|Created by||Capcom |
|Original work||Resident Evil (1996)|
|Films and television|
|Television series||Television list|
|Video game(s)||Game list|
Resident Evil, known in Japan as Biohazard,[a] is a Japanese horror video game series and media franchise created by Capcom. The franchise follows individuals battling outbreaks of zombies and other monsters created mainly by the pharmaceutical company Umbrella Corporation. The game series consists of survival horror, third-person shooter, and first-person shooter games. The franchise has expanded into a live-action film series, animated films, television, comic books, novels, audio dramas, and other media and merchandise.
The first Resident Evil game was created by Shinji Mikami and Tokuro Fujiwara and released for the PlayStation in 1996. It is credited for defining the survival horror genre and returning zombies to popular culture. With Resident Evil 4 (2005), the franchise shifted to more dynamic shooting action; it influenced the evolution of the survival horror and third-person genres, popularizing the "over-the-shoulder" third-person view. Resident Evil 7: Biohazard (2017) returned to the survival horror mood and moved to a first-person perspective.
Resident Evil is Capcom's best-selling video game franchise, with over 105 million units sold worldwide as of September 2020[update]. It is the best-selling horror game series, in addition to the film adaptations being the highest-grossing video game film series, making Resident Evil the highest-grossing franchise in the horror and zombie genres. The franchise has been influential in popular culture, inspiring numerous popular media in the video game, film and television industries.
The development of the first Resident Evil, released as Biohazard in Japan, began in 1993 when Capcom's Tokuro Fujiwara told Shinji Mikami and other co-workers to create a game using elements from Fujiwara's 1989 game Sweet Home,. When in late 1994 marketing executives were setting up to release Biohazard in the United States, it was pointed out that securing the rights to the name Biohazard would be very difficult as a DOS game had been registered under that name, as well as a New York hardcore punk band called Biohazard. A contest was held among company personnel to choose a new name; this competition turned up Resident Evil, the name under which it was released in the west. Resident Evil made its debut on the PlayStation in 1996 and was later ported to the Sega Saturn.
The first entry in the series was the first game to be dubbed a "survival horror", a term coined for the new genre it initiated, and its critical and commercial success led to the production of two sequels, Resident Evil 2 in 1998 and Resident Evil 3: Nemesis in 1999, both for the PlayStation. A port of Resident Evil 2 was released for the Nintendo 64. In addition, ports of all three were released for Microsoft Windows. The fourth game in the series, Resident Evil – Code: Veronica, was developed for the Dreamcast and released in 2000, followed by ports of Resident Evil 2 and Resident Evil 3: Nemesis. Resident Evil – Code: Veronica was later re-released for Dreamcast in Japan in an updated form as Code: Veronica Complete, which included slight changes, many of which revolved around story cutscenes. This updated version was later ported to the PlayStation 2 and GameCube under the title Code: Veronica X.
Despite earlier announcements that the next game in the series would be released for the PlayStation 2, which resulted in the creation of an unrelated game titled Devil May Cry, series' creator and producer Shinji Mikami decided to make the series exclusively for the GameCube. The next three games in the series—a remake of the original Resident Evil and the prequel Resident Evil Zero, both released in 2002, as well as Resident Evil 4 (2005)—were all released initially as GameCube exclusives. Resident Evil 4 was later released for Windows, PlayStation 2 and Wii.
A trilogy of GunCon-compatible light gun games known as the Gun Survivor series featured first-person gameplay. The first, Resident Evil Survivor, was released in 2000 for the PlayStation and PC but received mediocre reviews. The subsequent games, Resident Evil Survivor 2 – Code: Veronica and Resident Evil: Dead Aim, fared somewhat better. Dead Aim is the fourth Gun Survivor game in Japan, with Gun Survivor 3 being the Dino Crisis spin-off Dino Stalker. In a similar vein, the Chronicles series features first-person gameplay, albeit on an on-rails path. Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles was released in 2007 for the Wii, with a sequel, Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles released in 2009 (both were later ported to the PlayStation 3 in 2012). Also in 2009, Resident Evil 5 was released for PlayStation 3, Windows and Xbox 360, becoming the best selling game of the franchise despite mixed fan reception.
