|Also known as||On a Friday (1985–1992)|
Radiohead are an English rock band formed in Abingdon-on-Thames in 1985. The band consists of Thom Yorke (vocals, guitar, piano, keyboards), brothers Jonny Greenwood (lead guitar, keyboards, other instruments) and Colin Greenwood (bass), Ed O'Brien (guitar, backing vocals) and Philip Selway (drums, percussion). They have worked with producer Nigel Godrich and cover artist Stanley Donwood since 1994.
After signing to EMI in 1991, Radiohead released their debut single "Creep" in 1992. It became a worldwide hit after the release of their debut album, Pablo Honey (1993). Their popularity and critical standing rose in the United Kingdom with the release of their second album, The Bends (1995). Radiohead's third album, OK Computer (1997), brought them international fame; noted for its complex production and themes of modern alienation, it is often acclaimed as a landmark record of the 1990s and one of the best albums in popular music. The group's next albums Kid A (2000) and Amnesiac (2001), recorded simultaneously, marked a dramatic change in style, incorporating influences from experimental electronic music, 20th-century classical music, krautrock, and jazz. Kid A divided listeners but was named the best album of the decade by Rolling Stone, Pitchfork and The Times.
Radiohead's sixth album, Hail to the Thief (2003), mixed rock and electronic music with lyrics inspired by the War on Terror, and was the band's final album for EMI. Their subsequent releases have pioneered alternative release platforms such as pay-what-you-want and BitTorrent; Radiohead self-released their seventh album, In Rainbows (2007), as a download for which customers could set their own price, to critical and chart success. Their eighth album, The King of Limbs (2011), an exploration of rhythm, was developed using extensive looping and sampling. A Moon Shaped Pool (2016) prominently featured Jonny Greenwood's orchestral arrangements.
Radiohead had sold more than 30 million albums worldwide by 2011. Their work places highly in both listener polls and critics' lists of the best music of the 1990s and 2000s. In 2005, they were ranked 73rd in Rolling Stone's list of "The Greatest Artists of All Time"; Jonny Greenwood and O'Brien were both included in Rolling Stone's list of greatest guitarists, and Yorke in their list of greatest singers. In 2009, Rolling Stone readers voted Radiohead the second-best artist of the 2000s. They will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2019.
- 1 History
- 1.1 1985–1992: Formation and first years
- 1.2 1992–1994: "Creep", Pablo Honey and early success
- 1.3 1994–1995: The Bends, critical recognition and growing fanbase
- 1.4 1995–1998: OK Computer and critical acclaim
- 1.5 1998–2002: Kid A, Amnesiac and change in sound
- 1.6 2002–2004: Hail to the Thief and solo work
- 1.7 2004–2009: Departure from EMI, In Rainbows, and "pay what you want"
- 1.8 2009–2012: Singles, side projects, and The King of Limbs
- 1.9 2012–2014: Hiatus, further solo work, and move to XL
- 1.10 2014–present: A Moon Shaped Pool
- 2 Style and songwriting
- 3 Collaborators
- 4 Band members
- 5 Discography
- 6 Awards and nominations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Notes
- 10 Further reading
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
1985–1992: Formation and first years
The members of Radiohead met while attending Abingdon School, an independent school for boys in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. Guitarist and singer Thom Yorke and bassist Colin Greenwood were in the same year, guitarist Ed O'Brien and drummer Philip Selway the year above, and multi-instrumentalist Jonny Greenwood, brother of Colin, two years below. In 1985, they formed On a Friday, the name referring to the band's usual rehearsal day in the school's music room. Jonny was the last to join, first on harmonica and then keyboards, but soon became the lead guitarist; he had previously been in another band, Illiterate Hands, with musician Nigel Powell and Yorke's brother Andy Yorke. According to Colin, the band members picked their instruments because they wanted to play music together, rather than through an interest in the particular instrument: "It was more of a collective angle, and if you could contribute by having someone else play your instrument, then that was really cool." At one point, On a Friday featured a saxophone section.
The band disliked the school's strict atmosphere—the headmaster once charged them for using a rehearsal room on a Sunday—and found solace in the school's music department. They credited their music teacher for introducing them to jazz, film scores, postwar avant-garde music, and 20th-century classical music. Oxfordshire and the Thames Valley had an active independent music scene in the late 1980s, but it centred on shoegazing bands such as Ride and Slowdive.
Although all but Jonny had left Abingdon by 1987 to attend university, On a Friday continued to rehearse on weekends and holidays. At the University of Exeter, Yorke played with the band Headless Chickens, performing songs including future Radiohead material, and met artist Stanley Donwood, who would later create artwork for the band. In 1991, On a Friday regrouped, sharing a house on the corner of Magdalen Road and Ridgefield Road, Oxford.
As On a Friday continued to perform in Oxford, including more performances at the Jericho Tavern, record labels and producers became interested. Chris Hufford, Slowdive's producer and co-owner of Oxford's Courtyard Studios, attended an early On a Friday concert at the Jericho Tavern. Impressed, he and his partner Bryce Edge produced a demo tape and became On a Friday's managers; they remain Radiohead's managers today. In late 1991, after a chance meeting between Colin and EMI A&R representative Keith Wozencroft at Our Price, the record shop where Colin worked, On a Friday band signed a six-album recording contract with EMI. At the label's request, the band changed their name; "Radiohead" was taken from the song "Radio Head" on the Talking Heads album True Stories (1986).
1992–1994: "Creep", Pablo Honey and early success
Radiohead recorded their debut release, the Drill EP, with Chris Hufford and Bryce Edge at Courtyard Studios. Released in May 1992, its chart performance was poor. The band enlisted Paul Kolderie and Sean Slade, who had worked with US indie bands Pixies and Dinosaur Jr., to produce their debut album, recorded quickly in an Oxford studio in 1992. With the release of the "Creep" single later that year, Radiohead began to receive attention in the British music press, not all of it favourable; NME described them as "a lily-livered excuse for a rock band", and "Creep" was blacklisted by BBC Radio 1 because it was deemed "too depressing".
Radiohead released their debut album, Pablo Honey, in February 1993. It stalled at number 22 in the UK charts, as "Creep" and its follow-up singles "Anyone Can Play Guitar" and "Stop Whispering" failed to become hits. "Pop Is Dead", a non-album single, also sold poorly; O'Brien later called the track "a hideous mistake". Some critics compared the band's early style to the wave of grunge music popular in the early 1990s, dubbing them "Nirvana-lite", and Pablo Honey failed to make a critical or a commercial impact upon its initial release.
In early 1993, Radiohead began to attract listeners elsewhere. "Creep" had been played frequently on Israeli radio by influential DJ Yoav Kutner, and in March, after the song became a hit in that country, Radiohead were invited to Tel Aviv for their first gig overseas. Around the same time, the San Francisco alternative radio station KITS added "Creep" to its playlist. Soon other radio stations along the west coast of the United States followed suit. By the time Radiohead began their first North American tour in June 1993, the music video for "Creep" was in heavy rotation on MTV. The song rose to number two on the US modern rock chart, entered the lower reaches of the top 40 pop chart, and hit number seven in the UK Singles Chart when EMI rereleased it in the UK in September.
1994–1995: The Bends, critical recognition and growing fanbase
Radiohead began work on their second album in 1994 with veteran Abbey Road Studios producer John Leckie. Tensions were high, with mounting expectations to match the success of "Creep". Recording felt unnatural in the studio, with the band having over-rehearsed the material. Seeking a change of scenery, they toured the Far East, Australasia and Mexico and found greater confidence performing their new music live. However, troubled by his new fame, Yorke became disillusioned with being "at the sharp end of the sexy, sassy, MTV eye-candy lifestyle" he felt he was helping to sell to the world. The My Iron Lung EP and single, released in 1994, was Radiohead's reaction, marking a transition towards the greater depth they aimed for on their second album. It was their first time working with their future producer Nigel Godrich, then working under Leckie as an audio engineer. It was also Radiohead's first collaboration with artist Stanley Donwood, who has produced all of their artwork since. Promoted through alternative radio stations, My Iron Lung's sales were better than expected, and suggested that the band had found a loyal fanbase and were not one-hit wonders.
