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|Other names||Rheumatic disease|
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorders are conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints or connective tissue. Rheumatism does not designate any specific disorder, but covers at least 200 different conditions, including arthritis and "non-articular rheumatism", also known as "regional pain syndrome" or "soft tissue rheumatism". There is a close overlap between the term soft tissue disorder and rheumatism. Sometimes the term "soft tissue rheumatic disorders" is used to describe these conditions.
Many rheumatic disorders of chronic, intermittent pain (including joint pain, neck pain or back pain) have historically been caused by infectious diseases. Their etiology was unknown until the 20th century and not treatable, like Lyme disease (in the Northern, Northeastern, and Appalachians of the US), coccidiomycosis or valley fever (in the Western US), and chikungunya in India, Africa, and South America. Postinfectious arthritis, also known as reactive arthritis, and rheumatic fever are other examples.
- Diffuse connective tissue diseases
- Arthritis associated with spondylitis (i.e., spondarthritis)
- Osteoarthritis (i.c., osteoarthrosis, degenerative joint disease)
- Rheumatic syndromes associated with infectious agents (direct and indirect or reactive)
- Metabolic and endocrine diseases associated with rheumatic states
- Neurovascular disorders
- Bone and cartilage disorders
- Extraarticular disorders
- Miscellaneous disorders associated with articular manifestations
A vast number of traditional herbal remedies have been recommended for "rheumatism". Modern medicine recognises that the different rheumatic disorders have different causes (and several of them have multiple causes) and require different kinds of treatment.
Nevertheless, initial therapy of the major rheumatological diseases is with analgesics, such as paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), members of which are ibuprofen and naproxen. Often, stronger analgesics are required.
The ancient Greeks recorded that bee venom had some beneficial effects on some types of rheumatism. Bee and ant stings were known as a folk remedy in the late 19th century, and at least one physician developed a treatment consisting of repeated formic acid injections. Certain Amazonian tribes, including the Zo'é, use fire ant stings as a remedy for aches and pains.
Cod liver oil has also been used as a remedy.
Before the 17th century, the joint pain which was thought to be caused by viscous humours seeping into the joints was always referred to as gout, a word adopted in Middle English from Old French gote "a drop; the gout, rheumatism", not to be confused with the present day specific term referring to excess of uric acid.
The English term rheumatism in the current sense has been in use since the late 17th century, as it was believed that chronic joint pain was caused by excessive flow of rheum which means bodily fluids into a joint.
- N. Altorok, S. Nada, V. Nagaraja, B. Kahaleh (2016). Medical Epigenetics, Chapter 17 - Epigenetics in Bone and Joint Disorders. Medical Epigenetics. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 295–314. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-803239-8.00017-X. ISBN 978-0-12-803239-8.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "eMedicine - Nonarticular Rheumatism/Regional Pain Syndrome : Article by Daniel Muller". 2019-01-24. Cite journal requires
- "Overview of soft tissue rheumatic disorders".
- Rheumatic+Diseases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- "rheumatism" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Decker, J. L. (August 1983). "American Rheumatism Association nomenclature and classification of arthritis and rheumatism (1983)". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 26 (8): 1029–1032. doi:10.1002/art.1780260813. ISSN 0004-3591. PMID 6603849.
- Puéchal, X; Terrier, B; Mouthon, L; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N; Guillevin, L; Le Jeunne, C (March 2014). "Relapsing polychondritis". Joint, Bone, Spine : Revue du Rhumatisme. 81 (2): 118–24. doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2014.01.001. PMID 24556284.
- Janeways: "immunology"
- Salvador G, Gomez A, Vinas O, et al. (August 2003). "Prevalence and clinical significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and antikeratin antibodies in palindromic rheumatism. An abortive form of rheumatoid arthritis?". Rheumatology (Oxford). 42 (8): 972–5. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keg268. PMID 12730510.
- Vogl, S; Picker, P; Mihaly-Bison, J; Fakhrudin, N; Atanasov, AG; Heiss, EH; Wawrosch, C; Reznicek, G; Dirsch, VM; Saukel, J; Kopp, B (2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.
- "British Bee Journal & Bee-keepers Adviser". 13 August 2018 – via Google Books.
- Isolated: The Zo'é tribe (documentary)
- Isha Foundation
- Barnhart, Robert K., ed., Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, H.W. Wilson Co., 1988. Quote "The meaning of a disease of the joints is first recorded in 1688, because rheumatism was thought to be caused by an excessive flow of rheum into a joint thereby stretching ligaments"
- American College of Rheumatology
- National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases - US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases