|Nickname(s): Oxford of the East, Queen of Deccan, Creative City|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Saurabh Rao, IAS|
|• Mayor||Mukta Tilak (BJP)|
|• Pune City||331.26 km2 (127.90 sq mi)|
|• Metro||7,256.46 km2 (2,801.73 sq mi)|
|Elevation||560 m (1,840 ft)|
|• Pune City||3,402,458|
|• Density||10,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro Rank||7th|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|PIN Code(s)||411001 – 411062|
|Member of Parliament||Anil Shirole (BJP, Lok Sabha)|
Pune (Marathi pronunciation: [puɳe]; English: //;), formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its industrial twin Pimpri-Chinchwad as well as the three cantonment towns of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR). According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent.
Considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra, Pune is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education, management and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programs with colleges in Europe.
Since the 1950s Pune has had a traditional economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow. The city is known for its manufacturing and automobile industries. The game of Badminton was developed in Pune and the game's earlier name was Poona.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Urban Structure
- 7 Government and public services
- 8 Transport
- 9 Healthcare
- 10 Education and research
- 11 Culture
- 12 Media
- 13 Sport
- 14 International relations
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
The earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning sacred news. By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi (पुनवडी).
Early and medieval
Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Bhosale Jagir and the Maratha Empire
Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi (Ahmadnagar Sultanate). Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705.
After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town. He stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He also developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order. The Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal. His mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity (Gramadevata) of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years later the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, and later Pune, from the Mughals.
In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu. He moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He also commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city. The aqueduct was still in working order in 2004.
The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh temples. The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading, and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed. The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818.
British rule (1818–1947)
The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelled Kirkee) on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army). The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment.
The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A railway line from Bombay to the city opened in 1858, run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR). Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the British Raj.
Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence. In the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The city was also a centre for social reform led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Pandita Ramabai. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, and better schools for the poor. Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at the Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace between 1942 and 1944, where both his wife Kasturba Gandhi and aide Mahadev Desai died.
Pune since Indian independence
After Indian Independence from the British in 1947, Pune saw enormous growth transforming it into a modern metropolis. The Poona Municipal Council was reorganized to form the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) in 1950. The education sector in the city continued its growth in the post-independence era with the establishment of the University of Poona (now, Savitribai Phule Pune University) in 1949, the National Chemical Laboratory in 1950 and the National Defence Academy in 1955.
The establishment of Hindustan Antibiotics in 1954 marked the beginning of industrial development in the Hadapsar, Bhosari, and Pimpri areas. MIDC provided the necessary infrastructure for new businesses to set up operations. In the 1970s, several engineering companies were set up in the city, allowing it to vie with Chennai. In the 1990s, Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries. IT parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and Wagholi. As a result, the city saw a huge influx of people to the city due to opportunities offered by the manufacturing, and lately, the software industries.
The breach in the Panshet dam and the resulting flood of 1961 led to severe damage and destruction of housing close to the river banks. The mishap spurred the development of new suburbs and housing complexes. To integrate urban planning, the Pune Metropolitan Region was defined in 1967 covering the area under PMC, the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation, the three cantonments and the surrounding villages.
In 1998 work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began; it was completed in 2001. In 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged development in the northwest region of the city. On 13 February 2010 a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood in eastern Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60. Evidence suggested that the Indian Mujahadeen group carried out the attack.
Pune lies on the western margin of the Deccan plateau, at an altitude of 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level. It is on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly city, with Vetal Hill rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city the Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of 1,300 metres (4,300 feet). It is situated at approximately 18° 32" north latitude and 73° 51" east longitude. By road Pune is 2,063 km (1,282 mi) south-west of Kolkata, 1,173 km (729 mi) south of Delhi, 734 km (456 mi) north of Bangalore, and 149 km (93 mi) south-east of Mumbai.
Central Pune is at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana and Indrayani rivers, tributaries of the Bhima river, traverse the northwest outskirts of Pune. The city's total area is 729 square kilometres (281 square miles).
Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (type BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (type Aw) with average temperatures ranging between 19 and 33 °C (66 and 91 °F). Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to mid-June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching 42 °C (108 °F). The warmest month in Pune is May. The city often has heavy dusty winds in May, with humidity remaining high. Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30 April 1897.
The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of.
For most of December and January the daytime temperature hovers around 26 °C (79 °F) while night temperatures are below 9 °C (48 °F), often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935.Due to pollution the city's winter temperature has warmed up by 6 degrees.
|Climate data for Pune|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.3
|Average high °C (°F)||27.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||20.5
|Average low °C (°F)||7.2
|Record low °C (°F)||1.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0
|Average precipitation days||0.0||0.1||0.6||1.1||2.8||7.5||12.8||10.6||7.4||4.6||2.0||0.4||49.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||56||46||36||36||48||70||79||82||78||64||58||58||59|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||291.4||282.8||300.7||303.0||316.2||186.0||120.9||111.6||177.0||248.0||270.0||288.3||2,895.9|
|Source #1: Temperature and Precipitation: IMD (1951–1980)|
|Source #2: Sun hours and Humidity: NOAA (1971–1990)|
Pune is 100 km (62 mi) north of the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam. The India Meteorological Department has assessed this area as being in Zone 3, on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes. Pune has experienced some moderate – and many low – intensity earthquakes in its history.