Resident Evil Outbreak is an online game for the PlayStation 2, released in 2003, depicting a series of episodic storylines in Raccoon City set during the same time period as Resident Evil 2 and Resident Evil 3: Nemesis. It was the first in the series and the first survival horror title to feature cooperative gameplay. It was followed by a sequel, Resident Evil Outbreak: File #2. Raccoon City is a metropolis located in the Arklay Mountains of the Midwestern United States that succumbed to the deadly T-virus outbreak and was consequently destroyed via a nuclear missile attack issued by the United States government. The town served a critical junction for the series' progression as one of the main catalysts to Umbrella's downfall as well as the entry point for some of the series' most notable characters.
Resident Evil Gaiden is an action-adventure game for the Game Boy Color featuring a role-playing-style combat system. There have been several downloadable mobile games based on the Resident Evil series in Japan. Some of these mobile games have been released in North America and Europe through T-Mobile. At the Sony press conference during E3 2009, it was announced that Resident Evil Portable would be released for the PlayStation Portable, described as an all-new title being developed with "the PSP Go in mind" and "totally different for a Resident Evil game". However, as of 2021, no further announcements have been made, and the game is considered to have been canceled.
In March 2011, Capcom revealed the third-person shooter Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City, which was developed by Slant Six Games for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows and released in March 2012. A survival horror game for the Nintendo 3DS, Resident Evil: Revelations, was released in February 2012. In October of the same year, the next numbered entry in the main series, Resident Evil 6, was released to mixed reviews, but enthusiastic pre-order sales.
In 2013, producer Masachika Kawata said the Resident Evil franchise would return to focus on elements of horror and suspense over action, adding, "Survival horror as a genre is never going to be on the same level, financially, as shooters and much more popular, mainstream games. At the same time, I think we need to have the confidence to put money behind these projects, and it doesn't mean we can't focus on what we need to do as a survival horror game to meet fan's needs." Resident Evil: Revelations 2, an episodic game set between Resident Evil 5 and Resident Evil 6, was released in March 2015. A poorly-received team-based multiplayer game set in the series' universe, Umbrella Corps, was released in June 2016.
Resident Evil 7: Biohazard was released for Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in January 2017. Set in a dilapidated mansion in Louisiana, the game uses a first-person perspective and returns to the series' survival horror roots. Unlike Resident Evil 5 and Resident Evil 6, the gameplay emphasizes horror and exploration over action.
A remake of Resident Evil 2 was released for the PlayStation 4, Windows, and Xbox One on January 25, 2019. It uses the RE Engine, which was also used for Resident Evil 7. The remake outsold the original game within a year, selling over five million copies. Following in the success of the Resident Evil 2 remake, Capcom revealed a remake of Resident Evil 3: Nemesis in December 2019, known as Resident Evil 3. It was released on April 3, 2020, alongside Resident Evil: Resistance, a team-based online multiplayer mode previously announced as Project Resistance.
On June 11, 2020, Resident Evil Village was officially announced during the PS5 Future of Gaming showcase. The game, slated for a 2021 release, will be a direct sequel to Resident Evil 7: Biohazard, and will see the return of Ethan Winters and Chris Redfield.
Earlier installments in the franchise primarily concerns a group of individuals who battle against the Umbrella Corporation, a pharmaceutical company which develops the T-virus and other mutagens for their secret "bio-organic weapons" research. The mutagens can transform humans into zombies as well as mutate other animals and plants into horrifying monsters.
The original game and many franchise entries are set in and around Raccoon City, a fictional midwestern American city. Many protagonists and supporting characters are members of the city's police tactical unit, STARS, including Chris Redfield, Jill Valentine, and Rebecca Chambers. The head of the STARS department is Albert Wesker, who also secretly works for Umbrella and is a primary antagonist in the series. Other main characters include police officer Leon S. Kennedy, Chris' sister Claire Redfield, and special agent Ada Wong. As Umbrella's mutagen testing grows in scale and the virus is leaked into Raccoon City, STARS officers and other characters fight through the monsters ravaging the city to investigate Umbrella's involvement in the disaster. Raccoon City is ultimately destroyed by a nuclear missile strike initiated by the United States government to contain the viral outbreak. An ensuing government investigation leads to Umbrella’s downfall. However, the proliferation of Umbrella's bio-organic weapons and viruses leads to the other outbreaks across the world. The main characters continue to fight new factions that engage in bio-terrorism, and also face new types of creatures.
