The Radium Girls were female factory workers who contracted radiation poisoning from painting watch dials with self-luminous paint. The painting was done by women at three different factories, and the term now applies to the women working at the facilities: one in Orange, New Jersey, beginning around 1917; one in Ottawa, Illinois, beginning in the early 1920s; and a third facility in Waterbury, Connecticut.
After being told that the paint was harmless, the women in each facility ingested deadly amounts of radium after being instructed to "point" their brushes on their lips in order to give them a fine tip; some also painted their fingernails, face and teeth with the glowing substance. The women were instructed to point their brushes in this way because using rags or a water rinse caused them to use more time and material, as the rinse was made from powdered radium, gum arabic and water.
Five of the women in New Jersey challenged their employer in a case over the right of individual workers who contract occupational diseases to sue their employers under New Jersey's occupational injuries law, which at the time had a two-year statute of limitations, but settled out of court in 1928. Five women in Illinois who were employees of the Radium Dial Company (which was unaffiliated with the United States Radium Corporation) sued their employer under Illinois law, winning damages in 1938.
United States Radium Corporation
From 1917 to 1926, U.S. Radium Corporation, originally called the Radium Luminous Material Corporation, was engaged in the extraction and purification of radium from carnotite ore to produce luminous paints, which were marketed under the brand name "Undark". The ore was mined from the Paradox Valley in Colorado and other "Undark mines" in Utah. As a defense contractor, U.S. Radium was a major supplier of radioluminescent watches to the military. Their plant in Orange, New Jersey, employed as many as three hundred workers, all of whom were women (because it was thought that their 'feminine and small' hands were best suited for the job), to paint radium-lit watch faces and instruments, misleading them that it was safe. The young women were told that the radium was 'completely safe' for them to handle as it was 'the wonder element'. They were told that the radium would bring a 'rosy glow' to their cheeks; and even if radium wouldn't provide them with benefits, it wouldn't harm them as well, for the quantity of radium in the paints used was almost negligible.
U.S. Radium Corporation hired approximately 70 women to perform various tasks including handling radium, while the owners and the scientists familiar with the effects of radium carefully avoided any exposure to it themselves; chemists at the plant used lead screens, aprons, masks and tongs. U.S. Radium had distributed literature to the medical community describing the "injurious effects" of radium. In spite of this knowledge, a number of similar deaths had occurred by 1925, including the company's chief chemist, Dr. Edwin E. Leman, and several female workers. The similar circumstances of their deaths prompted investigations to be undertaken by Dr. Harrison Martland, County Physician of Newark.
An estimated 4,000 workers were hired by corporations in the U.S. and Canada to paint watch faces with radium. At USRC, each of the painters mixed her own paint in a small crucible, and then used camel hair brushes to apply the glowing paint onto dials. The then-current rate of pay, for painting 250 dials a day, was about a penny and a half per dial (equivalent to $0.299 in 2019). The brushes would lose shape after a few strokes, so the U.S. Radium supervisors encouraged their workers to point the brushes with their lips ("lip, dip, paint"), or use their tongues to keep them sharp. Because the true nature of the radium had been kept from them, the Radium Girls painted their nails, teeth, and faces for fun with the deadly paint produced at the factory. Many of the workers became sick; it is unknown how many died from exposure to radiation.
Among the first to see numerous problems among dial painters were dentists. Dental pain, loose teeth, lesions and ulcers, and the failure of tooth extractions to heal were some of these conditions. Many of the women later began to suffer from anaemia, bone fractures, and necrosis of the jaw, a condition now known as radium jaw. The women also suffered from suppression of menstruation, and sterility. It is thought that the X-ray machines used by the medical investigators may have contributed to some of the sickened workers' ill-health by subjecting them to additional radiation. It turned out at least one of the examinations was a ruse, part of a campaign of disinformation started by the defence contractor. U.S. Radium and other watch-dial companies rejected claims that the afflicted workers were suffering from exposure to radium. For some time, doctors, dentists, and researchers complied with requests from the companies not to release their data.
In 1923, 24-year-old Amelia 'Mollie' Maggia became the first dial painter to die. Before her death, she had suffered from a haemorrhage from her mouth, falling teeth with weak joints which severely restricted her ability to move. Her jaw had fallen away from her skull.  By 1924, 50 women who had worked at the plant were ill, and a dozen had died. At the urging of the companies, worker deaths were attributed by medical professionals to other causes. Syphilis, a notorious sexually transmitted infection at the time, was often cited in attempts to smear the reputations of the women.