Pune has the eighth largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country. The key sectors of the local economy are education, manufacturing and information technology (IT).
Pune has historically been known as a center for higher education and has been referred to as the educational capital of India. In 2006, it was reported that nearly 200,000 students from across India study in Pune at nine universities and more than a hundred educational institutes.
The Kirloskar Group came to Pune in 1945 by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines, India's largest diesel engine company, at Khadki. The group has several subsidiaries in Pune including Kirloskar Pneumatics and Kirloskar Brothers Limited, one of India's largest manufacturers and exporters of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia. Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors, Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to describe Pune as India's "Motor City". According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses here. Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume, has a manufacturing plant located in Pune. In 2014-15, the manufacturing sector provided employment to over 500,000 people.
The Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjawadi is a ₹ 600-billion (US$ 8.9 billion) project by the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). The IT Park encompasses an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km2) and is home to over 800 IT companies of all sizes. Besides Hinjawadi, IT companies are also located at Magarpatta, Kharadi and several other parts of the city. As of 2017, the IT sector employs more than 300,000 people.
Pune has also emerged as a new hub for tech startups in India. NASSCOM, in association with MIDC, has started a co-working space for city based startups under its 10,000 startups initiative at Kharadi MIDC. Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of Small Industries Development Bank of India, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.
The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to be boosted since the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) opened in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC boasts a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of 13,000 m2 (139,931 sq ft). It has seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project was developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.
|Source: Census of India|
The city has a population of 3,124,458; while 5,057,709 people reside in the Pune Urban Agglomeration as of the 2011 census[update]. The latter was c. 4,485,000 in 2005. The number of people migrating to Pune rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), 40 % of the population lived in slums in 2001. The sharp increase in population during the decade 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India. The top five source areas of migrants are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947. Initially they settled in the Pimpri area, which is still home to a large number of Sindhi people. However, they are also present in other parts of the city. As agriculture has dwindled in recent decades, immigration of the erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for 70 percent of the population growth. Marathi is the official and most spoken language, while English, Hindi and Kannada are spoken by a significant part of the population. The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15 % in 2011 compared to 80.45 % in 2001. Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Islam is the second largest. Sikhism is one of the major religions of Pune and Sikhs have become an integral part of the society. In the past a Sikh has been elected mayor of Pune. Major religious communities include Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Christians and Zoroastrians.
The modern city of Pune has many distinct neighbourhoods. These include the numerous peths of the old city on the eastern bank of the Mutha river, the cantonment areas of Khadki and Pune Camp built by the British, old suburbs such as Deccan Gymkhana and the newer ones such as Kothrud on the western bank of the Mutha river. The industrial growth in the Pimpri, Chinchwad and Bhosari areas allowed these areas to incorporate as the separate city of Pimpri-Chinchwad. Many other villages on the fringe have been absorbed by the cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad in recent decades. Some of these villages have now grown into fully fledged suburbs such as Kothrud, Katraj, Hadapsar, Aundh and Baner. Since the advent of the IT industry at the turn of the century, Hinjawadi and Wagholi have emerged as a prominent suburb. The Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR), initially defined in 1967, has grown to 7,256.46 km2 made up of the ten talukas of the Pune district. The twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad along with the three cantonment areas of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road form the urban core of the PMR, which also includes seven municipal councils and 842 villages.
The Panshet Dam flood of 1961 damaged or destroyed much of the old housing close to the river bank in the Narayan, Shaniwar and Kasba Peth areas of the city. However, the traditional houses in the city centre, the wadas and the chawls still house a significant proportion of the population. The damage caused in 1961 spurred development of new suburbs and housing complexes in the city such as Maharshinagar, Sahakarnagar, and Lokmanyanagar to the south of the old city and Gokhalenagar to the west of the city. In the post-Panshet Dam flood period, new housing has largely been in the form of bungalows and apartment buildings. Over the last twenty years many bungalow sites have been convert into multi-storey apartment buildings under co-operative housing societies. The consequent increase in population density has led to pressure on utilities, such as water supply.
Rapid industrialisation since the 1960s has led to large influx of people to the city. Housing supply has not kept pace with demand, causing the number of slum dwellings to increase. Approximately 36% of the population lives in 486 slum areas. Of these, 45% of slum households do not have in-house toilet facilities and 10% do not have electricity. One third of the slums are on mixed ownership land. The living conditions in slums varies considerably, depending on their status (formal/informal) and in how far Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Community organizations (CBOs) and government agencies are involved and committed to improving local living conditions.
Since the 1990s a number of integrated townships and gated communities have been developed on the outskirts of the city on former agriculture land such as Magarpatta, Nanded, Amanora, Blue Ridge, Life Republic and Lavasa. Many of these were built by private developers and managed privately. They also offer business opportunities and access to infrastructure, which, by law, has to be significantly better than in the rest of the city. The largest of these, Magarpatta City, was developed by a local farmers’ community and described as "self-sustainable ecological habitat". According to the PMC, six townships with up to 15,000 housing units existed in Pune in 2012 and 25 more were in the planning process.
The Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings evaluated living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second highest in India after Hyderabad at 144. The same source highlights Pune as being among evolving business centres and as one of nine emerging cities around the world with the citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies". The 2017 Annual Survey of India’s City-Systems (ASICS) report, released by the Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, adjudged Pune as the best governed of 23 major cities.
Peths in Pune
Peth is a general term in the Marathi language for a locality in Pune. Up to seventeen peths are located in central Pune. Most were established during the Maratha empire era under the Peshwa rule of the city in the 18th century. Seven of them are named after the days of the week in Marathi: traders and craftsmen in a peth mainly conducted business on that day of the week. Today the peths form the heart of the city, and are referred to as the old city, or simply city. They are considered to be the cultural heart of Pune.
Government and public services
Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) is the civic body responsible for local government. It comprises two branches, the executive branch headed by the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Government of Maharashtra, and an elected deliberative branch, the general body, headed by the Mayor. Municipal elections are held every five years to elect councillors, commonly known as "corporators", who form the general body. The current general body of the PMC elected in February 2017 has 162 corporators representing 41 wards (39 with 4 corporators each and 2 with 3 each). The general body, in turn, elects the Mayor and the Deputy Mayor. The Mayor has a ceremonial role as the first citizen and ambassador of the city while the actual executive power lies with the Municipal Commissioner. For policy deliberations, corporators form several committees. Perhaps the most important of these is the 16-member Standing Committee, half of whose members retire every year. The Standing Committee and the 15 ward committees are in charge of financial approvals. PMC was ranked 8th out of 21 Indian cities for best governance and administrative practices in 2014. It scored 3.5 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.
The Pune City Police Department is the law enforcement agency for the twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad. It is a division of the Maharashtra Police and is headed by the Police Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The Pune Police Department reports to the State Ministry of Home Affairs. A separate police commissionerate was announced for Pimpri-Chinchwad in April 2018 to be carved out of Pune Police Department.
Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) was formed on 31 March 2015 and is responsible for the integrated development of the PMR. Currently its jurisdiction extends over 7,256.46 km2 (2,802 sq mi) and includes two municipal corporations, three cantonment boards, seven municipal councils, 13 census towns and 842 villages.
The PMC supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Khadakwasla Reservoir. There are five other reservoirs in the area that supply water to the city and the greater metropolitan area.
The city lacks the capacity to treat all the sewage it generates, which leads to the Mutha river containing only sewage outside the monsoon months. In 2009 only 65% of sewage generated was treated before being discharged into the rivers. PMC is also responsible for collecting solid waste. Around 1,600 tons of solid waste is generated in Pune each day. The waste consists of 53% organic, compostable material; and 47% inorganic material, of which around half is recyclable. The unrecovered solid waste is transported to the dumping grounds in Urali devachi.
The state owned Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited supplies electricity to the city. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), owned by the central government, as well as private enterprises such as Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.:25–26:179
Public transport in Pune includes Pune Suburban Railway, bus and Rainbow BRTS services operated by PMPML and auto rickshaws. Online transport network companies such as Uber and Ola Cabs also provide rideshare and taxi services in the city. Construction of Pune Metro, an urban mass rapid transit system, is underway as of 2018.
Local trains (electric multiple units) connect Pune to the industrial city of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala. Daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi, Jaipur, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Chennai, Bangalore, Allahabad, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Darbhanga, Goa, Gwalior, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric trip shed. Pune Railway Station is administered by the Pune Railway Division of Central Railways. All the railway lines to Pune are broad gauge.
Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). PMPML operates the Rainbow BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. The project has turned out to be a failure, receiving little patronage from the local citizenry. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to major cities throughout India.
Pune Metro, a mass rapid transit system, is under construction and is expected to be operational by 2021. The detailed project report was prepared for the initial two lines by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation which was approved by the State government in 2012 and by the central government in December 2016. Two lines, Line 1 from Pimpri-Chinchwad to Swargate and Line 2 from Ramwadi to Vanaz, with a combined length of 31.25 kilometres (19.42 mi), are being constructed by MahaMetro, a 50:50 joint venture of the State and central governments. Line 1 will run underground between Swargate and Range Hills be and elevated until Pimpri-Chinchwad. Line 2 will be completely elevated and will intersect Line 1 at the Civil Court interchange station in Shivajinagar.
Line 3 between Hinjewadi and Civil Court, Shivajinagar was approved by the state]] and central governments in January and March 2018, respectively. This 23.3-km line is being implemented by PMRDA on a public-private partnership basis.
Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian and state highways. National Highway 4 connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur. National Highway 65 to Hyderabad, Suryapet, Vijayawada and National Highway 50 to Nashik. State highways connect Pune to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad and Alandi. Pune is served by two intra-city highways: Old Mumbai–Pune Highway; and Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass, a part of National Highway 4. The Nashik City-Pune Highway (National Highway 50) will be part of the Nashik-Pune-Mumbai "Golden Triangle".
The Mumbai-Pune Expressway is India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002. Only four wheel vehicles are allowed on it. This expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to a little over two hours. A ring road is planned.
