|• Total||138.03 km2 (53.29 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,660 m (5,450 ft)|
|• Density||5.0/km2 (13/sq mi)|
|Surrounded by||Bergün/Bravuogn, Davos, Livigno (IT-SO), Madulain, Susch, Zernez, Zuoz|
Localities in S-chanf municipality include Susauna, Chapella and Cinuos-chel.
S-chanf is first mentioned around 1137-39 as Scaneves. In 1356 it was mentioned as Scanevo. The Romansh name S-chanf is pronounced [ʃtɕanf]. The German Scanfs was official until 1943. Chapella is the site of a chapel mentioned in 1209. Susauna is mentioned as Sauzana in 1285.
S-chanf has an area, as of 2006[update], of 138 km2 (53 sq mi). Of this area, 23.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 18.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.6% is settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (57.1%) is non-productive (rivers, glaciers or mountains).
Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja district along the Inn river and at the mouth of the Casanna pass. After 2017 it was part of the Maloja Region. It consists of the linear village of S-chanf with the sections of Cinuos-chel and Susauna. The village elevation is 1,662 meters (5,453 ft).
In 1850, S-chanf had a population of 439, all of them Romansh speaking. Population declined to 402 by 1900, and rose again to 460 by 1950. S-chanf has a population (as of 31 December 2017) of 685. As of 2008, 11.4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 7.5% per annum.
As of 2000[update], the gender distribution of the population was 50.7% male and 49.3% female. The age distribution, as of 2000[update], in S-chanf is; 66 children or 10.6% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old. 46 teenagers or 7.4% are 10 to 14, and 46 teenagers or 7.4% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 74 people or 11.9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 119 people or 19.2% are 30 to 39, 82 people or 13.2% are 40 to 49, and 73 people or 11.8% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 43 people or 6.9% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 47 people or 7.6% are 70 to 79, there are 21 people or 3.4% who are 80 to 89, and there are 3 people or 0.5% who are 90 to 99.
S-chanf has an unemployment rate of 1.49%. As of 2005[update], there were 45 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 21 businesses involved in this sector. 51 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 6 businesses in this sector. 119 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 32 businesses in this sector.
The historical population is given in the following table:
Most of the population (as of 2000[update]) speaks Romansh (51.8%), with German being second most common (37.3%) and Italian being third (5.6%). The population speaks either the Upper-Engadin Romansh dialect of Puter or a Bündner variety of Alemannic German. About 68% of the population could understand Romansh at least passively.
Until the mid 19th century, all residents of the village spoke Romansh, but due to increasing trade with the outside world, its usage began to decline. In 1880 about 86% spoke Romansh as a first language, in 1910 it was 92% and in 1941 it was 81%. By 1970 it had dropped to 65%, and by 2000 to 52%.
|Languages in S-chanf|
|Languages||Census 1980||Census 1990||Census 2000|
Tourism and infrastructure
S-chanf is one of the pedestrian gateways into the Swiss National Park, as it is near the confluence of the Val Trupchun, a pedestrian only area of the park, and the Engadin. In the park, early risers may spot marmots and, high on the mountains, Steinbok (ibex). It has at least two hotels: the Aurora and the Scaletta.
S-chanf is the home to a base of the Swiss Air Force, which maintains one of its antiaircraft target shooting ranges (serving also as finish area of the "Engadine Ski Marathon") in that area.
The hospice at La Chapella dates to about 1250. It was abandoned in the late 18th century, and re-opened as a youth center in 1967.
The chapel at Susauna dates to 1696, which had its own pastors from 1723 to 1834. It was abandoned in the 20th century and is now inhabited only seasonally.
- "Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeinden nach 4 Hauptbereichen". Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Bilanz der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Staatsangehörigkeit (Kategorie), Geschlecht und demographischen Komponenten". Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- S-chanf in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz published by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (in German) accessed 23 September 2009
- Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 21-Oct-2009
- Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz - Mutationsmeldungen 2016 accessed 16 February 2017
- (in English) Hiking Switzerland pass in Graubünden on old trading route
- "STAT-TAB – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit" (online database) (official site) (in German and French). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office - FSO. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- Graubunden Population Statistics Archived 2009-08-27 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed 21 September 2009
- Graubunden in Numbers Archived 2009-09-24 at the Wayback Machine (in German) accessed 21 September 2009
- Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance Archived 2009-05-01 at the Wayback Machine 21.11.2008 version, (in German) accessed 21-Oct-2009
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