The Resident Evil franchise has had a variety of control schemes and gameplay mechanics throughout its history. Puzzle-solving has figured prominently throughout the series.
The first game introduced tank controls to the series. In a game with tank controls, players control movement relative to the position of the player character. Pressing up (for example on a D-pad, analog stick, or cursor movement keys) on the game controller moves the character in the direction they face, down reverses them, and left and right rotates them. This differs from many 3D games, in which characters move in the direction players push from the perspective of the camera. Some critics have posited that the control scheme is intentionally clumsy, meant to enhance stress and exacerbate difficulty.
The original game and its sequel featured this tank control scheme, but the third entry in the series Resident Evil 3: Nemesis introduced more action-oriented controls. The third game included a 180 degree turn and dodge command that, according to GameSpot, "hinted at a new direction that the series would go in".
Resident Evil 4 – 6
Resident Evil 4 introduced a third-person perspective and more action-oriented gameplay and mechanics. This was complemented by an abundance of ammunition and more action controls. Some critics claimed that this overhauled control scheme "made the game less scary." The next two games in the franchise furthered the action-oriented mechanics: Resident Evil 5 featured cooperative play, while Resident Evil 6 allowed players to move while aiming and shooting. Resident Evil 5 contained more ammo than the last games, pushing the game to be decisively more action-oriented.
First-person and VR
Resident Evil 7 is the first main Resident Evil game to use the first-person perspective and to use virtual reality. It drew comparisons to modern survival horror games such as Outlast and PT. The forthcoming eighth main-series game, Resident Evil Village, will also feature a first-person perspective.
The Resident Evil franchise features video games and tie-in merchandise and products, including various live-action and animated films, comic books, and novels.
Six live-action Resident Evil films have been produced, all written and produced by Paul W. S. Anderson. These films do not follow the games' premise but feature some game characters. The series' protagonist is Alice, an original character created for these films portrayed by Milla Jovovich. Despite a negative reaction from critics, the live-action film series has made over $1 billion worldwide. They are, to date, the only video game adaptations to increase the amount of money made with each successive film. The series holds the record for the "Most Live-Action Film Adaptations of a Video Game" in the 2012 Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition, which also described it as "the most successful movie series to be based on a video game." A reboot is in production with Johannes Roberts as writer/director
Starting in 2008, a series of feature-length computer animated films has been released. These films take place in the same continuity with the games of the series, and feature characters such as Leon Kennedy, Claire Redfield, Ada Wong, Chris Redfield and Rebecca Chambers.
On August 27, 2020, Netflix announced that they were developing a live-action Resident Evil series. The show has been greenlit for eight hour-long episodes. It is to be written by Andrew Dabb, with Bronwen Hughes serving as executive producer and the director of the first two episodes of the series. The show is being produced by Constantin Film who have previously produced the Resident Evil film series.
The story takes place over two timelines. The first of which involves 14-year-old sisters Jade and Billie Wesker moving to New Raccoon City. They come to realize that their father may be concealing dark secrets that could destroy the world. The second timeline takes place over a decade in the future, where only 15 million humans remain, with over 6 billion animals and people being infected with the T-virus. It follows Jade, now thirty, in her efforts to survive in this world.
On September 27, 2020, Capcom announced a CG anime series, subtitled Infinite Darkness, starring Resident Evil 2 protagonists Claire Redfield and Leon Kennedy. It is scheduled for a release sometime in 2021 on Netflix.
Over the years, various toy companies have acquired the Resident Evil license, with each producing their own unique line of Resident Evil action figures or models. These include, but are not limited to, Toy Biz, Palisades Toys, NECA, and Hot Toys.
Tokyo Marui also produced replicas of the guns used in the Resident Evil series in the form of gas blow-back airsoft guns. Some models included the STARS Beretta featured in Resident Evil 3, and the Desert Eagle in a limited edition that came with other memorabilia in a wooden case, along with the Gold Lugers from Code: Veronica and the "Samurai Edge" pistol from the Resident Evil remake. Other merchandise includes an energy drink called "T-virus Antidote".
