Josephus mentions Raphanea in connection with a stream that flowed only every seventh days (probably an intermittent spring now called Fuwar ed-Deir) and that was viewed by Titus on his way northward from Berytus after the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.
Hierocles and Georgius Cyprius mention Raphanea among the towns of Syria Secunda. The crusaders passed through it at the end of 1099; it was taken by Baldwin I and was given to the Count of Tripoli. It was then known as Rafania.
- Bassianus, present at the Nicaea, 325;
- Gerontius at Philippopolis, 344;
- Basil at Constantinople, 381;
- Lampadius at Chalcedon, 451;
- Zoilus about 518;
- Nonnus, 536.
- Emil Schürer (2014). "A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ: Two Divisions in Five Volumes". Aeterna Press.
- Josephus, The War of the Jews or The History of the Destruction of Jerusalem, book 7, chapter 5, 1
- Jasper Burns, Great Women of Imperial Rome (Routledge 2006 ISBN 978-1-13413185-3), p. 209
- Kevin Butcher, Roman Syria and the Near East (Getty Publications 2003 ISBN 978-0-89236715-3), p. 117
- American Numismatic Society: Raphanea
- Elagabalus AE21mm Raphanea in Syria
- Raphanea Genius Coin
- Synecdemus, 712, 8.
- 870 (Heinrich Gelzer, Georgii Cyprii descriptio orbis romani, 44)
- "Historiens des croisades", passim; Rey in "Bulletin de la Société des antiquaires de France", Paris, 1885, 266.
- Sophrone Pétridès, "Rhaphanaea" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1912)
- Le Quien, "Oriens christianus", II, 921.
- Vailhé, "Échos d'Orient", X, 94.