This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (May 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- For the types of transport aircraft called Andover used by the RAF, see Avro Andover (1920s) and Hawker Siddeley Andover (1960s-present day).
- For the current use of this site see Marlborough Lines.
Aerial photograph of RAF Andover oriented north, 16 January 1947
|Owner||Ministry of Defence|
|Operator||Royal Air Force|
|Elevation AMSL||87 m / 87 metres (285 ft) ft|
RAF Andover (IATA: ADV, ICAO: EGWA) is a former Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force station located 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Andover, Hampshire and 15.1 miles (24.3 km) north east of Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.
The airfield has a notable place in history, being the site of both the first attempt to develop a viable long-range electronic navigation system, during the First World War, and also of the first British military helicopter unit and first European helicopter flying training school, during the Second World War.
RAF Andover was also used before and after the Second World War for a variety of other aeronautical research and flight testing. The RAF Staff College, Andover was founded here in 1922, the first college to train officers in the administrative, staff and policy aspects of running an air force.
RAF Andover saw action during the Second World War. Corporal Josephine Robins, one of only six members of the WAAF to win the Military Medal during the War, won her award for courage while rescuing people during an air-raid on the airfield in the Battle of Britain.
Three squadrons of the Royal Canadian Air Force were formed at RAF Andover. Before and during the Battle of Normandy, RAF Andover was used by the United States Army Air Forces Ninth Air Force as an operational tactical fighter airfield. It was also known as USAAF Station 406, Pundit Code AV. The code AV was broadcast in morse code by a mobile red light beacon at night, during the latter part of the War. The code was also painted on the airfield hangar nearest to the control tower, and remained visible until the hangars were demolished in 2001.
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Between 2100 BC and AD 1912
The earliest known human activity on the site of Andover Airfield took place in the Bronze Age, according to archaeological evidence, which has uncovered significant Iron Age and later activity, including both an Anglo-Saxon and medieval cemeteries. Military activity on the site is certainly established with the construction during or shortly after 43 AD of the Portway (called on Andover Airfield Monxton Road) Roman Road from Silchester (Calleva) to Old Sarum (Sorviodvnvm), which just north of the Airfield meets at East Anton Crossroads the Roman Road (Icknield Way) from Winchester (Venta) to Mildenhall (Cvnetio). The Andover sections of these roads were constructed by the Legio II Augusta Roman Legion.
1912 to 1918
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) opened a station near Andover in August 1917 during the First World War. The station was mainly built by German prisoners of war, some of whom left their signatures in roof spaces of buildings on the station. It is close to the Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre at Amport House and the Army Air Corps Centre at Middle Wallop.
Plans for an RFC "Training Depot Station" on the airfield site had originally been made in 1912. The station motto was Vis et armis consilioque orta (Latin: With determination and equipment, I take counsel to rise up). This is appropriate as the station was built as a Training Depot for aircrews, who had completed basic flying training, to learn to fly the Handley Page Type O and Airco D.H. 9 bombers. The first unit to occupy the station was No. 2 School of Navigation and Bomb Dropping. This unit took up residence while the station was still under construction.
Amongst squadrons formed at Andover was 106 Squadron, formed on 30 September 1917, who were equipped with Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 reconnaissance aircraft for army co-operation duties, being posted to Ireland in May 1918. Also, from 24 December 1917 to 6 June 1918 Andover was host to a detachment of the 13th Aero Squadron of the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps.
In early 1918 experiments were conducted with Handley Page Type O bombers, based at Andover and Cranwell, fitted with Radio Direction-Finding (RDF as it was called) equipment for night flying. The intention was to guide British bombers to and from Berlin, and early results led to 550 sets of RDF equipment being ordered by the United States Army Air Service, but the First World War ended before any attempts could be made to use the system operationally. This was the first attempt to develop a viable long-range electronic navigation system, of a kind that is today used routinely worldwide.
1918 to 1939
Between the wars, the airfield housed a number of RAF units, including from 1919 the RAF School of Navigation, as No. 2 School of Navigation and Bomb Dropping was retitled. The RAF Staff College was founded here on 1 April 1922, to provide staff training to selected officers, and eventually moved to the Bracknell in 1970. The formation of the Royal Air Forces Association followed a conversation in 1929 in the Sergeants’ Mess of RAF Andover.