Resident Evil Archives is a reference guide of the Resident Evil series written by staff members of Capcom. It was translated into English and published by BradyGames. The guide describes and summarizes all of the key events that occur in Resident Evil Zero, Resident Evil, Resident Evil 2, Resident Evil 3: Nemesis, and Code: Veronica. Along with the main plot analysis, it also contains character relationship charts, artwork, item descriptions, and file transcripts for all five games. A second Archives book was later released in December 2011 and covers Resident Evil 4, Resident Evil 5, the new scenarios detailed in Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles and Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles, and the 2008 CGI movie, Resident Evil: Degeneration. The second Archives volume was also translated by Capcom and published by BradyGames.
A Resident Evil theme restaurant called Biohazard Cafe & Grill S.T.A.R.S. opened in Tokyo in 2012. Halloween Horror Nights 2013, held at Universal Orlando, featured a haunted house titled Resident Evil: Escape from Raccoon City, based on Resident Evil 2 and Resident Evil 3: Nemesis.
The first Resident Evil novel was Hiroyuki Ariga's novella Biohazard: The Beginning, published in 1997 as a portion of the book The True Story of Biohazard, which was given away as a pre-order bonus with the Sega Saturn version of Biohazard. The story serves as a prelude to the events of the original Resident Evil, in which Chris investigates the disappearance of his missing friend, Billy Rabbitson.
S. D. Perry has written novelizations of the first five games, as well as two original novels taking place between games. The novels often take liberties with the plot of the games by exploring events occurring outside and beyond the games. This often meant that the novels would later be contradicted by the games and, on a few occasions. One notable addition from the novels is the original character Trent, who often served as a mysterious behind-the-scenes string-puller who aided the main characters. Perry's novels were translated and released in Japan with new cover arts by Wolfina. Perry's novels, particularly The Umbrella Conspiracy, also alluded to events in Biohazard: The Beginning, such as the disappearance of Billy Rabbitson and Brian Irons' bid to run for Mayor. A reprinting of Perry's novels with new cover artwork began in 2012 to coincide with the release of Resident Evil: Retribution and its respective novelization.
There are a trilogy of original Biohazard novels in Japan. Hokkai no Yōjū (北海の妖獣, lit. "The Strange Beast of the North Sea") was published in 1998 and was written by Kyū Asakura and the staff of Flagship. Two additional novels were published in 2002, To the Liberty by Sudan Kimura and Rose Blank by Tadashi Aizawa. While no official English translation of these novels has been published yet, the last two books were translated into German and published in 2006.
Novelizations of three of the six Paul Anderson films; Genesis, Apocalypse, and Extinction, were written by Keith DeCandido. Afterlife did not receive a novelization due to Capcom's decision to discontinue working with Pocket Books, who had been their primary source of publishing books up to that point, Capcom would later make Titan Books their primary publisher going forth. Retribution was written by John Shirley, while The Final Chapter was written by Tim Waggoner.Genesis was published over two years after that film's release and coincided with the publication of Apocalypse, Genesis being marketed as a prequel to Apocalypse, while the Extinction novel was released in late July 2007, two months before the film's release. The Final Chapter was published in December 2016 alongside the film's theatrical release. There was also a Japanese novelization of the first film, unrelated to DeCandido's version, written by Osamu Makino. Makino also wrote two novels based on the game Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. The books are a two-part direct novelization of the game and have been published in Japanese and German only. The first novel which was titled Biohazard: The Umbrella Chronicles Side A in Japan and Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles 1 in Germany was released on December 22, 2007. The second novel which was titled Biohazard: The Umbrella Chronicles Side B in Japan and Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles 2 in Germany was published in January 2008.
In 1997, Marvel Comics published a single-issue prologue comic based on the original Resident Evil, released through a promotional giveaway alongside the original PlayStation game.