Having introduced more new songs on tour, Radiohead finished recording their second album by the end of 1994, and released The Bends in March 1995. The album was driven by dense riffs and ethereal atmospheres from the band's three guitarists, with greater use of keyboards than their debut. It received stronger reviews for its songwriting and performances. While Radiohead were seen as outsiders to the Britpop scene that dominated music media at the time, they were finally successful in their home country with The Bends, as singles "Fake Plastic Trees", "High and Dry", "Just", and "Street Spirit (Fade Out)" made their way to chart success; "Street Spirit" placed Radiohead in the top five for the first time. "High and Dry" became a modest hit, but Radiohead's growing fanbase was insufficient to repeat the worldwide success of "Creep". The Bends peaked at No. 88 on the US album charts, which remains Radiohead's lowest showing there. Nonetheless, Radiohead were satisfied with the album's reception. Jonny Greenwood said: "I think the turning point for us came about nine or twelve months after The Bends was released and it started appearing in people's [best of] polls for the end of the year. That's when it started to feel like we made the right choice about being a band." In later years, The Bends appeared in many publications' lists of the best albums of all time, including Rolling Stone's 2012 edition of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time" at No. 111.
In 1995, Radiohead again toured North America and Europe, this time in support of R.E.M., one of their formative influences and at the time one of the biggest rock bands in the world. Radiohead was on the verge of breaking up until tensions within the band were resolved in Mexico. The buzz generated by such famous fans as R.E.M. singer Michael Stipe, along with distinctive music videos for "Just" and "Street Spirit", helped to sustain Radiohead's popularity outside the UK. The night before a performance in Denver, Colorado, Radiohead's tour van was stolen, and with it their musical equipment. Yorke and Jonny Greenwood performed a stripped-down acoustic set with rented instruments and several shows were canceled.[a]
1995–1998: OK Computer and critical acclaim
By late 1995, Radiohead had already recorded one song that would appear on their next record. "Lucky", released as a single to promote the War Child charity's The Help Album, was recorded in a brief session with Nigel Godrich, the young audio engineer who had assisted on The Bends and produced a 1996 B-side, "Talk Show Host". The band decided to self-produce their next album with Godrich, and began work in early 1996. By July they had recorded four songs at their rehearsal studio, Canned Applause, a converted apple shed in the countryside near Didcot, Oxfordshire. In August 1996, Radiohead toured as the opening act for Alanis Morissette. They resumed recording not at a studio but at St. Catherine's Court, a 15th-century mansion near Bath. The sessions were relaxed, with the band playing at all hours of the day, recording in different rooms, and listening to the Beatles, DJ Shadow, Ennio Morricone and Miles Davis for inspiration.
Radiohead released their third album, OK Computer, in June 1997. The album found the band experimenting with song structures and incorporating ambient, avant garde and electronic influences, prompting Rolling Stone to call the album a "stunning art-rock tour de force". Radiohead denied being part of the progressive rock genre, but critics began to compare their work to Pink Floyd, a band whose early 1970s work influenced Greenwood's guitar parts at the time. Some compared OK Computer thematically to Floyd's bestseller The Dark Side of the Moon (1973), although Yorke said the album's lyrics were inspired by observing the "speed" of the world in the 1990s. Yorke's lyrics, embodying different characters, had expressed what one magazine called "end-of-the-millennium blues" in contrast to the more personal songs of The Bends. According to journalist Alex Ross, the band had become "the poster boys for a certain kind of knowing alienation—as the Talking Heads and R.E.M. had been before". OK Computer met with critical acclaim. Yorke said he was "amazed it got the reaction it did. None of us fucking knew any more whether it was good or bad. What really blew my head off was the fact that people got all the things, all the textures and the sounds and the atmospheres we were trying to create."
OK Computer was Radiohead's first number-one UK chart debut, and brought them commercial success around the world. Despite peaking at number 21 in the US charts, the album eventually met with mainstream recognition there, earning Radiohead their first Grammy Awards recognition, winning Best Alternative Album and a nomination for Album of the Year. "Paranoid Android", "Karma Police" and "No Surprises" were released as singles from the album, of which "Karma Police" was most successful internationally. OK Computer went on to become a staple of "best-of" British album lists. In the same year, Radiohead became one of the first bands in the world to have a website, and developed a devoted online following; within a few years, there were dozens of fansites devoted to the band. OK Computer was followed by the year-long "Against Demons" world tour, including Radiohead's first headline Glastonbury Festival performance in 1997. Despite technical problems that almost caused Yorke to abandon the stage, the performance was acclaimed and cemented Radiohead as a major live act. Grant Gee, the director of the "No Surprises" video, filmed the band on tour for the 1999 documentary Meeting People Is Easy. The film portrays the band's disaffection with the music industry and press, showing their burnout over the course of the tour.
1998–2002: Kid A, Amnesiac and change in sound
Radiohead's only public performance in 1998 was at an Amnesty International concert in Paris. In March, they and Godrich entered Abbey Road Studios to record a song for the 1998 film The Avengers, "Man of War", but were unsatisfied with the results and the song went unreleased. Yorke described the period as a "real low point"; he developed depression, and the band came close to splitting up. They were approached to score the 1999 film Fight Club, but Yorke declined as he wanted to take a break.
In early 1999, Radiohead began work on their next album. Although the success of OK Computer meant there was no longer any pressure or a deadline from their record label, tension was high. Band members had different visions for Radiohead's future, and Yorke experienced writer's block, influencing him toward more abstract, fragmented songwriting. Radiohead secluded themselves with Godrich in studios in Paris, Copenhagen, and Gloucester, and in their newly completed studio in Oxford. Eventually, the members agreed on a new musical direction, redefining their instrumental roles. After nearly 18 months, Radiohead's recording sessions were completed in April 2000.
In October 2000 Radiohead released their fourth album, Kid A, the first of two albums from these recording sessions. A departure from OK Computer, Kid A featured a minimalist and textured style with more diverse instrumentation, including the ondes Martenot, programmed electronic beats, strings, and jazz horns. It debuted at number one in many countries, including the US, where it became the first Radiohead album to debut atop the Billboard chart and the first US number-one album by any UK act since the Spice Girls in 1996. This success was attributed variously to marketing, to the album's leak on the file-sharing network Napster a few months before its release, and to advance anticipation based, in part, on the success of OK Computer. Although Radiohead released no singles from Kid A, promos of "Optimistic" and "Idioteque" received radio play, and a series of "blips", short videos set to portions of tracks, were played on music channels and released free online. Inspired by Naomi Klein's anti-globalisation book No Logo, Radiohead continued a 2000 tour of Europe in a custom-built tent free of advertising; they also promoted Kid A with three sold-out North American theatre concerts.
Kid A received a Grammy Award for Best Alternative Album and a nomination for Album of the Year in early 2001. It won both praise and criticism in independent music circles for appropriating underground styles of music; some mainstream British critics saw Kid A as a "commercial suicide note", labelling it "intentionally difficult" and longing for a return to the band's earlier style. Fans were similarly divided; along with those who were appalled or mystified, many saw it as the band's best work. Yorke denied that Radiohead had set out to eschew expectations, saying: "We're not trying to be difficult ... We're actually trying to communicate but somewhere along the line, we just seemed to piss off a lot of people ... What we're doing isn't that radical." The album has since been ranked one of the best of all time by publications including Time and Rolling Stone; Pitchfork, the Times and Rolling Stone named it the best album of the decade.
