's") the name was changed to the San Diego Sails for the 1975–76 season, but the team folded before completing that campaign.
In 2017 the San Diego 1904 FC club was organized as a proposed American professional Division II soccer team. The club's founders include several major-league soccer players. They intend to build a soccer stadium in Oceanside, approximately 40 miles north of downtown San Diego, and will play at the University of San Diego's Torero Stadium in the meantime. The team was originally announced to make its debut in the North American Soccer League in 2018. However, due to the cancellation of the 2018 NASL season, the expansion team is negotiating an agreement to join the United Soccer League in 2019.
San Diego hosts three NCAA universities: San Diego State University; University of California, San Diego; and University of San Diego. NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs men's and women's basketball games are played at Viejas Arena. Other prominent Aztec sports include college football, as well as soccer, basketball and volleyball. The San Diego State Aztecs (MWC) and the San Diego Toreros (WCC) are NCAA Division I teams. The UCSD Tritons are members of NCAA Division II, but they have begun the process of transitioning to Division I as members of the Big West Conference.
San Diego has hosted several sports events. Three NFL Super Bowl championships have been held at San Diego County Credit Union (SDCCU) Stadium. Two of college football's annual bowl games are also held at SDCCU Stadium: the Holiday Bowl and the Poinsettia Bowl. Parts of the World Baseball Classic were played at Petco Park in 2006 and 2009.
SDCCU Stadium also hosts international soccer games and supercross events. Soccer, American football, and track and field are also played in Balboa Stadium, the city's first stadium, constructed in 1914.
Rugby union is a developing sport in the city. The San Diego Breakers played at Torero Stadium in the only PRO Rugby season before the league folded. The USA Sevens, a major international rugby event, was held there from 2007 through 2009. San Diego is represented by Old Mission Beach Athletic Club RFC, the former home club of USA Rugby's former Captain Todd Clever. San Diego participated in the Western American National Rugby League between 2011 and 2013.
The San Diego Surf of the American Basketball Association is located in the city. The annual Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament (formerly the Buick Invitational) on the PGA Tour occurs at Torrey Pines Golf Course. This course was also the site of the 2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship. The San Diego Yacht Club hosted the America's Cup yacht races three times during the period 1988 to 1995. The amateur beach sport Over-the-line was invented in San Diego, and the annual world Over-the-line championships are held at Mission Bay every year.
The city is governed by a mayor and a nine-member city council. In 2006, its government changed from a council–manager government to a strong mayor government, as decided by a citywide vote in 2004. The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body. The City of San Diego is responsible for police, public safety, streets, water and sewer service, planning and zoning, and similar services within its borders. San Diego is a sanctuary city, however, San Diego County is a participant of the Secure Communities program. As of 2011[update], the city had one employee for every 137 residents, with a payroll greater than $733 million.
The members of the city council are each elected from single-member districts within the city. The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit. Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans. In 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city, and Democrats currently (as of 2018[update]) hold a 6–3 majority in the city council. The current mayor, Kevin Faulconer, is a Republican.
San Diego is part of San Diego County, and includes all or part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts of the San Diego County Board of Supervisors, Other county officers elected in part by city residents include the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor/Recorder/County Clerk, and Treasurer/Tax Collector.
Areas of the city immediately adjacent to San Diego Bay ("tidelands") are administered by the Port of San Diego, a quasi-governmental agency which owns all the property in the tidelands and is responsible for its land use planning, policing, and similar functions. San Diego is a member of the regional planning agency San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Public schools within the city are managed and funded by independent school districts (see below).
State and federal representation
In the California State Assembly, lying partially within the city of San Diego are the 77th, 78th, 79th, and 80th districts, represented by Brian Maienschein (D), Todd Gloria (D), Shirley Weber (D), and Lorena Gonzalez (D), respectively.
In the United States House of Representatives, San Diego County includes parts or all of California's 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, and 53rd congressional districts, represented by Mike Levin (D), Duncan D. Hunter (R), Juan Vargas (D), Scott Peters (D), and Susan Davis (D), respectively.
San Diego was the site of the 1912 San Diego free speech fight, in which the city restricted speech, vigilantes brutalized and tortured anarchists, and the San Diego Police Department killed a member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).
Then-mayor Roger Hedgecock was forced to resign his post in 1985, after he was found guilty of one count of conspiracy and 12 counts of perjury, related to the alleged failure to report all campaign contributions. After a series of appeals, the 12 perjury counts were dismissed in 1990 based on claims of juror misconduct; the remaining conspiracy count was reduced to a misdemeanor and then dismissed.
A 2002 scheme to underfund pensions for city employees led to the San Diego pension scandal. This resulted in the resignation of newly re-elected Mayor Dick Murphy and the criminal indictment of six pension board members. Those charges were finally dismissed by a federal judge in 2010.
On November 28, 2005, U.S. Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham resigned after being convicted on federal bribery charges. He had represented California's 50th congressional district, which includes much of the northern portion of the city of San Diego. In 2006, Cunningham was sentenced to a 100-month prison sentence. He was released in 2013.