In 1998, WildStorm began producing a monthly comic book series based on the first two games, titled Resident Evil: The Official Comic Magazine, which lasted five issues. The first four issues were published by Image, while the fifth and final issue was published by Wildstorm themselves. Each issue was a compilation of short stories that were both adaptations of events from the games, as well as related side-stories. Like the Perry novels, the comics also explored events occurring beyond Resident Evil 2 (the latest game during the series' publication) and thus were contradicted by later games. Wildstorm also published a four-issue miniseries titled Resident Evil: Fire & Ice, which depicted the ordeal of Charlie Team, a third STARS team created specifically for the comic. In 2009, Wildstorm reprinted Fire & Ice in a trade paperback collection.
In Hong Kong, there has been officially licensed Biohazard manhua adaptations of Biohazard 3 and Code: Veronica by Lee Chung Hing. The latter was translated into English and published by Wildstorm as a series of four graphic novel collections.
In 2009, Wildstorm began publishing a comic book prequel to Resident Evil 5, titled Resident Evil, which centers around two original members of the BSAA named Mina Gere and Holiday Sugarman. Written by Ricardo Sanchez and illustrated by Kevin Sharpe and Jim Clark, the first issue was published on March 11, 2009. On November 11, 2009, the third issue was released and the fourth was released March 24, 2010. The sixth and final book was finally published in February 2011.
Most of the games in the main Resident Evil series have been released to positive reviews. Some of the games, most notably Resident Evil, Resident Evil 2 and Resident Evil 4, have been bestowed with multiple Game of the Year honors and often placed on lists of the best video games ever made.
In 1999, Next Generation listed the Resident Evil series as number 13 on their "Top 50 Games of All Time", commenting that, "Flawless graphics, excellent music, and a top-notch storyline all combined to make a game of unparalleled atmosphere and suspense." In 2012, Complex ranked Resident Evil at number 22 on the list of the best video game franchises. That same year, G4tv called it "one of the most successful series in gaming history."
As of December 2020[update], the series has sold 107 million units worldwide. The first two Resident Evil games had collectively sold approximately 11 million units worldwide by March 1999. By early 2001, the series had sold 17 million units worldwide, earning more than $600 million. By 2011, it had sold about 46 million units and was estimated to have grossed at least more than $1.3 billion in video game sales. It is recognized by Guinness World Records as the best-selling survival horror series, with Resident Evil 5 the best-selling survival horror game, as of 2016[update]. Seven of the top ten best-selling horror games in North America are Resident Evil titles, with Resident Evil 5 the best-selling horror game, as of 2019[update].
The Resident Evil film adaptations also went on to become the highest-grossing film series based on video games. By 2011, the films had grossed over $600 million at the box office, bringing the franchise's estimated revenue to at least more than $1.9 billion in combined video game sales and box office gross up until then. As of 2020[update], the films have grossed more than $1.3 billion in box office and home video sales. The success of the video games and films have made Resident Evil the highest-grossing franchise in the horror and zombie genres.
GameSpot listed the original Resident Evil as one of the fifteen most influential video games of all time. It is credited with defining and popularizing the survival horror genre of games. It is also credited with taking video games in a cinematic direction with its B-movie style cut-scenes, including live-action full-motion video (FMV) footage. Its live-action opening, however, was controversial; it became one of the first action games to receive the "Mature 17+" (M) rating from the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), despite the opening cutscene being censored in North America.
The Resident Evil franchise is credited with sparking a revival of the zombie genre in popular culture, leading to a renewed interest in zombie films during the 2000s. Resident Evil also helped redefine the zombie genre, playing an important role in its shift from supernatural themes to scientific themes by using science to explain the origins of zombies. According to Kim Newman in the book Nightmare Movies (2011), "the zombie revival began in the Far East" mainly due to the 1996 Japanese zombie games Resident Evil and The House of the Dead. George Romero, in 2013, said it was the video games Resident Evil and House of the Dead "more than anything else" that popularised his zombie concept in early 21st-century popular culture. In a 2015 interview with Huffington Post, screenwriter-director Alex Garland credited the Resident Evil series as a primary influence on his script for the horror film 28 Days Later (2002), and credited the first Resident Evil game for revitalizing the zombie genre. Screenwriter Edgar Wright cited Resident Evil 2 as a primary influence on his zombie comedy film Shaun of the Dead (2004), with the film's star and co-writer Simon Pegg also crediting the original Resident Evil game with starting the zombie revival in popular culture.