Radiohead's fifth album, Amnesiac, was released in June 2001. It comprised additional tracks from the Kid A sessions, plus one track recorded after Kid A's release, "Life in a Glasshouse", featuring the Humphrey Lyttelton Band. Radiohead stressed that they saw Amnesiac not as a collection of B-sides or "leftovers" from Kid A but an album in its own right. It topped the UK Albums Chart and reached number two in the US, and was nominated for a Grammy Award and the Mercury Music Prize. Radiohead embarked on a world tour, visiting North America, Europe and Japan. "Pyramid Song" and "Knives Out", Radiohead's first singles since 1998, were modestly successful. I Might Be Wrong: Live Recordings, released in November 2001, features performances of seven songs from Kid A and Amnesiac, and the previously unreleased acoustic track "True Love Waits".
2002–2004: Hail to the Thief and solo work
In July and August 2002, Radiohead toured Portugal and Spain, playing a number of new songs. For their next album, the band sought to explore the tension between human and machine-generated music and capture a more immediate, live sound. They and Godrich recorded most of the material in two weeks at Ocean Way Recording in Los Angeles, with the rest of the album recorded in Oxford into the next year. The band described the recording process as relaxed, in contrast to the tense sessions for Kid A and Amnesiac. Radiohead also composed music for "Split Sides", a dance piece by the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, which debuted in October 2003 at the Brooklyn Academy of Music.
Radiohead's sixth album, Hail to the Thief, was released in June 2003. Its lyrics were influenced by what Yorke called "the general sense of ignorance and intolerance and panic and stupidity" following the 2000 election of US President George W. Bush. The album was promoted with a website, radiohead.tv, where short films, music videos, and studio webcasts were streamed. Hail to the Thief debuted at number one in the UK and number three on the Billboard chart, and was eventually certified platinum in the UK and gold in the US. The singles "There There", "Go to Sleep" and "2 + 2 = 5" achieved heavy circulation on modern rock radio. At the 2003 Grammy Awards, Radiohead were again nominated for Best Alternative Album, and producer Godrich and engineer Darrell Thorp received the Grammy Award for Best Engineered Album. In May 2003, Radiohead embarked on a world tour and headlined Glastonbury Festival for the second time. The tour finished in May 2004 with a performance at the Coachella Festival in California. A compilation of Hail to the Thief B-sides, remixes and live performances, Com Lag (2plus2isfive), was released in April 2004.
Following the Hail to the Thief tour, Radiohead went on hiatus to spend time with their families and work on solo projects. Yorke and Jonny Greenwood contributed to the Band Aid 20 charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?", produced by Godrich. Greenwood composed soundtracks for the films Bodysong (2004) and There Will Be Blood (2007); the latter was the first of several collaborations between Greenwood and director Paul Thomas Anderson. In July 2006, Yorke released his debut solo album, The Eraser, comprising mainly electronic music. He told Pitchfork: "I've been in the band since we left school and never dared do anything on my own ... It was like, 'Man, I've got to find out what it feels like,' you know?"
2004–2009: Departure from EMI, In Rainbows, and "pay what you want"
Hail to the Thief was Radiohead's final album with EMI; the New York Times described Radiohead in 2006 as "by far the world's most popular unsigned band". They began work on their seventh album in February 2005 with no record deal. In an effort to "get out of the comfort zone", they decided against involving Godrich and hired producer Spike Stent. The collaboration with Stent was unsuccessful and ended in April 2006. In September 2005, Radiohead contributed "I Want None of This", a piano dirge, for the War Child charity album Help: A Day in the Life. The album was sold online, with "I Want None of This" the most downloaded track, though it was not released as a single. In late 2006, after touring Europe and North America with new material, the band re-enlisted Godrich and resumed work in London, Oxford and rural Somerset, England. Recording ended in June 2007 and the recordings were mastered the following month.
Radiohead's seventh album, In Rainbows, was released through the band's website in October 2007 as a download for any amount users wanted, including £0. The landmark pay-what-you-want release, the first for a major act, made headlines worldwide and sparked debate about the implications for the music industry. According to Mojo, the release was "hailed as a revolution in the way major bands sell their music", and the media's reaction was "almost overwhelmingly positive"; Time called it "easily the most important release in the recent history of the music business". However, it drew criticism from musicians such as Lily Allen and Kim Gordon, who felt it undercut less successful acts.
In Rainbows was downloaded an estimated 1.2 million times on the day of release, but Radiohead's management did not release sales figures, claiming that the distribution was intended to boost later retail sales. Colin Greenwood explained the internet release as a way of avoiding the "regulated playlists" and "straitened formats" of radio and TV, ensuring fans around the world could all experience the music at the same time, and preventing leaks in advance of a physical release. O'Brien said the self-release strategy sold fewer records, but made more money for the band as there was no middleman. A special "discbox" edition of In Rainbows, containing the record on vinyl, a book of artwork, and a CD of extra songs, was also sold from Radiohead's website and shipped in late 2007.
The retail version of In Rainbows was released in the UK in late December 2007 on XL Recordings and in North America in January 2008 on TBD Records, charting at number one both in the UK and in the US. The success – after having been legally available for months as a free download – was Radiohead's highest chart success in the US since Kid A. It became their fifth UK number-one album and sold more than three million copies in one year. The album received acclaim for its more accessible sound and personal lyrics. It was nominated for the Mercury Music Prize and won the 2009 Grammy awards for Best Alternative Music Album and Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package. It was nominated for five other Grammy awards, including Radiohead's third nomination for Album of the Year. Yorke and Jonny Greenwood performed "15 Step" with the University of Southern California Marching Band at the televised award show.
The first single from In Rainbows, "Jigsaw Falling into Place", was released in January 2008. It was followed by "Nude" on 31 March, which debuted at number 37 in the Billboard Hot 100; it was Radiohead's first song to enter the chart since "High and Dry" (1995) and their first US top 40 since "Creep". In July, they released a digitally shot video for "House of Cards". "House of Cards" and "Bodysnatchers" also received a single release on radio. In September, Radiohead announced a fourth single, "Reckoner". Radiohead held remix competitions for "Nude" and "Reckoner", releasing the separated stems for fans to remix. In April 2008, Radiohead launched W.A.S.T.E. Central, a social networking service for Radiohead fans. In May, VH1 broadcast In Rainbows – From the Basement, a special episode of the music television show From the Basement in which Radiohead performed songs from In Rainbows. It was released on iTunes in June. From mid-2008 to early 2009, Radiohead toured North America, Europe, Japan and South America to promote In Rainbows, and headlined the Reading and Leeds Festivals in August 2009.
In 2007, EMI was acquired by the private equity firm Terra Firma. Radiohead were critical of the new management and no deal was agreed. The Independent reported that EMI had offered Radiohead a £3 million advance, but had refused to relinquish rights to the band's back catalogue. An EMI spokesman stated that Radiohead had demanded "an extraordinary amount of money". Radiohead's management and Yorke released statements denying that the band had asked for a large advance, but instead wanted control over their back catalogue.
Days after Radiohead signed to XL, EMI announced a box set of Radiohead material recorded before In Rainbows, released in the same week as the In Rainbows special edition. Commentators including the Guardian saw the move as retaliation for the band choosing not to re-sign with EMI. In June 2008, EMI released a greatest hits album, Radiohead: The Best Of. It was made without Radiohead's involvement and contains only songs recorded under their contract with EMI. Yorke was critical of the release, saying: "It's a wasted opportunity in that if we'd been behind it, and we wanted to do it, then it might have been good." In August 2008, EMI reissued "special editions" of Radiohead's back catalogue as part of its "From the Capitol Vaults" series.
2009–2012: Singles, side projects, and The King of Limbs
As social media began to expand around the turn of the decade, Radiohead gradually withdrew their public presence, with no promotional interviews or tours to promote new releases. Pitchfork wrote that around this time Radiohead's "popularity became increasingly untethered from the typical formalities of record promotion, placing them on the same level as Beyoncé and Kanye West". In May 2009, Radiohead began new recording sessions with Godrich. In August, they released "Harry Patch (In Memory Of)", a tribute song to Harry Patch, the last surviving British soldier to have fought in World War I, with proceeds donated to the British Legion. The song has no conventional rock instrumentation, and instead comprises Yorke's vocals and a string arrangement composed by Jonny Greenwood. Later that month, another new song, "These Are My Twisted Words", featuring krautrock-like drumming and guitars, was leaked via torrent, possibly by Radiohead themselves. It was released as a free download on the Radiohead website the following week. Commentators saw the releases as part of Radiohead's new unpredictable release strategy, without the need for traditional marketing campaigns.