RAF Andover continued to be used for a variety of aeronautical research and flight testing. As part of this, several experimental military aircraft made their first flights from the airfield. Amongst them were: the Westland Yeovil; the Westland Witch; the Westland F.7/30; and all of the Westland-Hill Pterodactyl series of experimental flying wing aircraft.
Two experimental bomber squadrons were also based at RAF Andover in the late 1920s and early 1930s, No. 12 Squadron RAF and No. 101 Squadron RAF. 12 Squadron was based at RAF Andover from March 1924, operating Fairey Fawn light bombers. No. 13 Squadron was also based here for five years between 1924 and 1929, operating Armstrong Whitworth Atlas aircraft.
The Fairey Fox bombers of No. 12 Squadron was one of the two experimental bomber squadrons based on the station, these aircraft being significantly faster than all other contemporary fighters and bombers. To this day, 12 Squadron's official unit motto 'Leads the Field' and crest commemorates their time at RAF Andover by depicting the head of a Fox. The Fairey Fox was the first all metal aircraft in operational service and 12 Squadron was the only squadron to operate it. The aircraft was a private venture by Fairey, which had been demonstrated to the Squadron secretly during an 'At Home' at RAF Andover in 1925, when the Fox appeared in Royal Air Force markings and 12 Squadron colours. During the Air Defence of Great Britain exercise in 1928, the Squadron was tasked with the simulated bombing of London. To commemorate 12 Squadron's success in the exercise, the Commander in Chief of the Royal Air Force chose a Fox's face as the Squadron emblem.
A typical annual training programme for 12 Squadron consisted of individual training in the autumn, working up to Squadron training in the summer consisting of bombing, formation flying, navigation exercises and gunnery. Experimental trials carried out included some limited night flying and the introduction into service and testing of parachutes for aircrew. This involved a number of practice jumps being performed by observers, who would climb out of the aircraft onto a small ladder and await a signal from the pilot as the aircraft flew over the airfield at 2000 ft. The observers carried no reserve parachutes, and the silk material from which the parachutes were constructed had a tendency to build up a static charge whilst in storage, such that when the ripcord was pulled, the silk stuck together. 12 Squadron was also tasked with further trials work, experimenting with oxygen systems, high altitude photography, and low temperature trials work, particularly in respect to lubricants. In addition, cloud flying in formation and pattern bombing techniques were tested.
The Foxes were replaced in January 1931 with the Hawker Hart, after which much work was put into formation flying in cloud, instrument flying, pattern bombing and aircraft icing trials. The purpose of these trials was to enable Royal Air Force aircraft to bomb an enemy ship successfully, regardless of weather. To this end, 12 Squadron dropped several practice bombs on an obsolete battleship, HMS Centurion, which was a radio-controlled target off the south coast. On 6 July 1935, King George V performed the first Royal Review of the Royal Air Force, in which 12(B) Squadron led the Light Bomber Wing flypast at RAF Mildenhall. Several home-based squadrons, including 12 Squadron, were re-deployed in October 1935, to the Middle East and Aden in preparation for action being taken by the League of Nations against Italy for invading Abyssinia. 12 Squadron returned to RAF Andover in August 1936, and on its return took delivery of the Hawker Hind. It was around this time that the majority of B Flight were taken to form the nucleus of the newly formed No. 63 Squadron. In February 1938, the Squadron was re-equipped with Fairey Battles, the squadron leaving RAF Andover in May 1939.
In October 1929 No. 101 Squadron, the second experimental bomber squadron, was also posted to RAF Andover, to enable its Boulton-Paul Sidestrand bombers to work alongside 12 Squadron with its Fairey Fox light bombers. The high performance of the Sidestrand amazed crowds at the Hendon Air Pageants, where it flew mock combat aerobatics with the fighters of the day. 101 Squadron Sidestrands won a number of bombing and reconnaissance competitions and carried out trial anti-shipping strikes against Royal Navy battleships. In December 1934 the squadron left RAF Andover.
1939 to 1945
During the Second World War, RAF Andover was the headquarters of RAF Maintenance Command. It was also used by several operational flying training units and as an operational fighter station by the United States Army Air Forces.
The Air Transport Auxiliary's (ATA) Central Ferry Control was also based at RAF Andover. A civilian organisation that unusually for the time included female pilots, the ATA ferried new, repaired and damaged military aircraft between factories, assembly plants, transatlantic delivery points, Maintenance Units (MUs), scrap yards, and active service squadrons and airfields. Central Ferry Control allocated the required flights to all ATA Ferry Pools.