Once known as the "cycle city of India", Pune has experienced a rapid growth in the number of motorised two wheelers replacing the bicycle. In 2005 the city was reported to have one million two wheelers. The report also stated that the increase in vehicular and industrial activity had led to a 10-fold increase in particulate pollution in some areas of the city. A report published in 2016 estimated the number of two wheeler users in Pune at 3.5 million. In 2018 the number of vehicles in the city has exceeded its population with 3.62 million total vehicles, 2.70 million being two wheelers. In the fiscal year 2017–18 alone 300,000 new vehicles were registered in the city, two-thirds of them two wheelers.
A revival of cycling in Pune with 130 kilometres (81 mi) of cycle tracks built was attempted as a part of the BRT system under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in 2004. However, a 2011 report revealed that only 88 kilometres (55 mi) of tracks were actually built and most were unusable at the time of the report. Under the Smart Cities Mission, app based cycle sharing schemes have been launched in the city since late 2017. The PMC has devised the Pune Cycle Plan with 470 kilometres (290 mi) of cycle tracks planned. Cycles are also seen as a possible way of improving last mile connectivity for the metro system.
Pune International Airport is an international Airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base. In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, the airport has international direct flights to Dubai, operated by Air India Express, and Frankfurt, operated by Lufthansa.
A new international airport has been proposed , due to the limited capacity of the existing airport. A location in the Chakan-Rajgurunagar area was chosen for the airport, but non-availability of land delayed the project for over a decade. In September 2016 the location was changed to Purandar, c. 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the city.
Healthcare in the PMR is provided by private and public facilities. Primary care is provided by practitioners of western as well as traditional alternative medicine (i.e.Ayurved, Homeopathy and Unani). For minor and chronic ailments, people in the region have preference for practitioners of the traditional medicine.
The PMR is served by three government hospitals: Sassoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr. Ambedkar Hospital. There are also a number of private hospitals such as Sahyadri, Jahangir Nursing Home, Sancheti Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall and Dinanath Mangeshkar Hospital.
Education and research
Pune has over a hundred educational institutes and more than nine deemed universities apart from the Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU; formerly University of Pune), which is the second largest University in the country based on total number of affiliated colleges. Higher education institutes attract international students mainly from the Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, and United Arab Emirates, and also African countries such as Ethiopia and Kenya. Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. Other languages taught in the city include German, which is taught at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française.
The PMC runs 297 primary schools and 30 secondary and higher secondary schools. While it is mandatory for the PMC to provide primary education under state law, secondary education is an optional duty. In the rural and suburban areas of the PMR, public primary schools are run by the Pune Zilla Parishad. Private schools are run by education trusts and are required to undergo mandatory inspection by the concerned authorities. Private schools are eligible for financial aid from the state government. Public schools are affiliated to the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (State Board). The language of instruction in public schools is primarily Marathi, although the PMC also runs Urdu, English and Kannada medium schools. Along with these languages, private schools also offer instruction in Hindi and Gujarati. Private schools vary in their choice of curriculum and may follow the State Board or one of the two central boards of education, the CBSE or CISCE.
Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to the SPPU. Nine other universities have also been established in the city. Pune also hosts the Military Intelligence Training School which offers diploma courses in counter intelligence, combat intelligence, aerial imagery and interpretation, among others.
The College of Engineering Pune, an autonomous institute of the government of Maharashtra founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who was also responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. The Indian Law Society's (ILS) Law College is one of the top ten law schools in India. The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and B. J. Medical College are among the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India. The Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road. The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the SPPU campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of gurukul and formal education systems.
Symbiosis International University operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, including the Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, the Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies, the Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development, the Symbiosis Law School and the Symbiosis Institute of International Business. They are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country. The Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open source technology.
Pune is home to a number of governmental and non-governmental research institutes focusing on a wide range of subject areas from the humanities to the sciences. The Ministry of Defence also runs a number of defence related education, training and research establishments in and around the city. Major research centers include:
- Agharkar Research Institute (ARI)
- Armament Research Development Establishment (ARDE)
- Army Institute of Technology (AIT)
- Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)
- Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI)
- Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT)
- Central Water and Power Research Station (CW&PRS)
- Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
- Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
- Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT)
- National Defense Academy (NDA)
- Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics
- High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL)
- Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (IISER, Pune)
- Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) – scientists at IITM has made significant achievements in tropical weather
- Inter-university Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA)
- National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS)
- National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA)
- National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) – one of the leading chemical research establishments in India
- National Informatics Centre (NIC)
- National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM)
- National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR) – India's most reputed institute for Construction Management
- National Institute of Virology (NIV)
- National School of Leadership (NSL)
- National Insurance Academy (NIA)
Historical attractions include the rock-cut Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, Lal Mahal and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the great Maratha sardar, Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia). The city is also known for its British Raj bungalow architecture and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment from the early 20th century. Landmark architectural works by Christopher Charles Benninger surround the city, including the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.
Museums, parks and zoos
Museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Industrial Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum which is the biggest cricket museum in the world. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum; this includes a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train.The Aga Khan Palace, where Mahatma Gandhi was interned during the Quit India movement, has a memorial dedicated to his wife, Kasturba Gandhi who died here during the internment. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History,a private museum built by frenchman Francois Gautier opened its first phase in 2012.