That year, Yorke formed a new band to perform The Eraser live, Atoms for Peace, with musicians including Godrich and Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist Flea. The band played eight North American shows in 2010. In January 2010, Radiohead played their only full concert of the year in the Los Angeles Henry Fonda Theater as a benefit for Oxfam. Tickets were auctioned, raising over half a million US dollars for the NGO's 2010 Haiti earthquake relief. In September 2010, Radiohead released the soundboard recording of their 2009 Prague performance for use in a fan-made concert video, Live in Praha. In December, a fan-made video of Radiohead's Oxfam benefit performance, Radiohead for Haiti, was released via YouTube and torrent with Radiohead's support and a "pay-what-you-want" link to donate to Oxfam. The videos were described as examples of the band's openness to fans and positivity toward non-commercial internet distribution. In June 2010, Yorke and Jonny Greenwood performed a surprise set at Glastonbury Festival, performing Eraser and Radiohead songs, while Selway released his debut solo album, Familial in August.
Radiohead finished recording their eighth album, The King of Limbs, in January 2011. Following the protracted recording and more conventional rock instrumentation of In Rainbows, Radiohead developed The King of Limbs by sampling and looping their recordings with turntables. Radiohead announced the album on Valentine's Day and released it as a download on 18 February 2011 through their website. It was followed by a retail release on CD and vinyl formats in March on XL, and a special "newspaper album" edition in May. The King of Limbs sold an estimated 300,000 to 400,000 copies through Radiohead's website; the retail edition debuted at number six on the US Billboard 200 and number seven on the UK Albums Chart. It was nominated for five categories in the 54th Grammy Awards. Two tracks not included on The King of Limbs, "Supercollider" and "The Butcher", were released as a double A-side single for Record Store Day in April. A compilation of King of Limbs remixes by various artists, TKOL RMX 1234567, was released in September.
To perform the rhythmically complex King of Limbs material live, Radiohead enlisted a second drummer, Clive Deamer, who had worked with Portishead and Get the Blessing. Deamer has joined Radiohead on subsequent tours. In June, Radiohead played a surprise performance on the Park stage at the 2011 Glastonbury Festival, performing songs from The King of Limbs for the first time. With Deamer, Radiohead recorded The King of Limbs: Live from the Basement, released online in August 2011. It was also broadcast by international BBC channels and released on DVD and Blu-ray in January 2012. The performance included two new songs, "The Daily Mail" and "Staircase", released as a double A-side download single in December 2011. In February 2012, they began their first extended North American tour in four years, including dates in the United States, Canada and Mexico. On tour, they recorded material at Jack White's studio Third Man Records, but discarded the recordings.
On 16 June 2012, an hour before gates were due to open at Toronto's Downsview Park for the final concert of Radiohead's North American tour, the roof of the venue's temporary stage collapsed, killing drum technician Scott Johnson and injuring three other members of Radiohead's road crew. After rescheduling the tour, Radiohead paid tribute to Johnson at their next concert, in Nîmes, France, in July. In June 2013, Live Nation Canada Inc, two other organisations and an engineer were charged with 13 charges under Ontario health and safety laws. In September 2017, after several delays, the case was dropped under the Jordan ruling, which sets strict timelines on trials. Radiohead released a statement condemning the decision.
2012–2014: Hiatus, further solo work, and move to XL
In September 2012, EMI, Radiohead's record label until 2003, was bought by Universal Music. The European Commission approved the deal on the condition that Universal Music divest EMI's Parlophone label, which controlled the Radiohead albums recorded under their contract with EMI. In February 2013, Parlophone, along with Radiohead's back catalogue, was bought by Warner Music Group (WMG). As a condition of the purchase, WMG made an agreement with the Merlin Network and trade group Impala to divest 30% of the Parlophone catalogues to independent labels, with artist approval. In October 2015, Radiohead sued Parlophone for deductions made from downloads of their back catalogue. In April 2016, as a result of the Impala agreement, WMG transferred Radiohead's back catalogue to XL Recordings, who had released the retail editions of In Rainbows and The King of Limbs and most of Yorke's solo work. Radiohead: The Best Of and the "special editions" of Radiohead albums, issued by EMI in 2008 without Radiohead's approval, were removed from streaming services. In May 2016, XL reissued Radiohead's back catalogue on vinyl.
After the King of Limbs tour, during which Radiohead performed several new songs, the band entered hiatus again and the members worked on side projects. In February 2013, Yorke and Godrich's band Atoms for Peace released a studio album, Amok. The pair made headlines that year for their criticism of the free music streaming service Spotify; Yorke accused Spotify of only benefiting major labels with large back catalogues, and encouraged artists to build their own "direct connections" with audiences instead. In February 2014, Radiohead released the Polyfauna app for smartphones, a collaboration with the British digital arts studio Universal Everything using music and imagery from The King of Limbs. Yorke and Selway released their respective second solo albums, Tomorrow's Modern Boxes and Weatherhouse, in September and October 2014, while Jonny Greenwood scored his third Paul Thomas Anderson film, Inherent Vice; it features a new version of an unreleased Radiohead song, "Spooks", performed by Greenwood and members of Supergrass.
2014–present: A Moon Shaped Pool
Radiohead began work on their ninth studio album in September 2014, joined again by Godrich. In 2015 they resumed work in the La Fabrique studio near Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, France. The sessions were marred by the death of Godrich's father, and Yorke's separation from his wife, Rachel Owen, who died of cancer several months after the album's completion. In the same year, Yorke contributed a soundtrack, Subterranea, to The Panic Office, an installation of Radiohead artwork in Sydney, Australia, and Junun, a collaboration between Greenwood, Godrich, Israeli composer Shye Ben Tzur and Indian musicians, was released, accompanied by a documentary directed by Anderson. On Christmas Day 2015, Radiohead released a new song, "Spectre", on the audio streaming site SoundCloud. It had been commissioned for the 2015 James Bond film Spectre, but was rejected by the film producers as "too dark".
Radiohead's ninth studio album, A Moon Shaped Pool, was released in May 2016 on Radiohead's website and online music stores, followed by retail versions in June via XL Recordings. It was promoted with music videos for the singles "Burn the Witch" and "Daydreaming", the latter directed by Anderson. The album includes several songs written years earlier, including "True Love Waits", and strings and choral vocals arranged by Jonny Greenwood and performed the London Contemporary Orchestra. It was Radiohead's sixth UK number-one album and reached number three in the US. It was the fifth Radiohead album nominated for the Mercury Prize, making Radiohead the most shortlisted act in the award's history, and was nominated for Best Alternative Music Album and Best Rock Song (for "Burn the Witch") at the 59th Annual Grammy Awards. It appeared on several publications' lists of the best albums of the year.
In 2016, 2017, and 2018, Radiohead toured Europe, Japan, and North and South America, with headline shows at the Coachella and Glastonbury festivals. The tour included a performance in Tel Aviv in July 2017, disregarding the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions campaign for an international cultural boycott of Israel. The performance was criticised by artists including musician Roger Waters and filmmaker Ken Loach, and a petition urging Radiohead to cancel it was signed by more than 50 prominent figures. Yorke responded in a statement: "Playing in a country isn't the same as endorsing the government. Music, art and academia is about crossing borders not building them, about open minds not closed ones, about shared humanity, dialogue and freedom of expression."
In June 2017, Radiohead released a 20th-anniversary OK Computer reissue, OKNOTOK 1997 2017, comprising a remastered version of the album, B-sides, and three previously unreleased tracks: "I Promise", "Man of War" and "Lift". Radiohead promoted the reissue with music videos for the three new tracks. OKNOTOK debuted at number two on the UK Album Chart, boosted by Radiohead's televised Glastonbury performance that week, and reached number 23 on the US Billboard 200.