In 2005 two city council members, Ralph Inzunza and Deputy Mayor Michael Zucchet – who briefly took over as acting mayor when Murphy resigned – were convicted of extortion, wire fraud, and conspiracy to commit wire fraud for taking campaign contributions from a strip club owner and his associates, allegedly in exchange for trying to repeal the city's "no touch" laws at strip clubs. Both subsequently resigned. Inzunza was sentenced to 21 months in prison. In 2009, a judge acquitted Zucchet on seven out of the nine counts against him, and granted his petition for a new trial on the other two charges; the remaining charges were eventually dropped.
In July 2013, three former supporters of mayor Bob Filner asked him to resign because of allegations of repeated sexual harassment. Over the ensuing six weeks, 18 women came forward to publicly claim that Filner had sexually harassed them, and multiple individuals and groups called for him to resign. Filner agreed to resign effective August 30, 2013, subsequently pleaded guilty to one felony count of false imprisonment and two misdemeanor battery charges, and was sentenced to house arrest and probation.
San Diego was ranked as the 20th-safest city in America in 2013 by Business Insider. According to Forbes magazine, San Diego was the ninth-safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the U.S. in 2010. Like most major cities, San Diego had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000. Crime in San Diego increased in the early 2000s. In 2004, San Diego had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents. From 2002 to 2006, the crime rate overall dropped 0.8%, though not evenly by category. While violent crime decreased 12.4% during this period, property crime increased 1.1%. Total property crimes per 100,000 people were lower than the national average in 2008.
According to Uniform Crime Report statistics compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 2010, there were 5,616 violent crimes and 30,753 property crimes. Of these, the violent crimes consisted of forcible rapes, 73 robberies and 170 aggravated assaults, while 6,387 burglaries, 17,977 larceny-thefts, 6,389 motor vehicle thefts and 155 acts of arson defined the property offenses. In 2013, San Diego had the lowest murder rate of the ten largest cities in the United States.
Primary and secondary schools
Public schools in San Diego are operated by independent school districts. The majority of the public schools in the city are served by the San Diego Unified School District, the second-largest school district in California, which includes 11 K–8 schools, 107 elementary schools, 24 middle schools, 13 atypical and alternative schools, 28 high schools, and 45 charter schools.
Several adjacent school districts which are headquartered outside the city limits serve some schools within the city; these include the Poway Unified School District, Del Mar Union School District, San Dieguito Union High School District, and Sweetwater Union High School District. In addition, there are a number of private schools in the city.
Colleges and universities
According to education rankings released by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2017, 44.4% percent of San Diegans (city, not county) ages 25 and older hold bachelor's degrees, compared to 30.9% in the United States as whole. The census ranks the city as the ninth-most educated city in the United States, based on these figures.
Public colleges and universities in the city include San Diego State University (SDSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and the San Diego Community College District, which includes San Diego City College, San Diego Mesa College, and San Diego Miramar College.
Private non-profit colleges and universities in the city include the University of San Diego (USD), Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU), National University's San Diego campus, University of Redlands' School of Business San Diego campus, Brandman University's San Diego campus, San Diego Christian College, and John Paul the Great Catholic University. For-profit institutions include Alliant International University (AIU), California International Business University (CIBU), California College San Diego, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's San Diego campus, NewSchool of Architecture and Design, Platt College, Southern States University (SSU), UEI College, and Woodbury University School of Architecture's satellite campus.
There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. There are three ABA accredited law schools in the city, which include California Western School of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, and University of San Diego School of Law. There is also one law school, Western Sierra Law School, not accredited by the ABA.
The city-run San Diego Public Library system is headquartered downtown and has 36 branches throughout the city. The newest location is in Skyline Hills, which broke ground in 2015. The libraries have had reduced operating hours since 2003 due to the city's financial problems. In 2006 the city increased spending on libraries by $2.1 million. A new nine-story Central Library on Park Boulevard at J Street opened on September 30, 2013.
In addition to the municipal public library system, there are nearly two dozen libraries open to the public run by other governmental agencies, and by schools, colleges, and universities. Noteworthy are the Malcolm A. Love Library at San Diego State University, and the Geisel Library at the University of California, San Diego.
Published within the city are the daily newspaper, The San Diego Union Tribune and its online portal of the same name, and the alternative newsweeklies, the San Diego CityBeat and San Diego Reader. Times of San Diego is a free online newspaper covering news in the metropolitan area. Voice of San Diego is a non-profit online news outlet covering government, politics, education, neighborhoods, and the arts. The San Diego Daily Transcript is a business-oriented online newspaper.
San Diego's first television station was KFMB, which began broadcasting on May 16, 1949. Since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensed seven television stations in Los Angeles, two VHF channels were available for San Diego because of its relative proximity to the larger city. In 1952, however, the FCC began licensing UHF channels, making it possible for cities such as San Diego to acquire more stations. Stations based in Mexico (with ITU prefixes of XE and XH) also serve the San Diego market. Television stations today include XHTJB 3 (Once TV), XETV 6 (Canal 5), KFMB 8 (CBS, with CW/MNTV on DT2), KGTV 10 (ABC), XEWT 12 (Televisa Regional), KPBS 15 (PBS), KBNT-CD 17 (Univision), XHTIT-TDT 21 (Azteca 7), XHJK-TDT 27 (Azteca 13), XHAS 33 (Telemundo), K35DG-D 35 (UCSD-TV), KDTF-LD 51 (Telefutura), KNSD 39 (NBC), KZSD-LP 41 (Azteca America), KSEX-CD 42 (Infomercials), XHBJ-TDT 45 (Gala TV), XHDTV 49 (Milenio Televisión), KUSI 51 (Independent), XHUAA-TDT 57 (Canal de las Estrellas), and KSWB-TV 69 (Fox). San Diego has an 80.6 percent cable penetration rate.