The inventor of radium dial paint, Dr Sabin A. Von Sochocky, died in November 1928, becoming the 16th known victim of poisoning by radium dial paint. He had gotten sick from radium in his hands, not the jaw, but the circumstances of his death helped the Radium Girls in court.
Radium Dial Company
The Radium Dial Company was established in Ottawa, Illinois, in 1922, in the town's former high school. Like the United States Radium Corporation, the purpose of the studio in Ottawa was to paint dials for clocks, their largest client being Westclox Corporation in Peru, Illinois. Dials painted in Ottawa appeared on Westclox's popular Big Ben, Little Ben and travel clocks; and like United States Radium Corporation, Radium Dial hired young women to paint the dials, using the same "lip, dip, paint" approach as the women in New Jersey and by another unaffiliated plant in Waterbury, Connecticut, that supplied the Waterbury Clock Company.
Following the termination of President Joseph Kelly from the concern, Kelly established a competing firm in the town named Luminous Process Company, which also employed women in the same fashion, and in the conditions as the other firms. Employees at Radium Dial began showing signs of radium poisoning in 1926–1927 and were unaware of the hearings and trials in New Jersey. Furthermore, Radium Dial leadership authorized physicals and other tests designed to determine the toxicity of radium paint to its employees, but the company never gave those records to the employees or told them of the results. In a half-hearted attempt to end the use of the camel hair brushes, management introduced glass pens with a fine point; however, the workers found that the pens slowed their productivity (they were paid by the piece), and they reverted to using brushes. When word of the New Jersey women and their suits appeared in local newspapers, the women were told that the radium was safe and that employees in New Jersey were showing signs of viral infections. Assured by their employers that the radium was safe, they returned to work as usual.
In New Jersey, the story of the abuse perpetrated against the workers is distinguished from most such cases by the fact that the ensuing litigation was covered widely by the media. Plant worker Grace Fryer decided to sue, but it took two years for her to find a lawyer willing to take on U.S. Radium. Even after the women found a lawyer, the litigation process moved slowly. At their first appearance in court on January 1928, two women were bedridden and none of them could raise their arms to take an oath. A total of five factory workers – Grace Fryer, Edna Hussman, Katherine Schaub, and sisters Quinta McDonald and Albina Larice – dubbed the Radium Girls, joined the suit. The litigation and media sensation surrounding the case established legal precedents and triggered the enactment of regulations governing labor safety standards, including a baseline of "provable suffering".
In Illinois, employees began asking for compensation for their medical and dental bills as early as 1927 but were refused by management. The demand for money by sick and dying former employees continued into the mid 1930s before a suit before the Illinois Industrial Commission (IIC) was brought. In 1937 five women found an attorney by the name of Leonard Grossman, that would represent them in front of the commission, but by this time, Radium Dial had closed, moving to New York. The IIC did retain a $10,000 deposit left by Radium Dial when it disclosed to the IIC that they could not find any insurance to cover the cost of indemnifying the company against employee suits. In the spring of 1938, the IIC ruled in favor of the women. The attorney representing the interests of Radium Dial appealed hoping to get the verdict overturned, and again the commission judge found for the women. Radium Dial appealed over and over, taking the case all the way to the Supreme Court and on October 23, 1939, the court decided not to hear the appeal and the lower ruling was upheld. In the end, this case had been won eight times before Radium Dial was finally forced to pay.
The Radium Girls' saga holds an important place in the history of both the field of health physics and the labor rights movement. The right of individual workers to sue for damages from corporations due to labor abuse was established as a result of the Radium Girls case. In the wake of the case, industrial safety standards were demonstrably enhanced for many decades.
The case was settled in the autumn of 1928, before the trial was deliberated by the jury, and the settlement for each of the Radium Girls was $10,000 (equivalent to $149,000 in 2019) and a $600 per year annuity (equivalent to $8,900 in 2019) plus $12 a week (equivalent to $200 in 2019) for all of their lives while they lived, and all medical and legal expenses incurred would also be paid by the company.
The lawsuit and resulting publicity was a factor in the establishment of occupational disease labor law. Radium dial painters were instructed in proper safety precautions and provided with protective gear; in particular, they no longer shaped paint brushes by lip and avoided ingesting or breathing the paint. Radium paint was still used in dials as late as the 1970s.