Yorke and Jonny Greenwood performed a benefit concert in Le Marche, Italy, in August 2017 following the August 2016 Central Italy earthquake. In September, the nature documentary series Blue Planet II premiered featuring a new version of the King of Limbs track "Bloom", created with composer Hans Zimmer. The following month, Selway released his third solo work, the soundtrack to the film Let Me Go. In 2018, Jonny Greenwood scored his second film by Lynne Ramsay, You Were Never Really Here, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Score for his fifth collaboration with Anderson, Phantom Thread. Yorke released his first feature film soundtrack, Suspiria, in October 2018.
Style and songwriting
Among Radiohead's earliest influences were Queen, Bob Dylan, Pink Floyd and Elvis Costello, post-punk acts such as Joy Division, Siouxsie and the Banshees and Magazine, and significantly 1980s alternative rock bands such as R.E.M., U2, the Pixies, the Smiths and Sonic Youth.
By the mid-1990s, Radiohead began to adopt recording methods from hip hop, inspired by the sampling work of DJ Shadow, and became interested in using computers to generate sounds. Other influences include the jazz of Miles Davis, Charles Mingus and Alice Coltrane, the soundtracks of Ennio Morricone, 1960s rock groups such as the Beatles and the Beach Boys, and Phil Spector's "wall of sound" production.
The electronic music of Kid A and Amnesiac was inspired by Yorke's admiration for electronic music exemplified by Warp Records artists such as Aphex Twin; in 2013, Yorke named Aphex Twin as his biggest influence. Kid A also samples early computer music. The jazz of Charles Mingus, Alice Coltrane and Miles Davis, and 1970s krautrock bands such as Can and Neu!, were other major influences during this period. Jonny Greenwood's interest in 20th century classical music also had a role, as the influence of composers Krzysztof Penderecki and Olivier Messiaen was apparent. Since the recording of Kid A, Greenwood has played the ondes Martenot, an early electronic instrument popularised by Messiaen.
Recording In Rainbows, Radiohead mentioned rock, electronic, hip hop and experimental musicians as influences, including Björk, M.I.A, Liars, Modeselektor and Spank Rock. In 2011, Yorke denied that Radiohead had set out to make "experimental music", saying the band was "constantly absorbing music" and that a variety of musicians are always influencing their work. Drummer Clive Deamer, who has recorded and performed with Radiohead since 2011, said that Radiohead did not see themselves as a rock band and felt their methodology had closer parallels with jazz: "They deliberately try to avoid cliché and standard forms for the sake of the song ... Rock bands don't do that. It's far more like a jazz mentality."
Yorke is Radiohead's principal songwriter and lyricist. Songs usually begin with a sketch by Yorke, which is harmonically developed by Jonny Greenwood before the others develop their parts. Arrangement is a collaborative effort, with all the band members having roles in the process. The band often try several approaches to songs, and may develop them over years; for example, Radiohead first performed "True Love Waits" in 1995 before releasing it in a different arrangement on A Moon Shaped Pool in 2016. Jonny Greenwood said he saw Radiohead as "just a kind of an arrangement to form songs using whatever technology suits the song. And that technology can be a cello or it can be a laptop. It's all sort of machinery when looked at in the right way."
The Kid A and Amnesiac sessions brought a change in Radiohead's music and working methods. Since their shift from conventional rock music instrumentation toward an emphasis on electronic sound, the members have gained flexibility and now regularly switch instruments depending on the particular song requirements. On Kid A and Amnesiac, Yorke played keyboard and bass, while Jonny Greenwood often played ondes Martenot, bassist Colin Greenwood worked on sampling, and O'Brien and Selway branched out to drum machines and digital manipulation, also finding ways to incorporate their primary instruments – guitar and percussion, respectively – into the new sound. The relaxed 2003 sessions for Hail to the Thief led to a different dynamic, with Yorke saying his power in the band had been "absolutely unbalanced" and that he would "subvert everybody else's power at all costs. But ... it's actually a lot more healthy now, democracy-wise."
Nigel Godrich first worked with Radiohead as an audio engineer on their second album, The Bends. He has produced all their studio albums since their third album, OK Computer. He has been dubbed the band's "sixth member", an allusion to George Martin being called the "Fifth Beatle". In 2016, Godrich said: "I can only ever have one band like Radiohead who I've worked with for this many years. That's a very deep and profound relationship. The Beatles could only have ever had one George Martin; they couldn't have switched producers halfway through their career. All that work, trust, and knowledge of each other would have been thrown out of the window and they'd have to start again."
Graphic artist Stanley Donwood met Yorke when they were art students. Together, they have produced all of Radiohead's album covers and visual artwork since 1994. Donwood works in the studio with the band as they record, allowing the music to influence the artwork. He and Yorke won a Grammy in 2002 for the special edition of Amnesiac packaged as a library book.
Dilly Gent has commissioned all Radiohead music videos since OK Computer, working with the band to find directors. Since Radiohead's formation, Andi Watson has been their lighting and stage director, designing the visuals of live concerts, such as the carbon-neutral "LED forest" of the In Rainbows tour. Technician Peter "Plank" Clements has worked with Radiohead since before The Bends, overseeing the setup of their instruments for studio recordings and live performances. Drummer Clive Deamer was enlisted in 2011 to help perform the complex rhythms of The King of Limbs, and has performed and recorded with Radiohead since.
- Thom Yorke – lead vocals, guitar, piano, keyboards
- Jonny Greenwood – guitar, keyboards, ondes Martenot, orchestral arrangements
- Colin Greenwood – bass guitar
- Ed O'Brien – guitar, effects, backing vocals
- Philip Selway – drums, percussion
Additional live members
- Clive Deamer – drums, percussion (2011–present)
- Pablo Honey (1993)
- The Bends (1995)
- OK Computer (1997)
- Kid A (2000)
- Amnesiac (2001)
- Hail to the Thief (2003)
- In Rainbows (2007)
- The King of Limbs (2011)
- A Moon Shaped Pool (2016)
Awards and nominations
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "OK Computer" Allmusic. Retrieved 31 January 2012
- "Q Magazine: The 100 Greatest British Albums of All Time – How many do you own? (Either on CD, Vinyl, Tape or Download)". List Challenges.
- "Top 3000 Albums of All Time". Acclaimed Music. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Jonathan, Emma. "BBC Worldwide takes exclusive Radiohead performance to the world" (press release). BBC. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Radiohead gun for Beatles' Revolver". BBC News. 3 September 2000. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
"Radiohead — In Rainbows Is Overwhelming Critics Choice for Top Album". Contact Music. 18 December 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- "100 Greatest Guitarists: Jonny Greenwood". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Ed O'Brien – 100 Greatest Guitarists: David Fricke's Picks". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- "100 Greatest Singers: Thom Yorke". Rolling Stone. 7 October 1968. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Green Day Named Top Artists Of The Decade By Rolling Stone Readers". MTV News. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- McLean, Craig (14 July 2003). "Don't worry, be happy". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 December 2007.
- Mac Randall (1 April 1998). "The Golden Age of Radiohead". Guitar World.
- Lewis, Luke (24 March 2013). "This Is What Radiohead Looked Like In The '80s". Buzzfeed. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
Jones, Lucy (26 March 2013). "9 Photos Of Artists Before They Hit The Big Time". NME. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Kelly, John (15 September 2001). "Taking Music To Strange Places". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
- "On A Friday: Radiohead In The '80s – Stereogum". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Ross, Alex (21 August 2001). "The Searchers: Radiohead's unquiet revolution". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Kent, Nick (1 June 2001). "Happy now?". Mojo.
- "Radiohead, Foals and 25 years of discovering Oxford music – BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- Ross, Alex (20 August 2001). "The Searchers". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Minsker, Evan (13 July 2015). "Rare Footage Surfaces of Thom Yorke Performing "High and Dry" With Pre-Radiohead Band". Pitchfork. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "Stanley Donwood". Eyestorm. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
- "Radiohead Reconnect". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- Marshall, Alex (15 April 2016). "Radiohead have not yet decided whether to stream new album, says man from their management firm". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "Radiohead: The right frequency". BBC News. 22 February 2001. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- "Creepshow". Melody Maker. 19 December 1992.