Additionally, the first Resident Evil film adaptation also contributed to the revival of zombie films, with the success of the film and the games resulting in zombies achieving greater mainstream prominence and several zombie films being greenlit, such as the video game film adaptation House of the Dead (2003), the remake Dawn of the Dead (2004) and Romero's Land of the Dead (2004). The Resident Evil films, 28 Days Later and the Dawn of the Dead remake all set box office records for the zombie genre, reaching levels of commercial success not seen since the original Dawn of the Dead (1978). They were followed by other zombie films such as 28 Weeks Later (2007), Zombieland (2009), Cockneys vs Zombies (2012), and World War Z (2013), as well as zombie-themed graphic novels and television shows such as The Walking Dead and The Returned, and books such as World War Z (2006), Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (2009) and Warm Bodies (2010). The zombie revival trend was popular across different media up until the mid-2010s. Since then, zombie films have declined in popularity during the late 2010s, but zombie video games have remained popular, as seen with the commercial success of the Resident Evil 2 remake and Days Gone in 2019.
- Genetic engineering in fiction
- List of fictional diseases
- List of zombie video games
- Dino Crisis, another horror series by Capcom
- Devil May Cry, another series by Capcom, initially conceived as the fourth title in the series
- Onimusha, another series by Capcom with similar gameplay, initially conceived as a spin-off
- The Evil Within, other horror game made by Shinji Mikami
- "The Man Who Made Ghosts'n Goblins: Tokuro Fujiwara Interview". Continue. 12. 2003. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Shinji Mikami, " Resident Evil " et la source du jeu d'horreur". Le Monde (in French). October 10, 2014.
- Kaszor, Daniel (December 30, 2009). "Decade in Review: The most influential video games since Y2K". National Post. Canada. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
- Resident Evil Creator Shinji Mikami Reflects on the Series' Roots, GameSpot (March 22, 2016)
- Time Machine: Sweet Home, Computer and Video Games
- "GR Asks: Why was Biohazard renamed Resident Evil?". GamesRadar+.
- Justin Speer and Cliff O'Neill. "The History of Resident Evil". GameSpot. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2009.
- "Enter The Survival Horror... A Resident Evil Retrospective". Game Informer (174): 132. October 2007.
The "multi-million dollar franchise... Evil Capcom's largest" and "the original Resident Evil" is "one of the most important games of all time."
- "Resident Evil for GameCube Review". GameSpot. April 29, 2002.
- "Resident Evil Survivor Review". IGN. September 14, 2000. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2006.
- "Resident Evil: Dead Aim Review". GameSpot. June 16, 2003. Archived from the original on February 8, 2005.
- "Resident Evil: Chronicles HD Collection". metacritic.com.
- Reeves, Ben (December 30, 2011). "Guinness World Records 2012 Gamer's Edition Preview". Game Informer. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- Thomas, Lucas M. (June 2, 2009). "E3 2009: Resident Evil PSP Announced". IGN. IGN Entertainment, Inc. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- "PSP Gets Resident Evil Portable in 2010". 1up.com. June 2, 2009. Archived from the original on November 5, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- "Zombies infecting PSP in Resident Evil Portable". Joystiq. June 2, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- Reilly, Jim (June 9, 2009). "New Resident Evil PSP Details Emerge". IGN.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- Spencer (June 8, 2009). "Resident Evil Portable "Totally Different For A Resident Evil Game"". Siliconera.com. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- Jackson, Mike (April 3, 2011). "Resident Evil: Revelations out 2012, new concept art". ComputerAndVideoGames.com. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Richard George (October 1, 2012). "IGN Review: Resident Evil 6". IGN. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- "Resident Evil 6 Ships 4.5 Million Copies Worldwide". Siliconera. October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
- Krupa, Daniel (January 31, 2013). "Resident Evil Will Return To Its Roots". ign.com. IGN. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Mejia, Ozzie (September 15, 2015). "TGS 2015: Resident Evil: Umbrella Corps will help usher in series' 20th anniversary". Shacknews. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
- Romano, Sal (October 13, 2016). "Capcom begins 'The World of Resident Evil 7' short video series". Gematsu. Archived from the original on October 16, 2016.