Due to the ratio of U.S. and Mexican-licensed stations, San Diego is the largest media market in the United States that is legally unable to support a television station duopoly between two full-power stations under FCC regulations, which disallow duopolies in metropolitan areas with fewer than nine full-power television stations and require that there must be eight unique station owners that remain once a duopoly is formed (there are only seven full-power stations on the California side of the San Diego-Tijuana market). Though the E. W. Scripps Company owns KGTV and KZSD-LP, they are not considered a duopoly under the FCC's legal definition as common ownership between full-power and low-power television stations in the same market is permitted regardless to the number of stations licensed to the area. As a whole, the Mexico side of the San Diego-Tijuana market has two duopolies and one triopoly (Entravision Communications owns both XHAS-TV and XHDTV-TV, Azteca owns XHJK-TV and XHTIT-TV, and Grupo Televisa owns XHUAA-TV and XHWT-TV along with being the license holder for XETV-TV, which was formerly managed by California-based subsidiary Bay City Television).
San Diego's television market is limited to only San Diego county. The Imperial Valley has its own market (which also extends into western Arizona), while neighboring Orange and Riverside counties are part of the Los Angeles market. (Sometimes in the past, a missing network affiliate in the Imperial Valley would be available on cable TV from San Diego.)
The radio stations in San Diego include nationwide broadcaster, iHeartMedia; CBS Radio, Midwest Television, Entercom Communications, Finest City Broadcasting, and many other smaller stations and networks. Stations include: KOGO AM 600, KFMB AM 760, KCEO AM 1000, KCBQ AM 1170, K-Praise, KLSD AM 1360 Air America, KFSD 1450 AM, KPBS-FM 89.5, Channel 933, Star 94.1, FM 94/9, FM News and Talk 95.7, Q96 96.1, KyXy 96.5, Free Radio San Diego (AKA Pirate Radio San Diego) 96.9FM FRSD, KWFN 97.3, KXSN 98.1, Jack-FM 100.7, 101.5 KGB-FM, KLVJ 102.1, KSON 103.7, Rock 105.3, and another Pirate Radio station at 106.9FM, as well as a number of local Spanish-language radio stations.
Water is supplied to residents by the Water Department of the City of San Diego. The city receives most of its water from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.
In the mid-20th century the city had mercury vapor street lamps. In 1978, the city decided to replace them with more efficient sodium vapor lamps. This triggered an outcry from astronomers at Palomar Observatory 60 miles (97 km) north of the city, concerned that the new lamps would increase light pollution and hinder astronomical observation. The city altered its lighting regulations to limit light pollution within 30 miles (48 km) of Palomar.
In 2011, the city announced plans to upgrade 80% of its street lighting to new energy-efficient lights that use induction technology, a modified form of fluorescent lamp producing a broader spectrum than sodium vapor lamps. The new system is predicted to save $2.2 million per year in energy and maintenance. The city stated the changes would "make our neighborhoods safer." They also increase light pollution.
In 2014, San Diego announced plans to become the first U.S. city to install cyber-controlled street lighting, using an "intelligent" lighting system to control 3,000 LED street lights.
With the automobile being the primary means of transportation for over 80 percent of residents, San Diego is served by a network of freeways and highways. This includes Interstate 5, which runs south to Tijuana and north to Los Angeles; Interstate 8, which runs east to Imperial County and the Arizona Sun Corridor; Interstate 15, which runs northeast through the Inland Empire to Las Vegas and Salt Lake City; and Interstate 805, which splits from I-5 near the Mexican border and rejoins I-5 at Sorrento Valley.
Major state highways include SR 94, which connects downtown with I-805, I-15 and East County; SR 163, which connects downtown with the northeast part of the city, intersects I-805 and merges with I-15 at Miramar; SR 52, which connects La Jolla with East County through Santee and SR 125; SR 56, which connects I-5 with I-15 through Carmel Valley and Rancho Peñasquitos; SR 75, which spans San Diego Bay as the San Diego-Coronado Bridge, and also passes through South San Diego as Palm Avenue; and SR 905, which connects I-5 and I-805 to the Otay Mesa Port of Entry.
The stretch of SR 163 that passes through Balboa Park is San Diego's oldest freeway, and has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways.
San Diego's roadway system provides an extensive network of cycle routes. Its dry and mild climate makes cycling a convenient year-round option; however, the city's hilly terrain and long average trip distances make cycling less practicable. Older and denser neighborhoods around the downtown tend to be oriented to utility cycling. This is partly because of the grid street patterns now absent in newer developments farther from the urban core, where suburban style arterial roads are much more common. As a result, a majority of cycling is recreational. In 2006, San Diego was rated the best city (with a population over 1 million) for cycling in the U.S.