- Randall, Mac (12 September 2000). Exit Music: The Radiohead Story. Delta. pp. 71–73. ISBN 0-385-33393-5.
- Randall, Mac (2011). Exit Music – The Radiohead Story: The Radiohead Story. Omnibus. ISBN 0857126954.
- Smith, Andrew (1 October 2000). "Sound and Fury". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 26 December 2003. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
- Rubinstein, Harry (20 January 2009). "The Radiohead — Israel connection". israelity.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009.
- "Radiohead: Artist Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- Black, Johnny (1 June 2003). "The Greatest Songs Ever! Fake Plastic Trees". Blender. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
- Randall, Mac (12 September 2000). Exit Music: The Radiohead Story. Delta. pp. 127–134. ISBN 0-385-33393-5.
- Reynolds, Simon (June 2001). "Walking on Thin Ice". The Wire.
- Mallins, Steve (1 April 1995). "Scuba Do". Vox magazine.
- "Everything In Its Right Place". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Randall, Mac (12 September 2000). Exit Music: The Radiohead Story. Delta. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-385-33393-5.
- "Radiohead: Biography". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 20 January 2009.
- DiMartino, Dave (2 May 1997). "Give Radiohead to Your Computer". LAUNCH.
- "Beatles, Radiohead albums voted best ever", CNN.com, 4 September 2000, archived from the original on 22 May 2008, retrieved 8 October 2008
"Q Readers All Time Top 100 Albums". Q (137). February 1998.
"Q Magazine's Q Readers Best Albums Ever (2006 Readers Poll) Archived by Lists of Bests". Q. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- Harding, Nigel (1995). "Radiohead's Phil Selway". consumable.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
- Richardson, Andy (9 December 1995). "Boom! Shake The Gloom!". NME.
- Randall, p. 127
- "Radiohead's Jonny Greenwood reunited with guitar stolen in Denver in 1995". Denver Post. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Courtney, Kevin (17 May 1997). "Radiohead calling". The Irish Times. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
- Glover, Adrian (1 August 1997). "Radiohead — Getting More Respect". Circus.
- Moran, Caitlin (July 1997). "Everything was just fear". Select: 84.
- "The All-Time 100 albums". Time. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
- Mark Kemp (10 July 1997). "OK Computer | Album Reviews". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- Reising 2005, pp. 208–211
Griffiths 2004, p. 109
Buckley 2003, p. 843
- "Subterranean Aliens". Request Magazine. 1 September 1997.
- Ross, Alex (20 August 2001). "The Searchers: Radiohead's unquiet revolution". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- "Renaissance Men". Select. December 1997.
- "Screen Source presents: The 40th Annual Grammy Awards". Screen Source. amug.com. 27 February 1998. Archived from the original on 1 December 1998. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
- Letts, Marianne Tatom (2010). Radiohead and the Resistant Concept Album: How to Disappear Completely. Indiana University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0253004918.
- "Radiohead's OK Computer named best album of the past 25 years". Telegraph.co.uk. 22 December 2010.
- "Internet Explorers: The Curious Case of Radiohead's Online Fandom | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- Hann, Michael (20 October 2016). "Radiohead are confirmed as first headliners for Glastonbury 2017". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- White, Adam (23 June 2017). "Radiohead's Glastonbury 1997 set was 'like a form of hell', according to guitarist Ed O'Brien". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Deming, Mark (20 November 2007). "Meeting People is Easy (1999)". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
- "Art for Amnesty". Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- Mejia, Paula. "The Secret History of Radiohead's OK Computer". Vulture. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
- "Radiohead's 'Man of War': Everything You Need to Know About the 'OK Computer' Bonus Tracks". Diffuser.fm. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
- Eccleston, Danny (1 October 2000). "Q Magazine – October 2000 – By Danny Eccleston". Q.
- Trendell, Andrew (3 October 2018). "Thom Yorke on how he nearly wrote the soundtrack for Fight Club". NME. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "US Success for Radiohead". BBC News. 14 June 2001. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
- Evangelista, Benny (12 October 2000). "CD Soars After Net Release: Radiohead's 'Kid A' premieres in No. 1 slot". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
Menta, Richard (28 October 2000). "Did Napster Take Radiohead's New Album to Number 1?". MP3 Newswire.
Oldham, James (24 June 2000). "Radiohead — Their Stupendous Return". NME.
- Zoric, Lauren (22 September 2000). "I think I'm meant to be dead". The Guardian.
- "Kid A by Radiohead". Metacritic. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
- "The All-Time 100 Albums". Time. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
- "The Top 200 Albums of the 2000s: 20–1 – Page 2 | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "The 100 best pop albums of the Noughties". The Times. 21 November 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
- "The chairman – Humphrey Lyttelton". BBC. 31 January 2001. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
- Greenwood, Colin; O'Brien, Ed (25 January 2001). "Interview with Ed & Colin". Ground Zero (Interview). Interviewed by Chris Douridas. KCRW.
- "Radiohead: I Might Be Wrong: Live Recordings EP Album Review | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Fricke, David (27 June 2003). "Bitter Prophet: Thom Yorke on 'Hail to the Thief'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "Radiohead Hail to the Thief – Interview CD" (Interview). 2003. Promotional interview CD sent to British music press.
- "'Exclusive: Thom on new Radiohead album'". NME. 5 October 2002.
- "Radiohead Dances With Sigur Ros". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-10-14.
- "Radiohead: Hail to the Thief (2003): Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
- "Recording 'Hail to the Thief' in Los Angeles". Xfm London. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- "Radiohead TV goes on air". BBC. 10 June 2003. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Rock on the Net: 45th Annual Grammy Awards". rockonthenet.com. 23 February 2003. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- Pareles, Jon (2 July 2006). "With Radiohead, and Alone, the Sweet Malaise of Thom Yorke". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Allmusic review
- Godrich, Nigel. "Flashback: making Band Aid 20". the Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Radiohead retooled". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- O'Brien, Ed (21 August 2005). "Here we go". Dead Air Space. Radiohead. Archived from the original on 31 October 2005. Retrieved 23 December 2007.
- Powers, Ann (28 June 2006). "Thom Yorke, free agent". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- Plagenhoef, Scott (16 August 2006). "Interview: Thom Yorke". Pitchfork. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
- "Radiohead album – the band speak – NME". NME. 22 December 2005. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- Marshall, Julian (2 October 2007). "Radiohead: Exclusive Interview". NME. Archived from the original on 26 November 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
- Plagenhoef, Scott (11 September 2005). "Various Artists: Help: A Day in the Life Album Review | Pitchfork". Pitchfork. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
- "Rush to download War Child album". BBC News. 12 September 2005. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
- Marshall, Julian (2 October 2007). "Radiohead: Exclusive Interview". NME.
- "Radiohead mastering seventh album in New York". NME. 16 July 2007.
- Pareles, Jon (9 December 2007). "Pay What You Want for This Article". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
- Paytress, Mark (1 January 2008). "Chasing Rainbows". Mojo.
- Tyrangiel, Josh (1 October 2007). "Radiohead Says: Pay What You Want". Time. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
- Kreps, Daniel (14 November 2007). "Lily Allen, Oasis, Gene Simmons Criticize Radiohead's 'Rainbows'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Thill, Scott (8 July 2009). "Sonic Youth Slams Radiohead's In Rainbows Model". Wired. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- Brandle, Lars (18 October 2007). "Radiohead Returning to the Road in 2008". Billboard.com. Archived from the original on 8 February 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
- Edgecliffe-Johnson, Andrew (11 October 2007). "Radiohead MP3 release a tactic to lift CD sales". Financial Times.
- Greenwood, Colin (13 September 2010), "Set Yourself Free", Index on Censorship. Retrieved 31 October 2010
- "The Colbert Report". The Colbert Report. New York City. 26 September 2011. Comedy Central.