Parks and green spaces in the city include the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Gardens, and Bund Garden . The Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan. The Hanuman hill, Vetal hill, and Taljai Hills are protected nature reserves on hills within the city limits. The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located in Katraj. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.
Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city. Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest indoor theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of 45,000. The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Sawai Gandharva. The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ (lit. Diwali dawn) originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.
Religious establishments and spirituality
The city is home to numerous religious establishments and places of worship for all religious groups residing in the city. These include Hindu temples, Jain temples, gurdwaras, Budhhist viharas, mosques, churches, Jewish synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples.
Of the many Hindu temples in the city, the temples on Parvati Hill and at least 250 others date back to the 18th century. These temples were commissioned by the Peshwas, who ruled the city at the time, and are dedicated to various deities including Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh. The historic temples of Kasba Ganapati, the Red Jogeshwari and the Dulya Maruti are considered the guardian deities of the city. Pune area has two of the most important pilgrimage centres of the Varkari sect of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra. These are the towns of Alandi where the samadhi of 13th century Saint Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where the 17th century Saint Tukaram lived. Every year in the Hindu month of Ashadh (June/July), the Paduka (symbolic sandals) of these saints are carried in a pilgrimage, the Vari, to meet Vithoba. The procession makes a stopover in the city on its way to Pandharpur attracting hundreds of thousands of Varkaris and other devotees. Other important Hindu pilgrimage sites in PMR or the district include Jejuri, and five of ashtavinayak Ganesh temples. The Shrutisagar Ashram houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy.
Prominent mosques include Chand Tara Masjid, Jama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five perfect masters, has a shrine (Dargah) erected in her honour under a neem tree in Pune Camp. Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras, with Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar in Pune Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha in Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. The 19th-century Ohel David Synagogue, known locally as Lal Deval, is said to be one of the largest synagogues in Asia outside Israel. The city has several churches dedicated to different christian denominations including St. Anthony's Shrine, Dapodi Church, etc. St. Patrick's Cathedral built in 1850 is the seat of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Poona. The Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Agiary is a prominent Zoroastrian temple. Pune has Jain temples dating back to the Peshwa era. At present, there are more than one hundred Jain temples in PMR with the one at Katraj being the largest.
Pune has been associated with several significant recent spiritual teachers. The controversial Guru Osho, formerly the self-styled Bhagwan Rajneesh, lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in Koregaon Park and attracts visitors from over a hundred countries.
A number of Marathi-language newspapers from the British era continued publishing decades after independence. These included Kesari, Tarun Bharat, Prabhat and the politically neutral Sakal. Sakal has remained the most popular Marathi daily. Kesari is now only published as an online newspaper. Mumbai based Maharashtra Times, Loksatta and Lokmat have all introduced Pune based editions in the last fifteen years. The Mumbai-based popular English newspaper the Indian Express has a Pune edition. Its rival the Times of India introduced a tabloid called Pune Mirror in 2008. Mid Day, Daily News and Analysis and Sakaal Times are other local English newspapers. The English-language newspaper The Hindu has launched[when?] a Pune edition covering local as well as national news.
The government owned All India Radio (AIR) has been broadcasting from Pune since 1953. Savitribai Phule Pune University broadcasts programmes focusing on its different departments and student welfare schemes on its own FM radio channel called Vidyavani. A number of commercial FM channels are also received in the city. The city receives almost all of the television channels in India including broadcast, cable and direct-to-home TV.
Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing, and chess. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium in Mangalwar Peth is the venue for wrestling and other traditional sports. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. Pune has basketball courts at the Deccan Gymkhana and at Fergusson College. Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in Sahakarnagar, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground. Other prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, the Poona Golf Club and the Poona Cricket Club.
The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The National Games of 1994 and the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in the city at the Balewadi Stadium. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The 37,000 seating capacity Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium has hosted international cricket – T20s, One Day Internationals, and a test match. The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is a two- or three-day event with activities including cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting. Pune Race Course was built in 1830 on 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land and is managed by the Royal Western India Turf Club. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. The racing season is from July to October every year and includes major racing events the Pune Derby, the RWITC Invitational, the Independence Cup and the Southern Command Cup. The city has also hosted the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.
The Maharashtra cricket team, one of the three teams of the Maharashtra Cricket Association that compete in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy, is based in the city. Pune Warriors India (2011-2014) and Rising Pune Supergiant (2016-2017) were the two teams based in Pune to play in the Indian Premier League. Poona District Football Association (PDFA) was established in 1972 and currently has more than 100 registered teams. FC Pune City is an Indian Super League football club in Pune. Established in 2014, FC Pune City became the only professional football club in India to have teams which participated at all levels of professional football; Senior Team (ISL), U-18 Team (I-League U-18), U- 16 Team, U-14 Team and the Women’s Team. The city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up in the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season. Pune also has an American football franchise, called the Pune Marathas, which began playing in the inaugural season of the Elite Football League of India in 2011 and which plays at the Balewadi Stadium.
- Twin towns and sister cities
- Culture of Pune
- List of people from Pune
- Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited
- Pune Metro
- Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje International Airport
- Choudhuri, Debjani Pal (2007). Community Planning for Intervention for Victims of Domestic Violence. Kassel University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-3-89958-346-5.