- "FEAR COMES HOME AS CAPCOM ANNOUNCES RESIDENT EVIL 7 biohazard". Turn Left Distribution. June 14, 2016.
- McWhertor, Michael (June 15, 2016). "Resident Evil 7's demo content won't be in the main game, but a new hero will". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on June 15, 2016.
- Nunneley, Stephany (March 23, 2017). "Resident Evil 7 cut content: zombies who reacted to breathing, the Baker's pet dog Diane". VG247. Archived from the original on May 31, 2017.
- Phillips, Tom (June 15, 2016). "If you like lots of guns in Resident Evil, 7 isn't for you". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016.
- Osborn, Alex (June 15, 2016). "E3 2016: Resident Evil 7 Teaser Demo Not Part of the Main Game". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on June 15, 2016.
- Osborn, Alex (June 11, 2018). "E3 2018: Resident Evil 2 Remake Release Date Announced". IGN. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
- Kerr, Chris. "Resident Evil 2 remake has passed 5 million sales". Gamasutra. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- McWhertor, Michael (December 10, 2019). "Resident Evil 3 remake announced: watch the first trailer". Polygon. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Chalk, Andy (September 16, 2019). "Capcom producer says Project Resistance is 'survival horror at its core'". PC Gamer. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- McWhertor, Michael (June 11, 2020). "Resident Evil 8 announced at PS5 reveal event". Polygon.
- Mercante, Alyssa (June 11, 2020). "Resident Evil 8: Village revealed and we're screaming". GamesRadar+.
- "Resident Evil: The Story So Far". IGN. August 28, 2020. Archived from the original on September 7, 2020. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
- Dodd, Adam (February 24, 2015). "What's the Most Memorable 'Resident Evil' Puzzle?". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "A eulogy for tank controls". PC Gamer. February 20, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- "The History of Resident Evil". GameSpot. August 13, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- McWhertor, Michael (January 21, 2021). "Resident Evil Village has a Resident Evil 4-style inventory and merchant". TheVerge.com. The Verge. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
- "Box Office History for Resident Evil Movies". The Numbers. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "Boxofficemojo.com". Boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Kroll, Justin. "'Resident Evil' Reboot Finds Writer, Director in '47 Meters Down' Filmmaker (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- バイオハザードの映像アトラクションがお披露目. GameSpot Japan (in Japanese). Softbank Publishing Inc. October 19, 2000. Archived from the original on February 12, 2003.
- "How 'Resident Evil: Degeneration' Movie Connects to 'Resident Evil 5'". MTV. January 23, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- "Resident Evil: Damnation Takes Place Right Before Resident Evil 6". Siliconera. August 3, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- "Mansion monsters thirst for blood in operatic new Resident Evil: Vendetta trailer". SyFy Wire. September 20, 2016. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
- Patches, Matt (August 27, 2020). "Resident Evil live-action series confirmed by Netflix with first details". Polygon. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- August 2020, Bradley Russell 27. "Resident Evil Netflix series announced and here are the first story details". Total Film. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- Phillips, Tom (August 27, 2020). "Netflix's Resident Evil series will star the Wesker kids". Eurogamer. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
- Doolan, Liam (September 27, 2020). "Capcom Reveals Resident Evil: Infinite Darkness - A New Netflix Series Arriving In 2021". Nintendo Life. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
- "Enter The Survival Horror... A Resident Evil Retrospective". Game Informer (174): 132–133. October 2007.
- "Go Figure". GamePro. No. 111. IDG. December 1997. p. 30.
Toy Biz will also see its Resident Evil toys slither into stores around March. The first assortment will feature two-packs of a hero or a villain and one of the game's creepy creatures.
- Brian Ashcraft, Japan’s Resident Evil Restaurant Has More Hot Pants Than Zombies, Kotaku, July 13, 2012
- "Capcom And Universal Studios Talk Real Life Resident Evil". www.GameInformer.com.
- For example, the novel Underworld suggested that Raccoon City was destroyed during an accidental fire after the events of City of the Dead, whereas in Resident Evil 3 it is revealed that the city was destroyed by a nuclear missile launched by the government.
- "Snake Heart" (in Japanese).
- "NYCC '09 – Wildstorm Panel with Jim Lee". Newsarama. February 7, 2009.