San Diego is served by the San Diego Trolley light rail system, by the SDMTS bus system, and by Coaster and Amtrak Pacific Surfliner commuter rail; northern San Diego county is also served by the Sprinter light rail line. The trolley primarily serves downtown and surrounding urban communities, Mission Valley, east county, and coastal south bay. A planned mid-coast extension of the Trolley will operate from Old Town to University City and the University of California, San Diego along the I-5 Freeway, with planned operation by 2018. The Amtrak and Coaster trains currently run along the coastline and connect San Diego with Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura via Metrolink and the Pacific Surfliner. There are two Amtrak stations in San Diego, in Old Town and the Santa Fe Depot downtown. San Diego transit information about public transportation and commuting is available on the Web and by dialing "511" from any phone in the area.
The city has two major commercial airports within or near its city limits. Downtown San Diego International Airport (SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field, is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States. It served over 17 million passengers in 2005, and is dealing with larger numbers every year. It is located on San Diego Bay, three miles (4.8 km) from downtown, and maintains scheduled flights to the rest of the United States (including Hawaii), as well as to Canada, Mexico, Japan, and the United Kingdom. It is operated by an independent agency, the San Diego Regional Airport Authority. Tijuana International Airport has a terminal within the city limits in the Otay Mesa district connected to the rest of the airport in Tijuana, Mexico via the Cross Border Xpress cross-border footbridge. It is the primary airport for flights to the rest of Mexico, and offers connections via Mexico City to the rest of Latin America. In addition, the city has two general-aviation airports, Montgomery Field (MYF) and Brown Field (SDM).
Recent regional transportation projects have sought to mitigate congestion, including improvements to local freeways, expansion of San Diego Airport, and doubling the capacity of the cruise ship terminal. Freeway projects included expansion of Interstates 5 and 805 around "The Merge" where these two freeways meet, as well as expansion of Interstate 15 through North County, which includes new high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) "managed lanes". A tollway (the southern portion of SR 125, known as the South Bay Expressway) connects SR 54 and Otay Mesa, near the Mexican border. According to an assessment in 2007, 37 percent of city streets were in acceptable condition. However, the proposed budget fell $84.6 million short of bringing streets up to an acceptable level. Expansion at the port has included a second cruise terminal on Broadway Pier, opened in 2010. Airport projects include expansion of Terminal Two.
- Alcalá de Henares, Community of Madrid, Spain
- Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil
- Cúcuta, Norte de Santander, Colombia
- Cavite City, Philippines
- Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
- Jalalabad, Afghanistan
- Jeonju, North Jeolla, South Korea
- León, Guanajuato, Mexico
- Perth, Western Australia, Australia
- Quanzhou, Fujian, People's Republic of China
- Taichung City, Taiwan
- Tema, Ghana
- Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico
- Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia
- Warsaw, Poland
- Yantai, Shandong, People's Republic of China
- Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official precipitation records for San Diego were kept at the Weather Bureau Office in downtown from October 1850 to December 1859 at the Mission San Diego and from November 1871 to June 1939 and a variety of buildings at downtown, and at San Diego Int'l (Lindbergh Field) since July 1939. Temperature records, however, only date from October 1874. For more information on data coverage, see ThreadEx
- "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "City of San Diego City Charter, Article XV" (PDF). City of San Diego. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
- "Mayor Kevin L. Faulconer". The City of San Diego. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- "Office of the City Attorney". The City of San Diego. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- "City Council Offices". City of San Diego. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "City of San Diego". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- "San Diego: Geography and Climate". city-data.com. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- "American FactFinder – Results (San Diego city, California)". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
- "American FactFinder". Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- "ZIP code(tm) Lookup". United States Postal Service. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- America: metropolitan areas. World Gazetteer. 2011. Archived from the original on November 19, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
- McGrew, Clarence Alan (1922). City of San Diego and San Diego County: the birthplace of California. American Historical Society. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Gallegos, Dennis R. (editor). 1987. San Dieguito-La Jolla: Chronology and Controversy. San Diego County Archaeological Society, Research Paper No. 1.
- Gallegos, Dennis R. 2017. First People: A Revised Chronology for San Diego County. StorySeekers, San Diego.
- "Kumeyaay indians". kumeyaay.info. Retrieved July 1, 2010.[unreliable source?]
- "Lesson Plan: For the Last 10,000 Years..." (PDF). National Estuarine Research Reserves via NOAA. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- "San Diego Historical Society". Sandiegohistory.org. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Mills, James (October 1967). "San Diego...Where California Began". Journal of San Diego History. 13 (4). Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- Pourade, Richard F. 1960. The History of San Diego: The Explorers. Union-Tribune Publishing Company, San Diego.
- Ide, Arthur Frederick (Fall 1976). "San Diego: The Saint and the City". Journal of San Diego History. 22 (4).
- "San Diego Historical Society:Timeline of San Diego history". Sandiegohistory.org. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Keyfacts". missionscalifornia.com. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Mission San Diego". Mission San Diego. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "National Park Service, National Historical Landmarks Program: San Diego Presidio". Tps.cr.nps.gov. October 10, 1960. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Timeline of San Diego History | San Diego History Center". 2015-12-24. Archived from the original on 2015-12-24. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- Bean, Walton (1973). California: An Interpretive History (Second ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. pp. 74–76. ISBN 978-0-07-004224-7.
- Griswold del Castillo, Richard (Winter 2003). "The U.S.-Mexican War in San Diego, 1846–1847". SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY QUARTERLY. The Journal of San Diego History.