RAF Andover was one of four airfields in Hampshire to be given a decoy site in 1940, to deceive enemy aircraft into attacking a spurious target. Andover's decoy site was at Hurstbourne Tarrant, and was a type 'K' decoy site with fake aircraft and buildings. From September 1940, fake machine gun posts were added to Hurstbourne Tarrant.
RAF Andover was attacked twice by the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain. At 1700 hours on 13 August 1940, approximately 12 high explosive bombs were dropped by Junkers Ju 88s of III Staffel, Lehrgeschwader 1, of Luftflotte 3, from Châteaudun in France. The Station Headquarters and officer's quarters were extensively damaged. One aircraft on the station was also damaged. Casualties were two killed. The following day, on 14 August 1940, RAF Andover was attacked again, about 15 high explosive bombs being dropped which destroyed a transmitting set in the centre of a group of radio masts, and killing a civilian radio operator.
Corporal Josephine Robins, a Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) telephone operator at RAF Andover was awarded the Military Medal for her courage during these raids. She was in a dug-out which received a direct hit, killing two men and injuring others. Despite dust and fumes filling the shelter, Cpl Robins calmly gave first aid to those injured and superintended their evacuation to safety. This was one of only six such awards to members of the WAAF in the entire Second World War.
It was thought at the time that these air raids were attempts to attack the important 11 Group Fighter Command Sector Station nearby at RAF Middle Wallop, but German records make it clear that RAF Andover was the intended target, as the Luftwaffe thought wrongly that it was an operational bomber station. In 1941 RAF Andover was attacked twice, causing heavy damage to one hangar, which had to be demolished.
In June 1941 No. 2 School of Army Co-operation at Andover was re-designated as No 6 Operational Training Unit (OTU). It was equipped with Bristol Blenheims and operated within No 17 Group, Coastal Command. Its task was to re-train Westland Lysander pilots onto Bristol Blenheim Mk. Vs used in the ground attack role, serving primarily in the used primarily in the Middle East and Far East. No 6 OTU was absorbed into No 42 OTU on 18 July 1941, moving to RAF Ashbourne in October 1942.
From February through July 1944, Andover was used by fighter squadrons (the 401st, 402nd, and 485th squadrons of the 370th Fighter Group) of the 71st Fighter Wing of the Ninth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces, flying Lockheed P-38 Lightning aircraft. Flying from RAF Andover, the 370th dive-bombed radar installations and flak towers, and escorted bombers that attacked bridges and marshalling yards in France as the Allies prepared for the invasion of the Continent. The 370th also provided cover for Allied forces that crossed the English Channel on D-Day and flew armed reconnaissance missions over the Cotentin Peninsula until the end of the month. The 370th Fighter Group moved to their Advanced Landing Ground (ALG) at Cardonville, France (ALG A-3) on 20 July.
The USAAF lost a total of 31 P-38s from Andover before the move to France. (See weblink below to USAAF photos documenting RAF Andover's use as a fighter station, taken in 1944 by Cyril Bernard "Cy" Coenen of the 402nd Fighter Squadron).
Three Canadian Army Air Observation Post (AOP) Squadrons of the Royal Canadian Air Force, No. 664 Squadron RCAF, No. 665 Squadron RCAF, and No. 666 Squadron RCAF were formed at RAF Andover between 9 December 1944 and 5 March 1945. The Canadian squadrons were equipped with Auster Mark IV and V aircraft. The pilots and observers in the squadrons were officers recruited from the Royal Canadian Artillery and O.R.s from the Royal Canadian Artillery and Royal Canadian Air Force. The pilots were trained to fly de Havilland Tiger Moth aircraft at No. 22 Elementary Flying Training School (Cambridge); thereafter, successful candidates were further trained at No. 43 Operational Training Unit, the AOP School based at RAF Andover dedicated to training British and Commonwealth AOP flight-crews. Lieutenant-Colonel Terry Willett, Royal Artillery, commanded No. 43 OTU at RAF Andover. British Army AOP training at RAF Andover, with Auster Mark V aircraft, continued until at least 1949. One of the three squadrons was re-established after the war as 665 Squadron, Army Air Corps, based in Northern Ireland.