- "Resident Evil solicitations at DC Comics website".
- "Top 50 Games of All Time". Next Generation. No. 50. Imagine Media. February 1999. p. 79.
- Elton Jones. "Resident Evil – The 50 Best Video Game Franchises – Complex". Complex.
- "Top 100 Video Games of All Time #81 – Resident Evil –". G4tv.com. June 11, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- "Game Series Sales". CAPCOM. December 21, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- "Annual Report 1999" (PDF). Capcom. 1999. p. 8. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
- Dunkley, Cathy (May 9, 2001). "Col TriStar giving 'Evil' the eye". Variety. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- "Zombies Are Worth Over $5 Billion To The American Economy". Business Insider. October 25, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
- "America's $5 billion zombie industry: By the numbers". The Week. October 27, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
- "Resident Evil: Best-selling survival horror series". Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2016. Guinness World Records. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-910561-10-2.
- Wright, Landon (August 2, 2019). "Resident Evil Franchise Dominates Top 10 Best-Selling Horror Games Via NPD". GamingBolt. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
- Reeves, Ben (December 30, 2011). "Guinness World Records 2012 Gamer's Edition Preview". Game Informer. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- "Resident Evil Franchise Box Office History". The Numbers. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- Mendelson, Scott (January 23, 2017). "How 'Resident Evil' Became The Most Successful Video Game-Based Franchise Ever". Forbes. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
- "15 Most Influential Video Games of All Time". GameSpot. April 14, 2010. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
- Barber, Nicholas (October 21, 2014). "Why are zombies still so popular?". BBC. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- Hasan, Zaki (April 10, 2015). "INTERVIEW: Director Alex Garland on Ex Machina". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- Stewart, Kevin (Spring 2007). "The Zombie Aesthetics and the Post-Apocalyptic Franchise". Kinema: A Journal for Film and Audiovisual Media. University of Waterloo. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- Jones, Tanya Carinae Pell. "From Necromancy to the Necrotrophic: Resident Evil's Influence on the Zombie Origin Shift from Supernatural to Science". In Farghaly, Nadine (ed.). Unraveling Resident Evil: Essays on the Complex Universe of the Games and Films. McFarland & Company. pp. 7–18. ISBN 978-0-7864-7291-8.
- Newman, Kim (2011). Nightmare Movies: Horror on Screen Since the 1960s. A&C Black. p. 559. ISBN 9781408805039.
- Weedon, Paul (July 17, 2017). "George A. Romero (interview)". Paul Weedon. Archived from the original on June 2, 2019. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- Diver, Mike (July 17, 2017). "Gaming's Greatest, Romero-Worthy Zombies". Vice. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- "12 Killer Facts About Shaun of the Dead". Mental Floss. January 23, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- Russell, Jamie (2005). "The Resident Evil Effect". Book of the Dead: The Complete History of Zombie Cinema. FAB Press / Titan Books. pp. 171-178 (178). ISBN 978-1-903254-33-2.
Whatever criticism one might want to level against the first Resident Evil movie, it had an undeniably positive effect on the zombie's fortunes. Dragged into the mainstream by the videogame franchise and Anderson's blockbuster, the living dead suddenly achieved a degree of respectability they'd never had before. It was as if, after seventy odd years of being ignored, they'd finally received their invite to the Hollywood party. Within mere weeks of Resident Evil's opening came a series of press releases and announcements suggesting that the zombie had finally broken free of its marginal roots: a remake of Dawn of the Dead had received the green-light, a big screen adaptation of arcade game The House of the Dead was going into production; and, perhaps most exciting of all, George Romero announced at Fangoria's Weekend of Horrors Convention in August 2002 that he was in serious talks with Twentieth Century Fox to complete the fourth and final instalment of his “trilogy” - provisionally dubbed "Land of the Dead", with a $10 million budget and a planned R-rated release.
- Booker, M. Keith (2010). Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels [2 volumes]: [Two Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 662. ISBN 9780313357473.
- "How '28 Days Later' Changed the Horror Genre". The Hollywood Reporter. June 29, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
- "A Discussion of Zombies and the Apocalypse in Video Games". The Hollywood Reporter. April 27, 2019. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Resident Evil.|