- Grossberg, Josh (6 November 2007). "Fans Shortchanging Radiohead's Rainbows?". E! Online.
- Griffiths, Peter (6 January 2008). "Radiohead top album chart". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
Cohen, Jonathan (9 January 2008). "Radiohead Nudges Blige From Atop Album Chart". Billboard. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
- "Radiohead: In Rainbows (2007): Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- Kreps, Daniel (15 October 2008). "Radiohead Publishers Reveal "In Rainbows" Numbers". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
- "Radiohead News – 2008 Mercury Music Prize Nominees Announced". Idiomag.com. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
- Hedley, Caroline (9 February 2009). "Grammy Awards 2009: British artists dominate Los Angeles ceremony". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
- Singh, Amrit (9 September 2009). "The 2009 Grammys: Just The Good Parts". Stereogum. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "Radiohead's 'In Rainbows' to be released on CD this year". NME. 8 November 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- "Radiohead announce new single details". NME. 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
- Dodson, Sean (17 July 2008). "Is Radiohead the latest band to go open source?". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- Dead Air Space (23 September 2008). "Reckoner remix". Radiohead.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- "Radiohead Launches Easier, Less Expensive Remix Contest". WIRED. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
- Hannaford, Katherine (7 April 2008). "Radiohead launches social networking site for gossip about Thom's hair, Waste-Central". Tech Digest. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Radiohead Rake in Praise From Bono, Release "From the Basement" : Rolling Stone : Rock and Roll Daily". 2 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "Reading and Leeds 2009 line-up". NME.COM. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Radiohead, por primera vez en Buenos Aires". La Nación. 13 November 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
- McLean, Craig (9 December 2007). "Caught in the flash". The Observer. London. Retrieved 1 January 2008.
- "EMI split blamed on Radiohead's £10m advance demands". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
- "'Nude' Radiohead Video Hits Web, EMI Airs Dirty Laundry". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
- Nestruck, Kelly (8 November 2007). "EMI stab Radiohead in the back catalogue". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "Radiohead to release 'Best Of' compilation". NME. UK. 3 April 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2008.
- Reynolds, Simon (9 May 2008). "Yorke slams Radiohead 'Best Of' LP". Digital Spy. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- Capitol/EMI. "Capitol/EMI's 'From The Capitol Vaults' Vinyl Campaign Continues June 16 With 11 Classic, Standout Albums". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- Lindsay, Andrew (18 May 2009). "Radiohead begin recording new album". Stereokill.net. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- "Harry Patch (In Memory Of)". Radiohead.com. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- Harris, John (6 August 2009). "Radiohead's farewell to old first world war soldier in song". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
- Jones, Lucy (6 August 2009). "Radiohead's tribute to Harry Patch strikes the right note". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- Daniel Kreps (13 August 2009). "New Radiohead Song "These Are My Twisted Words" Leaks". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Sean Michaels (14 August 2009). "Was the new Radiohead song leaked by the band?". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
- Daniel Kreps (13 August 2009). "New Radiohead Song "These Are My Twisted Words" Leaks". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Jonny Greenwood (17 August 2009). "These Are My Twisted Words". Dead Air Space (radiohead.com). Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
- Wallace, Wyndham (11 August 2009). "Radiohead Versus The Release Schedule". The Quietus. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Q&A: Thom Yorke on Atoms for Peace's 'Mechanistic' New Album". Rolling Stone. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Kramer, Anna (8 February 2010). "Musicians for Oxfam: Radiohead, will.i.am, and more". oxfamamerica.org. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "Radiohead-Approved, Fan-Shot Concert Movie Released". Pitchfork.com. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- "'Radiohead in Prague' official page". 23 August 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- Roberts, Randall (28 December 2010). "Video: View the full Radiohead for Haiti benefit concert online, compiled from fan footage". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Michaels, Sean (1 September 2010). "Radiohead lend their music to fan-made live DVD". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- "Radiohead help fans 'bootleg' their own gig". NME. UK. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- Fox, Killian (28 August 2010). "Philip Selway: Familial". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Fitzmaurice, Larry (25 June 2010). "Thom Yorke and Jonny Greenwood Play Surprise Glastonbury Set". Pitchfork. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "The King of Limbs Review". Allmusic. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Alexis Petridis (25 February 2011). "Radiohead: The King of Limbs review". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Snap Judgment: Radiohead's The King of Limbs". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Swash, Rosie (19 February 2011). "Radiohead release The King of Limbs". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- Swash, Rosie (14 February 2011). "Radiohead to release new album this Saturday". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- 'David Fricke (26 April 2012). "Radiohead Reconnect – How the most experimental band in music learned to rock again". Rolling Stone (115).
- Caulfield, Keith (6 April 2011). "Britney Spears Snares Sixth No. 1 on Billboard 200 with 'Femme Fatale'". Billboard. Los Angeles: Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Jones, Alan (3 April 2011). "Adele claims album record but loses to Lopez in singles". Music Week. United Business Media. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Nominess and Winners". Grammy.com. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- "Record Store Day – Exclusive Product". Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- Hyden, Steven (9 September 2011). "Radiohead remix album set for release in September". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "Phil Selway and the evolution of rock drumming in the digital age". Mono. 9 November 2014. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- "Radiohead in Amsterdam: A Tour Opener Live Blog | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "Radiohead play 'surprise' Glastonbury show with sixth member". NME. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Watch Radiohead's 'From The Basement' session in full on NME.COM – video – NME". NME. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "Radiohead's The King of Limbs: Live from the Basement to Be Released on DVD". pastemagazine.com. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "Radiohead to release new singles The Daily Mail and Staircase". Metro. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Touring 2012 – RADIOHEAD | Dead Air Space". Radiohead. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- Battan, Carrie; Snapes, Laura (5 July 2012). "Radiohead Did Record At Third Man, Jack White Confirms". Pitchfork. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
- "Radiohead's Ed O'Brien to release carnival-inspired solo album". The Guardian. 10 October 2016. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Radiohead stage collapse 'kills one' in Canada". BBC News. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- Rolling Stone (11 July 2012). "Radiohead Honor Late Drum Tech at First Show Since Stage Collapse | Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "'I feel so let down by Canada': Radiohead and drum tech's parents demand answers in his Toronto death". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
- "Live Nation, engineer charged in Radiohead stage collapse". CBC News. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "Radiohead on Stalled Stage Collapse Case: "We Are Appalled" | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 2017-09-09.