- Griswold de Castillo 1990, p. 39
- "A History of San Diego Government". Office of the City Clerk. City of San Diego. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "City of San Diego website". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Basil C. Pearce, The Jackass Mail—San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line, The Journal of San Diego History, San Diego Historical Society Quarterly, Spring 1969, Volume 15, Number 2
- Engstrand 2005, p. 80
- "Balboa Park future is full of repair jobs | The San Diego Union-Tribune". 2015-03-18. Archived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- Marjorie Betts Shaw. "The San Diego Zoological Garden: A Foundation to Build on". Journal of San Diego History. 24 (3, Summer 1978). Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "CHAPTER 5: A Fiesta -- Re-living the Days of the Dons | San Diego History Center". 2016-03-04. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- Perry, Tony (March 5, 2014). "Balboa Park centennial event organizers end efforts". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Historic California Posts: Fort Rosecrans". California State Military Museum. Archived from the original on July 14, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- University of San Diego: Military Bases in San Diego Archived April 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Gerald A. Shepherd. "When the Lone Eagle returned to San Diego". Journal of San Diego History. 40 (s. 1 and 2, Winter 1992). Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Consolidated Aircraft/Convair Online Exhibition". San Diego Air & Space Museum. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 54.
- Naomi Baumslag, Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus, 2005, p.207
- "Weapons of Mass Destruction: Plague as Biological Weapons Agent". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- Amy Stewart (April 25, 2011). "Where To Find The World's Most 'Wicked Bugs': Fleas". National Public Radio.
- Russell Working (June 5, 2001). "The trial of Unit 731". The Japan Times.
- "Milken Institute". Milken Institute. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "San Diego History Center Honors San Diego's Tuna Fishing Industry at Annual Gala". San Diego History Center. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Felando, August & Medina, Harold (Winter–Spring 2012). "The Origins of California's High-Seas Tuna Fleet". The Journal of San Diego History. 58 (1 & 2): 5–8, 18. ISSN 0022-4383.
- Lechowitzky, Irene (November 19, 2006). "It's the old country, with new condos". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Crawford, Richard (June 20, 2009). "San Diego once was 'Tuna Capital of World'". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Erie, Steven P.; Kogan, Vladimir; MacKenzi, Scott A. (January 27, 2010). "Redevelopment, San Diego Style: The Limits of Public–Private Partnerships". Urban Affairs Review. 45 (5): 644–678. doi:10.1177/1078087409359760. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2010.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Marshall, Monte. "The Geology and Tectonic Setting of San Diego Bay, and That of the Peninsular Ranges and Salton Trough, Southern California". Phil Farquharson. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
- "Canyon Enhancement Planning Guide" (PDF). San Diego Canyonlands. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Schad, Jerry (2010-03-12). Afoot and Afield in San Diego. Wilderness Press, Berkeley, Calif. p. 111. ISBN 9780899975153. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "EXPEDITIONS BY SEA." THE EXPLORERS. Trans. Richard F. Pourade. La Jolla: Copley, 1960. 64-72. Print.
- Janet R. Fireman and Manuel P. Servín, "Miguel Costansó: California's Forgotten Founder." California Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 1, March 1970, pp. 3–19.
- "Report: San Diego has 9th best parks among survey of 50 U.S. cities - 10News.com KGTV ABC10 San Diego". 2014-04-27. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- "City of San Diego Community Planning Areas". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Aitken, Stuart, and Prosser, Rudy (September 3, 2010). "Residents' Spatial Knowledge of Neighborhood Continuity and Form', Geographical Analysis". Geographical Analysis. 22 (4): 301–325. doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1990.tb00213.x.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Roger Showley (April 18, 2010). "City, SANDAG win planning awards". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "San Diego Timeline Diagram". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "One America Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
- "Airport Land Use Compatibility Plan for San Diego International Airport" (PDF). San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. October 4, 2004. pp. 51–52. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 30, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
- Bergman, Heather (June 27, 2005). "San Diego's skyline grows up: residential towers filling some of the missing 'tools' as office projects are nearing completion". San Diego Business Journal. The Heritage Group. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Geiger, Peter (October 5, 2006). "The 10 Best Weather Cities". Farmer's Almanac. Almanac Publishing. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- Kellogg, Becky & Erdman, Jonathan (September 2010). "America's Best Climates". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- M. Kottek; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved July 9, 2013.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Atlas of the Biodiversity of California" (PDF). 2010-03-31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- Francisco Pugnaire and Fernando Valladares eds. Functional Plant Ecology. 2d ed. 2007. p.287.
- Michael Allaby, Martyn Bramwell, Jamie Stokes, eds. Weather and Climate: An Illustrated Guide to Science. 2006. p.182.
- Michalski, Greg et al. First Measurements and Modeling of ∆17O in atmospheric nitrate Archived July 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 16. p.3. 2003.
- "UCSD". Meteora.ucsd.edu. May 14, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Monthly Averages for San Diego, CA". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Monthly Averages for El Cajon, CA". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Lee, Mike (June 18, 2011). "Is global warming changing California Current?". U-T (San Diego Union Tribune). Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- "San Diego's average rainfall set to lower level". San Diego Union-Tribune. March 16, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- Rowe, Peter (December 13, 2007). "The day it snowed in San Diego". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Conner, Glen. History of weather observations San Diego, California 1849–1948. Climate Database Modernization Program, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. pp. 7–8.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- "Station Name: CA San Diego Lindbergh FLD". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- "San Diego/Lindbergh Field CA Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Pryde, Philip R. 2014. "The Nature of the County: San Diego's Climate, Vegetation, and Wildlife". In: San Diego: An Introduction to the Region, by Philip R. Pryde, pp. 29-45. 5th ed. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego.
