|Specialty||plastic surgeon (if not for therapeutic reason)|
Rib removal is surgery to remove one or more ribs. Rib resection is the removal of part of a rib. The procedures are done for various medical reasons. A number of celebrities have been falsely rumoured to have had ribs removed as a form of body modification.
Rib removal may be medically approved in several situations. If a rib is fractured in such a way that it might puncture a vital organ, it may be safer to remove it than wait for it to heal. A cancerous rib may be removed to stop the cancer from spreading. Rib bone material may be used for a bone graft. The excess pressure of thoracic outlet syndrome may be reduced by rib removal. Major surgery to the thoracic cavity, such as open heart surgery, may require removal of ribs to allow access to the organ being operated on.
Victorian fashion valued a wasp waist and hourglass figure for women. This was achieved through laced corsets. Twentieth-century rumors hold that some women had their lower ribs removed to facilitate tighter lacing of the waist. In 1931, corset-maker Rosa Binner alleged that French actress Polaire had had her lowest rib removed in the 1890s. Germaine Greer's second-wave feminist book The Female Eunuch gives the practice as an example of male-directed distortion of the female body. Valerie Steele's history of the corset finds no evidence of such a procedure, and with Lynne Kutsche argues the mortal danger of surgery of the era makes it extremely implausible.
With the rising popularity of an hourglass / S shaped figure there has been a growing interest in the removal of lower floating ribs for aesthetic purposes. This procedure has increased in popularity and is now performed in the United States. It involves removal of the 12th 11th and sometimes 10th lower "floating" ribs.  
Barbara Mikkelson of Snopes.com suggests that Florenz Ziegfeld might have started such a rumor about his protegée Anna Held to publicize her career. Similar stories have been spread about later celebrities. Cher hired a physician in 1990 to confirm that she has a full set of ribs. It was rumored that Marilyn Manson had ribs removed to facilitate autofellatio. Interviewed for a Vogue article in 2000, John E. Sherman of Weill Cornell Medical College said that while such a procedure was theoretically possible, there was no record of it in the medical literature.
Amanda Lepore claimed that she had skirted the law to obtain a similar surgery. She was quoted saying "'I've had my boobs done, and my lips done, my bottom lip reduced, and my bottom rib broken and pushed in—I think Raquel Welch and Cher did that, too. It's illegal in the US, but I had it done in Mexico. They break the floating rib in the back and push it in, so there's no scar." in an interview.
In October 2015, internet model and self-proclaimed "living doll" Pixee Fox documented the procedure to remove her six lower ribs on her Tumblr account. The procedure shortened rather than fully removed the ribs. In an interview with Closer, she stated that it was difficult to find a doctor willing to perform the surgery.
- "Rib Resection". Medical Disability Guidelines. Reed Group. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Getting Waisted". Snopes. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Ducas, Dorothy (18 January 1931). "Confessions of the Queen of Corsets". Palm Beach Post. Palm Beach. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Greer, Germaine (2009-10-06). The Female Eunuch. HarperCollins. p. 34. ISBN 9780061972805. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Steele, Valerie (2001). The Corset: A Cultural History. Yale University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 9780300099539.
- Mikkelson, Barbara (8 July 2006). "Rib Removal". snopes.com. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- VanHooker, Brian (November 2017). "All the reasons celebs have been rumored to have ribs removed and whether they would have worked".
- Godfrey-June, Jean (August 2000). "Waist Land". Vogue. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Into the Gloss interview with Amanda Lepore". 2016-02-24.
- "Corsets and Rib Removal". Lucy's Corsetry. 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- Knox, Miranda. Closer Magazine: Issue 672, 13 November 2015. "'I've Had Six Ribs Removed To Look Like a Living Doll'".