- Sweney, Mark (21 September 2012). "Universal's £1.2bn EMI takeover approved – with conditions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Pink Floyd, Radiohead Catalogs Change Label Hands". Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Radiohead's Early Catalog Moves From Warner Bros. to XL". Billboard. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- "Radiohead sue Parlophone, lawyers debate possible impact | Complete Music Update". www.completemusicupdate.com. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Trendell, Andrew. "Here's why so many Radiohead songs disappeared from Spotify + streaming | Gigwise". gigwise.com. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
- Spice, Anton (6 May 2016). "Radiohead to reissue entire catalogue on vinyl". www.thevinylfactory.com. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- Hogan, Mark (4 March 2016). "19 Unreleased Radiohead Songs That Could Be on Their Next Album". Pitchfork. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- Petridis, Alexis (21 February 2013). "Atoms for Peace: Amok – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "Thom Yorke pulls albums from Spotify". BBC News. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Stuart Dredge (7 October 2013). "Thom Yorke calls Spotify 'the last desperate fart of a dying corpse'". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Carrie Battan (11 February 2014). "Radiohead Release PolyFauna App". Pitchfork. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Gordon, Jeremy (26 September 2014). "Thom Yorke Announces New Album Tomorrow's Modern Boxes | News". Pitchfork. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- NME.COM. "Radiohead drummer Philip Selway announces new album 'Weatherhouse' | NME.COM". NME.COM. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Michaels, Sean (7 October 2014). "Radiohead's Jonny Greenwood hires Supergrass to cover Inherent Vice track". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2014-10-07. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- Langham, Matt (4 February 2015). "DiS Meets Radiohead's Philip Selway: "If it means something to some people then that is success"". Drowned in Sound. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Thorpe, Adam (18 May 2016). "In a room with Radiohead". The Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- Greene, Andy (8 June 2017). "19 Things We Learned Hanging Out With Radiohead". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- Greene, Andy (1 June 2017). "Inside 'OK Computer': Radiohead Look Back on Their Paranoid Masterpiece". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- "Thom Yorke produces new music for Australian exhibition of Radiohead artwork | Music News | triple j". www.abc.net.au. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Colter Walls, Seth (19 November 2015). "Shye Ben Tzur / Jonny Greenwood / The Rajasthan Express: Junun Album Review | Pitchfork". Pitchfork. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Film Review: 'Junun'". Variety. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- "Radiohead reveal rejected theme for James Bond film Spectre". BBC News. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
- "Radiohead interview: 'It's a very happy time'". BBC News. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- Philips, Amy. "Radiohead Announce New Album Release Date, Share "Daydreaming" Video". Pitchfork. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Hogan, Marc (3 May 2016). "Decoding the Politics in Radiohead's "Burn the Witch" Video". Pitchfork. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Reilly, Dan (10 May 2016). "The 21-Year History of Radiohead's 'True Love Waits,' a Fan Favorite Two Decades in the Making". Vulture. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Hear Radiohead's New Album "A Moon Shaped Pool" at 11pm tonight on the FTW New Music Show". 91X FM. 8 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "Radiohead score sixth Number 1 album with A Moon Shaped Pool". officialcharts.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Caulfield, Keith (13 October 2016). "Billboard 200 Chart Moves: Radiohead's 'A Moon Shaped Pool' Returns After Special Edition's Release". Billboard. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "David Bowie, Radiohead and More Nominated for Mercury Prize". Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "Here Is the Complete List of Nominees for the 2017 Grammys". Billboard. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "The A.V. Club's Top 50 Albums of 2016". The A.V. Club. 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "The best albums of 2016". The Guardian. 30 November 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "The 50 Best Albums of 2016". Pitchfork. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "50 Best Albums of 2016". Rolling Stone. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "The Top 10 Best Albums". Time. 22 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "Radiohead Announce World Tour". Pitchfork. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- Wicks, Amanda; Monroe, Jazz (20 February 2018). "Radiohead Announce North American Tour | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Kreps, Daniel (16 July 2017). "Roger Waters Criticizes 'Whining' Thom Yorke Over Radiohead's Israel Gig". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (12 July 2017). "Radiohead's Thom Yorke responds as Ken Loach criticises Israel gig". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- Althea, Legaspi (2 June 2017). "Hear Radiohead's Previously Unreleased Song 'I Promise'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Monroe, Jazz (2 June 2017). "Watch Radiohead's New "I Promise" Video | Pitchfork". Pitchfork. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Leight, Elias (23 June 2017). "See Radiohead's Paranoia-Inducing 'Man of War' Video". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- "Video: Radiohead – "Lift"". Spin. 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2017-09-12.
- "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- Beech, Mark. "The Glastonbury Effect: Radiohead Back At Top Of U.K. Chart, Foo Fighters Follow". Forbes. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "Billboard 200 Chart Moves: Ed Sheeran's 'Divide' Tracks Surpass 1 Billion U.S. Streams". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
- "Radiohead Announce Italian Earthquake Benefit Show | Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 2017-08-22.
- Association, Press (2017-09-14). "The ultimate chill out song? Radiohead record new music for David Attenborough's Blue Planet 2". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
- Garratt, John (3 November 2017). "Philip Selway: Let Me Go Original Soundtrack". PopMatters. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- Lyttelton, Oliver (2 May 2017). "Jonny Greenwood Scoring Lynne Ramsay's 'You Were Never Really Here' With Joaquin Phoenix". IndieWire. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- Young, Alex (23 January 2018). "Jonny Greenwood earns first-ever Oscar nomination". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- Young, Alex (September 4, 2018). "Thom Yorke details Suspiria soundtrack, shares "Suspirium": Stream". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
- Young, Alex (5 October 2017). "Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Fame 2018 nominees: Radiohead, Rage Against the Machine, Kate Bush". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Greene, Andy; Greene, Andy (13 December 2018). "Radiohead, Janet Jackson, Stevie Nicks Lead Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 2019 Class". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
- "WTF with Marc Maron [Thom Yorke audio interview]". youtube. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
I love Queen, they are great when I was really small [...] and then as I hit as a teenager, the band that really changed my life was R.E.M. and Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division and Bob Dylan
Klingman, Jeff (22 July 2013). "10 Bullet Points from the Thom Yorke Interview on WTF with Marc Maron". TheLmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- Gillespie, Ian (17 August 1997). "It all got very surreal". London Free Press.
- Zoric, Lauren (October 2000). "Fitter, Happier, More Productive". Juice.
- Eshun, Kodwo (2002). "The A-Z of Radiohead". Culture Lab. Archived from the original on 3 July 2001. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- Zoric, Lauren (22 September 2000). "I think I'm meant to be dead ..." The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
- "Splitting Atoms". Dazed. February 2013.
- Kent, Nick (June 2001). "Happy now?". MOJO. Bauer. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- Zoric, Lauren (1 October 2000). "Fitter, Happier, More Productive". Juice.
- "Radiohead's Secret Influences, from Fleetwood Mac to Thomas Pynchon". Rolling Stone. 24 January 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- Kent, Nick (1 August 2006). "Ghost in the Machine". Mojo. pp. 74–82.
- "Radiohead: Everything In Its Right Place". NPR. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "How jazz secretly invaded pop music". 11 April 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Pareles, Jon (8 May 2016). "Review: In Radiohead's 'A Moon Shaped Pool,' Patient Perfectionism". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
- "Radiohead: Biography". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Dalton, Stephen (1 April 2004). "Are we having fun yet?". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
- McKinnon, Matthew (24 July 2006). "Everything in Its Right Place". CBC. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
- "Nigel Godrich interview: Radiohead and I have a profound relationship". 6 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Inside the artwork: Radiohead art collaborator Stanley Donwood talks 'In Rainbows' and LP9". DIY. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Dilly Gent videography". mvdbase.com. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
- Fischer, Jonathan L. (14 March 2011). "Strobe Lights and Blown Speakers: Radiohead's Light Design". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Greenwood was reunited with one of the stolen guitars in 2015 after a fan recognised it as one they had purchased in Denver in the 1990s.
- Buckley, Peter (2003), The Rough Guide to Rock, Rough Guides, ISBN 1-84353-105-4
- Clarke, Martin. Radiohead: Hysterical and Useless. 2000. ISBN 0-85965-332-3
- Griffiths, Dai (2004), OK Computer, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0-8264-1663-2
- Randall, Mac. Exit Music: The Radiohead Story. 2000. ISBN 0-385-33393-5
- Randall, Mac (1 April 1998). "The Golden Age of Radiohead". Guitar World.
- Reising, Russell (2005), Speak to Me, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, ISBN 0-7546-4019-1
- Doheny, James. Radiohead: Back to Save the Universe. 2002. ISBN 0-8264-1663-2
- Forbes, Brandon W. and Reisch, George A. (eds). Radiohead and Philosophy: Fitter Happier More Deductive. 2009. ISBN 0-8126-9664-6
- Hale, Jonathan. Radiohead: From a Great Height. 1999. ISBN 1-55022-373-9
- Johnstone, Nick. Radiohead: An Illustrated Biography. 1997. ISBN 0-7119-6581-1
- Letts, Marianne Tatom. Radiohead and the Resistant Concept Album. 2010. ISBN 978-0-253-22272-5
- Paytress, Mark. Radiohead: The Complete Guide to their Music. 2005. ISBN 1-84449-507-8
- Tate, Joseph (ed). The Music and Art of Radiohead. 2005. ISBN 0-7546-3979-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Radiohead.|