- Wells, Michael L.; John F. O'Leary, Janet Franklin, Joel Michaelsen, and David E. McKinsey (November 2, 2004). "Variations in a regional fire regime related to vegetation type in San Diego County, California (USA)". Landscape Ecology. 19 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1023/B:LAND.0000021713.81489.a7. 1572-9761.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Strömberg, Nicklas; Michael Hogan (November 29, 2008). "Torrey Pine: Pinus torreyana". GlobalTwitcher. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Tecolote Canyon Natural Park & Nature Center". The City of San Diego. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Marian Bear Memorial Park". The City of San Diego. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "SignOnSanDiego.com > News > Politics -- White House seeks limits to species act". 2012-10-21. Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- "San Diego County Bird Atlas Project". San Diego Natural History Museum. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- "Corpus Christi Recognized as Birdiest City". Corpus Christi Daily. December 2004. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "Corpus Christi remains 'birdiest city in America'". Corpus Christi Convention and Visitors Bureau. June 25, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Goldstein, Bruce Evan (September 2007). "The Futility of Reason: Incommensurable Differences Between Sustainability Narratives in the Aftermath of the 2003 San Diego Cedar Fire". Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning. 9 (3 & 4): 227–244. doi:10.1080/15239080701622766.
- "CalFire website". Fire.ca.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Viswanathan, S.; L. Eria, N. Diunugala, J. Johnson, C. McClean (January 2006). "An Analysis of Effects of San Diego Wildfire on Ambient Air Quality". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 56 (1). Archived from the original on December 27, 2008. Retrieved December 15, 2008.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "SignOnSanDiego.com > News > Politics -- White House seeks limits to species act". 2012-10-21. Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved April 27, 2015.
- "San Diego (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay. "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
- From 15% sample
- Census: 1,307,402 Live in San Diego (March 8, 2011). "Voice of San Diego, March 8, 2011". Voiceofsandiego.org. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "San Diego, CA Census Profile". USA Today. March 8, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Patricia A. Cruise (December 26, 2012). "City's homeless problem still needs attention". San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- Steele, Jeanette (July 22, 2016). "Progress on housing homeless veterans?". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- "Population". City of San Diego. March 1, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
- Lipkin, Michael (March 3, 2016). "San Diego Has Nation's Second-Largest Millennial Population". San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- "SANDAG document". Retrieved July 1, 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "San Diego city, California". United States Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Clemence, Sara (October 28, 2005). "Richest Cities in the U.S." Forbes. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Best Places to Live 2006". Money. 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- "Best Places to Live 2017". Money. 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- "Population and Housing Estimates" (PDF). SANDAG: Profile Warehouse. 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Divya - NerdWallet.com (May 30, 2013). "NerdWallet names America's most gay-friendly cities | San Diego Gay and Lesbian News". Sdgln.com. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- "San Diego State University | Campus Pride | The leading national organization for LGBT student leaders and campus groups". Campus Pride. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- "City of San Diego website: Economic Development". Sandiego.gov. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
- Powell, Ronald W. (October 17, 2007). "Tourism district OK'd by council". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Post, Tom (March 13, 2014). "The Best Places To Launch A Startup In 2014". Forbes. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Ronald D. White (July 3, 2011). "Full steam ahead for Nassco shipyard in San Diego". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "S.D. companies dominate defense industry rankings". San Diego Union Tribune. August 11, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "San Diego" (PDF). San Diego Convention Center Corporation. City of San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
Several major defense contractors are also headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic and NASSCO.
- Eric Terrill; Julia Thomas, Anne Footer. "Submitted in response to Federal Funding Opportunity: FY 2011 Implementation of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS)" (PDF). Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Tierney Plumb (August 24, 2012). "San Diego companies lead state in '11 defense contracts". San Diego Daily Transcript. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
San Diego houses the largest concentration of military in the world; it is the homeport to more than 60 percent of the ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet and more than one-third of the combat power of the U.S. Marine Corps.
- Dickerman, Sara (May 25, 2012). "Beyond San Diego's Surf and Sun: Suds". New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- "San Diego Kicks Off First-Ever Beer Week". The Full Pint. August 17, 2009. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
- Glassman, Bruce (2014-03-30). San Diego's Top Brewers: Inside America's Craft Beer Capital. Chef's Press. ISBN 978-0981622231.
- "San Diego Tourism Industry Research". San Diego Tourism Authority. 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Lori Weisberg (August 10, 2017). "Is San Diego cruise business making a comeback?". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved December 21, 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Whale Watching in San Diego". InTheCity-SanDiego Tourism. 2011–2012. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2012.
- Sisson, Paul (September 3, 2015). "The big hook-up: Sportfishing's superb season". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved September 8, 2015.
- "City of San Diego:Foreign Trade Zone". Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "Number of border crossings stabilizes". San Diego Union-Tribune. July 11, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "SANDAG: Otay Mesa Port of Entry Southbound Truck Route Improvements" (PDF). sandiegohealth.org. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "Port of San Diego:10th Avenue Marine Terminal". Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "National ranking of California ports by cargo volume". San Diego Daily Transcript. March 21, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2011.