RAF Andover has a unique place in British history, as the first British military unit to be equipped with helicopters, the Helicopter Training School, was formed in January 1945 at RAF Andover under the command of Squadron Leader B.H. Arkell. This was also the first European helicopter flying-training school, however the first European military unit formed solely with helicopters was the Luftwaffe's Transportstaffel 40 in 1944. The Helicopter Training School was equipped with nine Sikorsky R-4B Hoverfly I helicopters, and trained 100 British Army pilots for Air Observation Post duties, as well as pilots for the first RAF squadron to be equipped with helicopters, 529 Squadron, which carried our radar calibration duties. Radar calibration duties were later carried out by the Hawker Siddeley Andover and Air Observation Post duties are today carried out by the Army Air Corps.
1945 to the present day
Post-war, RAF Andover continued to be used for helicopter flying training and operational research, C Flight of 657 Squadron, Army Air Corps, being renamed 1901 Flight in February 1947. The Flight used six Sikorsky R-6A Hoverfly 2 (an improved version of the Hoverfly I) helicopters, and Auster AOP.6 aircraft to train British Army and Royal Air Force pilots and carry out operational trials. The Hoverfly 2s had little effective operational capability, but gave the Army valuable experience in the helicopter's potential use. In addition to artillery direction, the Flight's experimental activities included photography, radar trials, air/ground communications, and fighter evasion. In January 1948, the Flight moved to Middle Wallop. It still exists today as 1 Flight, Army Air Corps.
On 14 September 1955, RAF Andover was honoured with the freedom of the Borough of Andover. No. 12 Squadron RAF took part in the ceremony with a flypast of its English Electric Canberra B Mk. 6 bombers, to mark the Squadron's pre-war association with RAF Andover.
Andover continued its association with pioneering the use of helicopters in Britain when the Joint Helicopter Unit, which was a joint Royal Navy, Army Air Corps and Royal Air Force unit exploring operational helicopter roles, was based at the station from 1958 to 1959. The unit used Westland Whirlwind helicopters and was disbanded at the end of 1959 to form No. 225 Squadron RAF.
The station's association with aviation research continued, as trials of the Hawker P.1127, the Hawker Siddeley Kestrel FGA 1 (both were experimental vertical take-off aircraft), and the Hawker Siddeley Harrier partially took place on the station. The Harrier was the developed form of the P.1127 and Kestrel and was the world's first operational vertical/short take-off and landing aircraft.
Trials of the Hawker Siddeley Andover (the second RAF aircraft of that name) were also partially carried out at RAF Andover. In commemoration of this, Hawker Siddeley presented the Borough of Andover with a framed photo of the aircraft, and the type was also named after RAF Andover. The Andover's main role in RAF service was tactical transport, for which its unique ability to "kneel" – to allow vehicle entry at a shallow angle via a rear ramp – was an asset. Other roles included aero-medical evacuation, STOL, and parachute and 1 ton container drops. The Andover could also be fitted with long-range ferry tanks, which enabled the short-range Andover to fly surprisingly long distances, such as across the Atlantic Ocean. Andovers were still in RAF service for the photo reconnaissance role under the Open Skies Treaty and for use by the Empire Test Pilots' School until 2012.
RAF Andover was throughout the post-1945 period the home of a number of communications squadrons, the last one of which was No. 21 Squadron RAF, which used De Havilland Devon and Percival Pembroke aircraft. This was formed on 3 February 1969, when the Western Communications Squadron was re-designated at RAF Andover. It provided transport for senior officers in the western part of the United Kingdom and was disbanded following defence cuts on 31 March 1976.
The RAF station was closed on 10 June 1977 and the airfield was handed over to the British Army. It is in use by Army Air Corps units based at Middle Wallop, as well as Defence Equipment & Support (formerly the Defence Logistics Organisation (DLO)). The last RAF personnel working in these units left in November 2009. However, the airfield still retains an RAF link through the presence of 1213 (Andover) Squadron, Air Training Corps.
The RAF Museum preserves a number of individual aircraft which were based at RAF Andover during their service lives: a Sikorsky R-4B Hoverfly I; an Avro Anson C. 19; a De Havilland Dove C. 1; a Percival Pembroke C. 2; and, unusually, two Luftwaffe aircraft captured in 1944, a Junkers Ju 87 G-2 dive bomber and a Messerschmitt Bf 110 G-4 night fighter. The National Museum of Flight in Scotland preserves RAF Andover's former gate guardian, a Supermarine Spitfire LF Mk. XVIE.
