|• ISO 259||Roˀš ha ʕayn|
|Founded||1500 BCE (Biblical Aphek)|
70 BCE (Herodian city)
1949 (Israeli city)
|• Mayor||Shalom Ben Moshe|
|• Total||24,390 dunams (24.39 km2 or 9.42 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,500/km2 (6,600/sq mi)|
Rosh HaAyin (Hebrew: רֹאשׁ הָעַיִן, lit. '"fountainhead"', Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌʁoʃ (h)aˈ(ʔ)ajin]) is a city in the Central District of Israel. To the west of Rosh HaAyin is the fortress of Antipatris and the source of the Yarkon River. To the southeast is the fortress of Migdal Afek (Migdal Tzedek). In 2019, it had a population of 61,801.
Rosh HaAyin was founded in the 1949 near the site of ancient Antipatris and the depopulated Palestinian village of Majdal Yaba (in the 19th century also known as Majdal Sadek). Many of the early residents were religious Yemenite Jews airlifted to Israel in 1949 and 1950 in Operation Magic Carpet. They added Biblical words from Exodus 19:4 to the city's logo: "I (God) carried You on eagles' wings." The place was one of the Israel Ma'abarot (transit camps) in the 1950s.
In the 1990s, new neighborhoods were built, although the town still has a large Yemeni-Jewish population.
Rosh HaAyin is named after its location at the source of the Yarkon River (rosh = head, ayin = fountain, spring).
In 2015, archaeologists discovered a large ancient farmhouse. Among the other artifacts that were exposed in the farmhouse there were two silver coins from the fourth century BCE that bear the goddess Athena and the Owl of Athena. In addition, a monastery dating to the Byzantine period was discovered on one of the hills in the area and included a church, an oil press, residential quarters, and stables equipped with mangers and troughs, etc. In the church were colorful mosaics and also numerous Greek inscriptions.
According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), in 2001, the ethnic make-up of the city was 99.8% Jewish, with a predominant number of young people below the age of 19. The population growth rate was 2.5%.
According to the CBS, there were 10,972 salaried workers and 1,033 self-employed in 2000. The mean monthly wage for a salaried worker was NIS 6,595, an increase of 11.2% over the course of 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of NIS 8,408 (a real change of 7.8%) versus NIS 4,857 for females (a real change of 13.1%). The mean income for the self-employed was 6,853. 628 people received unemployment benefits, and 1,057 received an income supplement.
In 2004, the Givot Olam oil company discovered oil at the Meged 5 oil field near Rosh HaAyin. It is one of the largest on-shore oil fields in Israel. It began production in 2010, and produces oil as well as some natural gas. Its proven oil reserves are about 1,525 million barrels (242.5×106 m3).TTI Telecom is located in Rosh HaAyin.
According to the CBS, there were 21 schools in Rosh Ha'ayin, with an enrollment of 7,137. Fifteen were elementary schools, with an enrollment of 4,749, and 11 were high schools, with an enrollment of 2,388. In 2001, 58.8% of Rosh Ha'ayin's 12th grade students were entitled to a matriculation certificate.
S.C Rosh Ha'ayin ("Moadon Sport Rosh Ha'ayin"), a football team who plays at "Liga Gimel Sharon".
- Gal Gadot – actress, prodcuer, model, and former Miss Israel
- Benny Gantz – former Chief of General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces; now a politician serving as Alternate Prime Minister of Israel
- Yishai Levi – singer
- Nadav Argaman - current head of Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency)
Twin towns – sister cities
- "Population in the Localities 2019" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
- "Rosh Ha'Ayin". Partnerships with Israel. Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
- Ancient farmstead and monastery exposed in Rosh Ha-‘Ayin
- "חדשות כלכלה, בורסה וצרכנות מהארץ והעולם - דה מרקר". TheMarker. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- "Givot admits: We can't estimate scope of oil reserves at Meged-5". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- "Gevaot Olam: Meged 5 Oil Field Has 1.5 Billion Barrels". Arutz Sheva. August 17, 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- Your Taxes: Israeli firm wins Indian tax case
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