- "Tuna! Celebrating San Diego's Famous Fishing Industry". San Diego History Center. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Roger Showley (January 29, 2013). "Bumble Bee may buzz downtown: The tuna company considers high-profile move from Kearny Mesa". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "Chicken of the Sea leases in Sorrento South". The Daily Transcript. August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- "City Of San Diego Largest Employers". San Diego Daily Transcript. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Glazer, Joyce (October 6, 2008). "San Diego-based LG Mobile Phones donated $250,000 to the VH1 Save the Music Foundation". Entrepreneur Media. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2011.[dead link]
- Desjardins, Doug (January 11, 2010). "Kyocera International to Get New Leader". San Diego Business Journal. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2011.[dead link]
- "Novatel website: Corporate headquarters". Retrieved April 11, 2011.
- "Websense Named Top Software Company in San Diego County". MSNBC. November 6, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Allen, Mike (September 20, 2010). "ESET Polishes the Apple, Now Protects Macs". San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
- "iHub San Diego" (PDF). California Governor's Office of Economic Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- Doyle, Monica (February 5, 2004). "UCSD Extension Awarded A $150,000 Grant For Biotechnology Collaboration With Israel". UCSD News. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Bradley J. Fikes (February 12, 2013). "Report: San Diego 2nd in life sciences". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- "SDBN.org". SDBN.org. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Walcott, Susan M. (May 2002). "Analyzing an Innovative Environment: San Diego as a Bioscience Beachhead". Economic Development Quarterly. 16 (2): 99–114. doi:10.1177/0891242402016002001. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Bigelow, Bruce V. "San Diego's Life Sciences CROs—The Map of Clinical Research Organizations", "Xconomy", San Diego, January 27, 2010.
- City of San Diego, California Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, Year ended June 30, 2016, page 325
- Freeman, Mike (December 29, 2010). "Housing Prices Fall Again, Index Says". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Showley, Roger (May 9, 2010). "Realty Revival". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Median price of home hits $520K in San Diego". FOX5 San Diego. May 8, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Cox, Wendell (January 28, 2009). "New Survey: Improving Housing Affordability – But Still a Way to Go". NewGeography. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
- Weisberg, Lori (March 22, 2007). "Greener pastures outside of county?". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "La Jolla Playhouse". La Jolla Playhouse. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Old Globe Theater". Oldglobe.org. December 2, 1937. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Journal of San Diego History, vol. 48, no. 2". Sandiegohistory.org. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- The full seating capacity is 71,294, but San Diego State normally restricts capacity to 54,000.
- Schrotenboer, Brent (January 12, 2017). "What we know about Chargers' move to Los Angeles". USA Today. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Zeigler, Mark (October 18, 2017). "San Diego's NASL soccer team unveils name". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Ziegler, Mark (October 25, 2017). "New pro soccer team to build stadium in ..." San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
- "NASL Announces Expansion Club In San Diego For 2018 Season". North American Soccer League. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- "1904 FC Ownership Group Issues Official Statement on Tuesday". 1904 FC. February 27, 2018.
- "Balboa Stadium". Stadiums of Pro Football. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "OMBAC Rugby Home". Ombac.org. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "About". Todd Clever. January 16, 1983. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "RL Hopes to Move West". Americanrugbynews.com. Archived from the original on October 1, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Granberry, Mike (July 10, 1981). "Over-the-Line". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Over-the-Line official website". Ombac.org. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "San Diego City website". Sandiego.gov. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Grant Martin (April 10, 2011). "A close look at 'sanctuary cities'". The Arizona Republic. Gannett Co., Inc. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
These communities – called "sanctuary cities" by both critics and defenders – are home to many of the estimated 10.8 million illegal immigrants in the U.S. and include Austin, New York City, San Diego and Minneapolis.
- John Coté (May 18, 2010). "Sheriff asks to opt out of federal immigration program". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
The program is already in place for numerous counties in California that have sanctuary cities, including Los Angeles, San Diego and Alameda.
- Ruxandra Guidi. "'Secure Communities' Program Comes Under Fire". KPBS. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- Rosiak, Luke (July 22, 2013). "EXography: 19 U.S. cities have proportionately bigger workforces than bankrupted Detroit". Washington Examiner. District of Columbia. Retrieved May 16, 2015.
- "San Diego City website". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Voter Registration in the City of San Diego" (PDF). San Diego Office of the City Clerk. August 1, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Registrar of voters: Maps of individual supervisorial districts". County of San Diego. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "Communities of Interest - City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
- "Communities of Interest — City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
- "Communities of Interest - City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
- Jenkins, Garry (2005). The Wizard of Sun City: The Strange True Story of Charles Hatfield, the Rainmaker Who Drowned a City's Dreams. Thunder's Mouth Press via Amazon Look Inside. p. Front flap. ISBN 978-1-56025-675-5.