- Diddee, Jaymala (2000). Pune: Queen of the Deccan. Elephant Design Pvt. Limited. ISBN 8187693002.
- "Saurabh Rao to take over as civic chief todaySaurabh Rao is new civic commissioner – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
- "Municipal Commissioner Office, Pune". Official website of the Pune Municipal Corporation.
- "Saurabh Rao appointed PMC chief, Naval Kishore Ram is new Pune district collector". The Indian Express. 2018-04-17. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
- "Mukta Tilak, MBA, is Pune's first BJP mayor". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Bal Gangadhar Tilak descendant, Mukta Tilak files nomination for Mayor post". The Financial Express (India). Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- "11 newly merged villages in PMC rife with illegal constructions – Pune Mirror -". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "State approves merger of 11 villages, Pune adds 81sqkm – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority – PMRDA". www.pmrda.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "PMRDA eyes big boost to affordable housing sector – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "District Census Handbook – Pune" (PDF). Census of India. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner. p. 28. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "PIN Code: Pune, Maharashtra, India". findpincode.net.
- "Know Your RTO" (PDF). Motor Vehicles Department, Maharashtra.
- "Members : Lok Sabha". 188.8.131.52. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- "BJP anil shirole won Pune lok sabha seat by 3.15 lakh votes defeating vishwajeet kadam of congress. – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- "Definition of Pune". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- "Define Pune". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- "Culture, colleges, cyber hubs: Fifteen things to know about Pune". Hindustan Times. 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- Atre, Abhijit (2016-09-30). "What's in a name? A lot when it comes to Pune – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- Chakravorty, Abhimanyu (2016-04-13). "From Gurgaon to Gurugram: 20 cities that changed their names". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- "Pune City Census Department". Official website of PMC.
- "Constituents of Urban Agglomerations having Population 1 lakh and above – Census of India 2011" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. p. 34 of 61.
- "Pune Metropolitan Urban Region Population 2011 Census". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- Nalawade, S.B. "Geography of Pune Urban Area". Ranwa. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- "Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar". Daily News and Analysis. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Kanhere, G.K., 1993. Planning for the Pune Region. Architecture Plus Design, 10(6), p.60.
- Joshi, S.R., 1996. Mass media and cultural identity: Issues of ethnic co‐existence in India. Asian Journal of Communication, 6(1), pp.124–139.
- "The 'Oxford of the East' goes West". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Truly the Oxford of the East". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Serial Blasts Rock Oxford of the East". Little India. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- Byatnal, Amruta (2012-07-15). "Why Pune is an international favourite". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- "Exchange And Casual Students: Department of International Centre : University of Pune". www.unipune.ac.in. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- Guillain, Jean-Yves (2004). Badminton: An Illustrated History. Publibook. p. 47. ISBN 2-7483-0572-8.
- Connors, M; Dupuis, D. L.; Morgan, B (1991). The Olympics Factbook: A Spectator's Guide to the Winter and Summer Games. Visible Ink Press. p. 195. ISBN 0-8103-9417-0.
- "India Maharashtra Pune History Event Of Pune Time Line Of Pune (Punediary.com)". www.punediary.com. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- "Pune History – Origin & History of Pune – History of Puna India – History of Pune City". Pune.org.uk. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- JOGLEKAR, P.P.; DEO, SUSHAMA G.; BALAKAWADE, PANDURANG; DESHPANDE-MUKHERJEE, ARATI; RAJAGURU, S.N.; KULKARNI, AMOL N. (2006). "A NEW LOOK AT ANCIENT PUNE THROUGH SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY (2004–2006)". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 66/67: 211–225. JSTOR 42931448.
- Govind Sakharam Sardesai (1957). New History of the Marathas: Shivaji and his line (1600–1707). Phoenix Publications. p. 58.
- Gunaji, Milind (2003). Offbeat tracks in Maharashtra. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pp. 68–69. ISBN 8171546692. OCLC 54822004.
- Government, of Bombay (1885). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona (2 pts.). p. 321.
- "Monuments in Pune". Pune district administration. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- "The history of Muhiyabad err...Pune".
- S. N. Sen (2006). History Modern India. New Age International. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-224-1774-6.
- "Shrimant Bajirao Peshwa : Great warrior and protector of Hindu Dharma | Hindu Janajagruti Samiti". Hindujagruti.org. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "पुणे जिल्हा ऐतिहासिक महत्त्वाचे". Manase.org. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Kosambi, Meera (1989). Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind, ed. "Glory of Peshwa Pune". Economic and Political Weekly. 24 (5): 247–250. JSTOR 4394341.
- Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1985). "The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 105 (4): 719–724. doi:10.2307/602730. JSTOR 602730.
- Khare, K. C.; Jadhav, M. S. (2008). "Water Quality Assessment of Katraj Lake, Pune (Maharashtra, India): A Case Study" (PDF). Proceedings of Taal2007. The 12th World Lake Conference: 292–299 – via Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.
- Brahme, Sulabha; Gole, Prakash (1967). Deluge in Poona: Aftermath and rehabilitation. Poona: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics; Asia Publishing House. pp. 14–47.