Robley D. Evans made the first measurements of exhaled radon and radium excretion from a former dial painter in 1933. At MIT he gathered dependable body content measurements from 27 dial painters. This information was used in 1941 by the National Bureau of Standards to establish the tolerance level for radium of 0.1 μCi (3.7 kBq).
The Center for Human Radiobiology was established at Argonne National Laboratory in 1968. The primary purpose of the Center was providing medical examinations for living dial painters. The project also focused on the collection of information and, in some cases, tissue samples from the radium dial painters. When the project ended in 1993, detailed information of 2,403 cases had been collected. This led to a book on the effects of radium on humans. The book suggests that radium-228 exposure is more harmful to health than exposure to radium-226. Radium-228 is more able to cause cancer of the bone as the shorter half life of the radon-220 product compared to radon-222 causes the daughter nuclides of radium-228 to deliver a greater dose of alpha radiation to the bones. It also considers the induction of a range of different forms of cancer as a result of internal exposure to radium and its daughter nuclides. The book used data from radium dial painters, people who were exposed as a result of the use of radium-containing medical products, and other groups of people who had been exposed to radium.
In literature, music and film
- New Jersey punk band Night Birds has a song titled "Radium Girls" on their 2018 album Roll Credits.
- The story is told from the point of view of the women in New Jersey, and Illinois, in Kate Moore's non-fiction book The Radium Girls ISBN 1471153878) released in the UK in 2016 and US in 2017.
- The story is told in Eleanor Swanson's poem "Radium Girls", collected in A Thousand Bonds: Marie Curie and the Discovery of Radium (2003, ISBN 0-9671810-7-0).
- There is an elaborate reference to the story in the Kurt Vonnegut novel Jailbird (1979, ISBN 0-385-33390-0).
- Poet Lavinia Greenlaw has written on the subject in The Innocence of Radium (Night Photograph, 1994).
- Historian Claudia Clark wrote an account of the case and its wider historical implications: Radium Girls: Women and Industrial Health Reform, 1910–1935 (published 1997).
- Ross Mullner's book Deadly Glow: The Radium Dial Worker Tragedy describes many of the events (1999, ISBN 0-87553-245-4).
- The story is told by Jo Lawrence in her short animated film "Glow" (2007).
- The Michael A. Martone short story "It's Time" is told from the perspective of an unnamed Radium Girl.
- A fictionalized version of the story was featured in the Spike TV show 1000 Ways to Die (#196) and Science Channel's Dark Matters: Twisted But True.
- Radium Halos: A Novel About the Radium Dial Painters a 2009 novel by Shelley Stout is historical fiction narrated by a sixty-five-year-old mental patient who worked at the factory when she was sixteen (ISBN 978-1448696222).
- Author Deborah Blum referenced the story in her 2010 book The Poisoner's Handbook: Murder and the Birth of Forensic Medicine in Jazz Age New York.
- The story is told in the American Experience episode "The Poisoner's Handbook", based on Deborah Blum's book.
- Author Robert R. Johnson features a story on the radium girls in his book Romancing the Atom. (ISBN 978-0313392795)
- The Case of the Living Dead Women, a website displaying scans of 180 pages of newspaper clippings about a similar incident, the Ottawa, Illinois Radium Dial Company litigation.
- A fictionalized version of the story was featured in the 1937 short story "Letter to the Editor" by James H. Street, adapted into a 1937 film Nothing Sacred and a 1953 Broadway musical Hazel Flagg.
- The documentary Radium City depicts first hand accounts of some of the watch dial painters in Ottawa, IL.
- A version of the story for a young adult readership is told in the novel Glow by Megan E. Bryant. (ISBN 978-080752963-8)
- A play titled "Radium Girls" by D.W. Gregory was written from the perspective of one of the women who sued in New Jersey.
- A play named These Shining Lives was written by Melanie Marnich and Dramatists Play Service Inc. and is narrated by Catherine Wolfe Donohue, one of four protagonist workers who sued in Illinois. (ISBN 978-0822224488)
- Luminous: The Story of a Radium Girl (2020) by Samantha Wilcoxson is a biographical fiction novel featuring Catherine Donohue (ISBN 9798637237388).
- A film was set to release on April 3, 2020 named Radium Girls starring Joey King, however, it was delayed due to COVID-19 This movie is now on Netflix. 