- Horstman, Barry (December 6, 1987). "Man About Town : San Diego's Ex-Mayor Roger Hedgecock Hasn't Let His Felony Conviction Get Him Down. But This Week, the Past May Catch Up With Him". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
- Abrahamson, Alan (February 2, 1992). "Bailiff's Bias in Hedgecock Trial Disclosed". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- "Hedgecock has clean slate; judge erases felony record". San Diego Union-Tribune. January 1, 1991. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
- "San Diego's Widening Pension Woes". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. June 13, 2005. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Strumpf, Daniel (June 15, 2005) San Diego's Pension Scandal for Dummies, San Diego City Beat via Internet Archive. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- Hall, Matthew T. (April 8, 2010). "Five cleared in San Diego pension case". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- "Cunningham Moving to Arizona Prison". Washington Post. January 5, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Greg Moran & Kelly Thornton (July 19, 2005). "Councilmen Guilty". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "Ralph Inzunza Goes to Prison (Soon)". NBC San Diego. January 20, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "Appeals Court opinion, Sept. 1, 2009" (PDF). Retrieved July 1, 2010.
- Greg Moran (October 14, 2010). "Seven Years Later, Zucchet Cleared". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Filner apologizes, gets professional help, San Diego Union Tribune, July 11, 2013
- Lah, Kyung (August 21, 2013). "Another sex harassment accusation for San Diego Mayor Bob Filner". CNN. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "San Diego Mayor Resigns in Sexual Harassment Scandal". NY Times. August 23, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Ex-San Diego mayor Bob Filner pleads guilty to 3 charges". USA Today. October 15, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- Safe Cities In America. Business Insider (July 25, 2013). Retrieved on September 6, 2013.
- Levy, Francesca (September 11, 2010). "America's Safest Cities". Forbes. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
- "SDPD Historical Crime Actuals 1950–2006" (PDF). San Diego Police Department. April 14, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "SDPD Historical Crime Rates Per 1,000 Population 1950–2006" (PDF). San Diego Police Department. April 14, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Manolatos, Tony; Kristina Davis (April 14, 2006). "County crows at glowing crime report". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Crime Report for San Diego, California". Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
- "California – Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by State by City, 2010". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2010. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Davis, Kristina (February 22, 2014). "Murder hits near-record low in county". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "San Diego Unified School District – Our District". San Diego Unified School District. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: San Diego County, California; California." Census Bureau QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed March 15, 2019.
- "Branch Listing | City of San Diego Official Website". www.sandiego.gov. Archived from the original on September 3, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- "Construction begins on Skyline Hills Library". fox5sandiego.com. October 8, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Hall, Matthew T. (April 12, 2006). "Budget spares libraries, parks". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "New main library is a creation in concrete", San Diego Union-Tribune, November 16, 2011
- "San Diego Area Libraries". San Diego State University. Archived from the original on November 3, 2005. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Hello, Guest (January 3, 2012). "To our readers". UTSanDiego.com. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "San Diego, Phoenix and Detroit Lead Broadband Wired Cities, According to Nielsen//NetRatings" (PDF). Nielsen//NetRatings. September 15, 2004. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Stigall, Gary (May 3, 1999). "KFMB-TV Turns 50". Society of Broadcast Engineers Chapter 36 San Diego. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- San Diego market in "Market Profiles". Television Bureau of Advertising. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- "FCC revives local television ownership rules". Federal Communications Commission. August 5, 1999.
- Blakeslee, Sandra (August 14, 1983). "Astronomers say street lights will blind Palomar". New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "Outdoor lighting regulations" (PDF). City of San Diego. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "San Diego to install brighter, more efficient streetlights". San Diego Gay & Lesbian News. September 19, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- City of San Diego official website, "Street Division: Electrical Street Lights" Retrieved February 15, 2014
- "San Diego to Link Street Lights to Industrial Internet". Daily Fusion. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Marshall, David. San Diego's Balboa Park. Arcadia Publishing. 2007.
- "San Diego, Madison (WI) and Boulder (CO) Are Best among Cities of Their Size, While Atlanta, Boston and Houston Are Worst". Bicycling. January 26, 2006. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "SDMTS – Trolley Information". San Diego Metropolitan Transit System. 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "SDMTS – Bus Routes". San Diego Metropolitan Transit System. 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "COASTER – NCTD". North County Transit District. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- "Pacific Surfliner Train – from Los Angeles to San Diego & More – Amtrak". National Railroad Passenger Corporation. 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "SPRINTER – NCTD". North County Transit District. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- "511 Overview". SANDAG. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Downey, Dave (April 24, 2006). "FAA chief says region right to consider bases". North County Times. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "City of San Diego:Airports". Sandiego.gov. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Hall, Matthew (May 2, 2007). "City: 37 percent of streets in acceptable driving condition". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "San Diego International Airport – Airport Development Plan". San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. 2011. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "Online Directory: California, USA". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
- "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh Council. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- 福建省与国外友城关系一览表 [List of foreign sister city relationships of Fujian Province] (in Chinese). 福建省人民政府外事办公室 [Foreign Affairs Office of the Fujian Provincial People's Government]. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. May 4, 2005. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2008.[dead link]
- "Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports". Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2009.
- Engstrand, Iris Wilson (May 30, 2005). San Diego: California's Cornerstone. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-0-932653-72-7. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- Griswold de Castillo, Richard (1990). The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2478-0.
- Official website
- Civic San Diego (replaced redevelopment corporations)
- SANDAG, San Diego's Regional Planning Agency
- Demographic Fact Sheet from Census Bureau
- San Diego Historical Society
- San Diego Unified School District
- San Diego Public Library
- San Diego Tourism Authority (formerly the San Diego Convention and Visitors Bureau)