- Gokhale, Pallavee; Deo, Sushama G. (19 August 2016). "Digital Reconstruction and Visualisation of Peshwa Period Water System of Pune". Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology. 4: 653–669.
- "It's true: Peshwa-era water duct still fresh! – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
- Preston, Laurence W. (April 2002). "Shrines and neighbourhood in early nineteenth-century Pune, India". Journal of Historical Geography. 28 (2): 203–215. doi:10.1006/jhge.2001.0398. ISSN 0305-7488 – via Science Direct.
- "Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- M. S. Naravane (2006). Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj. APH Publishing. pp. 80–86. ISBN 978-81-313-0034-3.
- Petkar, A.S. and Diwan, G.R., 2012, June. Urban Renewal of the Sadar Bazaar Area in Pune Cantonment. In Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Architecture and Civil Engineering (AARCV 2012) (Vol. 21, p. 613), http://www.conference.bonfring.org/papers/MSR_AARCV2012/AR09UD.pdf.
- Pike, John. "India – Army Southern Command Order of Battle". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- "Southern Command HQ set to archive Army's glory | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 2013-11-12. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "Southern Command: Army's shining star". OneIndia. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- Gazetteer of The Bombay Presidency: Poona (Part 2). Government Central press. 1885. p. 156.
- Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona (2 pts.). Government Central Press. 1885. p. 308.
- "The Other Liberal Light". The New Republic. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- John B. Severance (1997). Gandhi, Great Soul. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 113–115. ISBN 0-395-77179-X.
- PMC Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "History of University". Official website of the SPPU. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "National Chemical Laboratory". www.ncl-india.org. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "History of NDA". Official website of the National Defence Academy, Pune. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- B.D. Kolekar (1993). Human Resources Development. Northern Book Centre. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-81-7211-044-4.
- "Historical Events in Pune". NIC – District-Pune. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- Menon, Sudha (30 March 2002). "Pimpri-Chinchwad industrial belt: Placing Pune at the front". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "hindu" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Heitzman, James (2008). The city in South Asia. London: Routledge. p. 213. ISBN 978-0415574266. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Tata Motors Manufacturing Facility - Pune". www.tatamotors.com. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- Brahme, S; GOLE,, P., (1967). Deluge in Poona. GOKHALE INSTITUTE OF POLITICS AND ECONOMIC Asia Publishing House. pp. 14–47.
- Singh, Vijay P. (1996). Dam breach modeling technology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0792339250. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Joshi, Ashutosh (2008). Town planning regeneration of cities. New Delhi: New India Pub. Agency. p. 74. ISBN 9788189422820. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "The Mumbai-Pune expressway". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- "Pune to get piped compressed natural gas before CYG". The Punekar. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- Harmeet Singh (13 February 2010). "Eight killed in India restaurant blast". CNN. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- "9 killed, 40 injured in Pune bomb blast". The Hindu. PTI. 2010-02-13. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- Sakaal news service (14 February 2010). "पुण्यावर दहशतवादी हल्ला; नऊ ठार, ५७ जखमी" (in Marathi). sSakal.com. Retrieved 14 February 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Harsh V. Pant (6 October 2015). Handbook of Indian Defence Policy: Themes, Structures and Doctrines. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-38008-5.
- "City sweats as mercury hits season's high". The Times of India. 17 April 2003. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
- "Brrr... it's almost March, and Pune's shivering!". The Times of India. 23 February 2005. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
- "Pune Climatological Information 1951–1980". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Extreme Temperatures in India up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Pune Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Pune prone to transmitive quake waves, says expert – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
- Dev, S. M. S. P.; Nagarajan, R. (2017). "Seismic hazard assessment of Koyna region, Peninsular India: using geospatial approach". Geoenvironmental Disasters. 4 (1). doi:10.1186/s40677-017-0092-y.
- "Seismic Zones". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
- "High-risk seismic zones in India: How prone is your city to earthquakes". The Indian Express. 2017-09-21. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
- "Top Ten Wealthiest Towns of India". Maps of India. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Haritas, Bhragu. "Richest Cities Of India". BW Businessworld. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
- Kaul, S., 2006. Higher education in India; seizing the opportunity.INDIAN COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS 
- Top universities of Largest metropolitan economy -Pune, January −31, 2015, AICTE David
- Agarwal, Sagar; Gupta, Kunal; Garg, Mayank (2015). "Scope & Comparison Of Student Housing Industry In India" (PDF). International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research. 2 (11): 4263–4271. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- "K. K. Swamy appointed MD of Volkswagen India". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Kirloskar Oil Engines". India Business Insight. 31 August 2004. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Kirloskar Brothers restructure group". CNBC-TV18. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Pump Industry in India – Overview, Market, Manufacturers, Opportunities". Indian Pumps And Valves. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
- "The boom is over in Detroit. But now India has its own motor city". The Independent. London. 20 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
- "Business Standard 26th Oct 2011".
- "DNA 17th Nov 2010".