The RAF Staff College
The RAF Staff College was founded at RAF Andover on 1 April 1922, to provide staff training to selected officers, usually of Flight Lieutenant or Squadron Leader rank to enable them to undertake staff officer duties at the Air Ministry, and Command or Group HQs. It was closed on the day that Britain declared war, 3 September 1939. But in November 1939, shortened courses were restarted until the College was placed under Care and Maintenance on 28 May 1940. The Staff College re-opened at Bulstrode Park in December 1941, the College returning to Andover in 1948. It was raised to Group status within Training Command on 1 June 1968 and eventually moved to Bracknell in 1970.
In 2007, the site of Andover Airfield became the focus of local controversy when developers submitted a planning proposal to build a large distribution centre for the Tesco supermarket company. According to the proposal, the main building would have been more than 85,000 sq metres (21 acres), which would make it one of the biggest buildings in Europe. Approval was granted in 2008 but the developer failed to reach agreement with Tesco; a regional distribution centre for the Co-op Group was built instead, and the rest of the site became a business park.
- "Andover (Weyhill)". Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Planning Application[permanent dead link]
- Finch, Julia (22 February 2008). "Arriving soon at Stonehenge: 480 trucks a day from Tesco's 'megashed'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- "Controversial megashed approved". BBC News – Hampshire. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Dancy, Steve (11 September 2009). "Co-op signs up for airfield site". Andover Advertiser. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- "Andover Business Park". www.andoverbp.com. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Shirley Swain (6 September 2010), Wiltshire Blog, BFBS, archived from the original on 18 April 2011,
the former DLO site in Andover is officially declared the home of the British Army. Renamed Marlborough Lines, the new HQ for Land Forces will be opened
- Ashworth, Chris, Action Stations 5: Military airfields of the South-West, (Patrick Stephens Ltd., 2nd Edition 1990)
- Ashworth, Chris, Action Stations 9: Military airfields of the Central South and South-East, (Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1985)
- Battle History 666 (Calgary, Abel Book Company, 2006)
- Battle of Britain 'At Home' – Saturday 17 September 1949 – Souvenir Programme, (RAF Andover, 1949)
- Brooks, Robin J., Hampshire Airfields in the Second World War, (Countryside Books, 1996)
- Bungay, Stephen, The Most Dangerous Enemy: a history of the Battle of Britain, (Aurum Press, 2000)
- Cunliffe, Barry, Wessex to A.D. 1000, (Longman, 1993)
- Collett Wadge, D, Women in Uniform, (Sampson Low, 1946)
- Ferguson, Aldon P., Airfield histories: Royal Air Force Station Andover, article in Aviation News, June 1977
- Fischer, William Edward, Jr., The Development of Military Night Aviation to 1919, (Air University Press, 1998)
- Fromow, Lt. Col. Dave, Canada's Flying Gunners, (Ottawa, A.O.P. Pilot's Association, 2002)
- Freeman, Roger A., UK Airfields of the Ninth Then and Now, (Military and Naval Press, 2006)
- Gorrell, Colonel Edgar S., volumes A-29, 128, B-6, 258–9, and J5 of Gorrell's History of the American Expeditionary Forces Air Service, 1917–1919, United States National Archive
- James, Derek N., Westland aircraft since 1915, (Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1991)
- Rust, Kenn C., The 9th Air Force in World War II, (Aero Publishers, California, 1967/1970)
- Test Valley Borough Council, Andover Development Areas – Historic Environment and Archaeology: Option 9 – Andover Airfield, 2004
- Warner, Guy & Boyd, Alex, Army Aviation in Ulster, (Colourpoint, 2004)
- Wood, Derek and Dempster, Derek, The Narrow Margin: The Battle of Britain and the rise of air power 1930–1940, (Arrow Books, 1969)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to RAF Andover.|
- The RAF Staff College, Andover
- RAF Andover crest and list of RAF units from 1917 to 1977
- RAF Andover history, with units (including a US fighter squadron) based at the station (archived to 4 March 2013)
- American Air Museum in Britain webpage with information on U.S. Army Air Forces units, people and aircraft based at RAF Andover
- USAF Historical Research Agency Fact Sheet on 13 Bomb Squadron
- Official UK National Monument Record webpage on Andover Airfield
- RAF Andover Control Tower details
- Andover Sound local radio station report with pictures of the RAF Farewell to Andover event