- Episode 99 of "The Dollop" podcast - The Radium Girls.
- Episode 190 of 'My Favorite Murder" podcast - Lick The Clock 
- Nothing Sacred is a 1937 movie comedy romance about a young woman dying from radium poisoning contracted when watch dial painting who is sought by a journalist for interview.
- Breaker boy
- Katherine Rotan Drinker and Cecil Kent Drinker, who researched the Radium Girls
- Hiroshima maidens
- Labor law
- Labor history
- Labor rights
- Occupational disease
- Phossy jaw
- Nuclear labor issues
- Radioactive contamination
- Tritium radioluminescence
- Moore, Kate (2017). The Radium Girls, The Dark Story of America's Shining Women. sourcebooks.com. p. 366. ISBN 978-1492649366. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- "Smithsonian displays ore containing radium, United States Radium Corporation (1921)". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
- "Museums holding exhibits to explain uses of radium, United States Radium Corporation (1922)". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
- "Undark and the Radium Girls". Damn Interesting.
- "TO BEGIN TWO SUITS AGAINST RADIUM CO.; Newark Attorneys Say Two Women Died After Using Luminous Paint on Watch Dials. SAYS CHEMIST WAS WELL Dr Leman's Widow Denies Husband Would Have Died Sooner In Another Occupation". The New York Times. 1925-06-24. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- "US Starts Probe of Radium Poison Deaths in Jersey, United States Radium Corporation (1925)". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
- Grady, Denise (October 6, 1998). "A Glow in the Dark, and a Lesson in Scientific Peril". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- "Deadly occupation, forged report". harvard.edu. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
- Mappen, Marc (1991-03-10). "JERSEYANA (Published 1991)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-24.
- Mullner, R. (1999). Deadly Glow: The Radium Dial Worker Tragedy. American Public Health Association. ISBN 978-0875532455.
- "Dr S. von Sochocky death notice". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
- Wilmington, Michael (9 January 1988). "Movie Review: 'Radium City' Paints Incredible Horror Story of the Atomic Age". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
- "Women radium victims offer selves for test while alive, United States Radium Corporation (1928)". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
- Kovarik, Bill (2002). "The Radium Girls" (PDF). Mass Media and Environmental Conflict – Chapter 8 (original). RUNet.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-01-05. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- "CPI Inflation Calculator". data.bls.gov.
- "Mass Media & Environmental Conflict – Radium Girls". Archived from the original on 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- David Boettcher. "Radioactive Luminous Paint". Archived from the original on 2020-11-09.
- Rowland, R. E. (1994). Radium in Humans: A Review of U.S. Studies (PDF). Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory.
- "Radium Girls". 1000 ways to die.
- Johnson, Robert R. (2012). Romancing the Atom. Praeger. p. 210. ISBN 978-0313392795.
- "The Case of the Living Dead Women". Leonard Grossman. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
- Bryant, Megan E. (2017). Glow. Albert Whitman & Company. p. 248. ISBN 978-080752963-8.
- Melanie, Marnich (2010). These shining lives. New York. ISBN 978-0822224488. OCLC 648829416.
- Marnich, Melanie (2018-09-05). "These Shining Lives" (PDF). MTSD.
- "Radium Girls". Fandango. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- "Radium Girls Trailer #1 (2020) | Movieclips Indie" – via www.youtube.com.
- "The Dollop with Dave Anthony and Gareth Reynolds #99 - The Radium Girls" – via www.youtube.com.
- "190 - Lick The Clock". myfavoritemurder.com. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
- Rutgers University – 'University Libraries Special Collections: U.S. Radium Corporation, East Orange, NJ', Records, Catalog 1917–1940
- Undark and the Radium Girls, Alan Bellows, December 28, 2006, Damn Interesting
- Radium Girls, Eleanor Swanson. copy of original
- Poison Paintbrush, Time, June 4, 1928. "That the world may see streaks of light through the long hours of darkness, Orange, N.J., women hired themselves to the U.S. Radium Corporation."
- Radium Women, Time, August 11, 1930. "Five young New Jersey women who were poisoned while painting luminous watch dials for U.S. Radium Corp., two years ago heard doctors pronounce their doom: one year to live."
- Mae Keane, The Last 'Radium Girl,' Dies At 107, NPR
- Radium City (1987), documentary
- Radium Girls (2018), feature film