- "Serum Institute of India to invest Rs 1,000 crore to set up new facility". The Economic Times. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- "Journey from auto hub to Industry 4.0 in Pune". The Indian Express. 2017-07-10. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
- Bari, Prachi (7 December 2007). "Hinjawadi, the land of opportunity". The Economic times. India. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- "Hinjawadi IT park". The MegaPolis. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- Banerjee, Shoumojit (2017-05-27). "Pune, where panic reigns an IT campus". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
- "Pune Based TripHobo Raises $3 Mln Series B Funding".
- "Food delivery service Foodpanda acquires rival TastyKhana".
- "Startups find Pune a fertile ground".
- "Start-up Warehouses set up in Navi Mumbai and Pune | NASSCOM". www.nasscom.in. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
- "PuneFoodHub.com – Food Cluster Pune". Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "PuneFoodHub.com – Project Partners". Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "Pune gets green light for massive MICE centre". TTGmice. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Pune City Population Census 2011 | Maharashtra". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
- "Demographics of Pune". Punepages.com. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Pune's GDP at Rs 46,000 is 50 pc higher than India's". The Indian Express. 28 July 2006. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
- "Annexure I" (PDF). Fire Hazards Response and Mitigation Plan. Pune Municipal Corporation. 2001. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Revised Action Plan for Control of Air Pollution in Pune" (PDF). Census of India, Government of India (2001). Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- Khairkar, V.P., 2008. Segregation of Migrants Groups in Pune City, India. Anthropologist, 10(2), pp.155–161.
- Barnouw, V., 1966. The Sindhis, Mercantile Refugees in India: Problems of their assimilation. Phylon (1960–), 27(1), pp.40–49.
- Pordié, Laurent; Lalitha, N. (24 May 2006). "Research Update: Transversal Themes of Indian Society and Medicines" (PDF). Department of Social Sciences, The French Institute of Pondicherry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2008.
- "Indian Urban Resource Millennium Assessment by Naturalists" (PDF). (183 KB)
- "Pune to become 7th metro city in India: Assocham – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Pune District Population Census 2011, Maharashtra literacy sex ratio and density". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- "Socio – Economic Survey Of Pune City" (PDF). p. 273. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Heitzman, James (2008). The City in South Asia. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-134-28963-9.
- Joshi, Ashutosh (2008). Town planning regeneration of cities. New Delhi: New India Pub. Agency. pp. 73–84. ISBN 9788189422820.
- Bari, Prachi (2007-12-07). "Hinjewadi: The land of opportunity". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- Kulkarni, Prachee (2012-03-30). "Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjewadi facing infrastructural problems". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- "Wagholi grows, but traffic crawls on narrow stretch – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- "Expanding Pune: Wagholi suffocating on fumes of garbage". Hindustan Times. 2018-02-24. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
- "Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority – PMRDA". www.pmrda.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- "PMRDA gets state govt nod; notification soon, says CM". The Indian Express. 2015-03-27. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- "'PMRDA area notified, DP to be announced in a year'". The Indian Express. 2017-06-20. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- Butsch, Carsten; Kumar, Shamita; Wagner, Paul D.; Kroll, Mareike; Kantakumar, Lakshmi N.; Bharucha, Erach (2017). "Growing 'Smart'? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration". Sustainability. 9 (12): 2335.
- Singh, Vijay P. (1996). Dam Breach Modeling Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-94-015-8747-1.
- Marinos, P.G. (editor); Deolankar, S; Kulkarni, H; Lalwani, A (2001). Engineering geology and the environment : proceedings International Symposium on Engineering Geology and the Environment, organized by the Greek National Group of IAEG, Athens, Greece, 23–27 June 1997. Rotterdam [u.a.]: Balkema. pp. 1327–1333. ISBN 9054108819.
- Bapat, Meera (2009). Poverty Lines and Lives of the Poor: Underestimation of Urban Poverty – the Case of India. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-84369-724-4.
- SINGH, T. LALITH (2012). "What are integrated townships?". The Hindu (October 27). Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "Mercer Quality of Living Rankings". Mercer. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "Quality of Living City Rankings". Mercer Information Solutions business. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- SHARMA, NIDHI (2018-03-15). "Pune adjudged best governed city". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
- Gadgil, D. R. (1945). Poona A Socio-Economic Survey Part I. Pune, India: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics. p. 14. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "PMC Administrative Structure" (PDF). Official Website of Pune Municipal Corporation.
- "PMC ELECTION 2017 WINNING CANDIDATE LIST". Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Maharashtra Municipal Corporation Act, 1949" (PDF). Official Website of the Pune Municipal Corporation.
- Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India's City-Systems" (PDF). Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- "Police commissionerate for Pimpri Chinchwad gets state nod – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- "Rs 323 crore set aside for New Pimpri Chinchwad Police Commissionerate". Hindustan Times. 2018-04-04. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
- "PMRDA formed to push projects on fast track". Retrieved 2015-10-07.
- Tirthkar, S.N., 2009. Master plan 2025 of Pune Municipal Corporation for sewage treatment and disposal. J Inst Public Health Eng, 2, pp.13–19.
- Wagh, G.K. and Ghate, H.V., 2003. Freshwater fish fauna of the rivers Mula and Mutha, Pune, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal, 18(1), pp.977–981.
- Butsch, C., Kumar, S., Wagner, P.D., Kroll, M., Kantakumar, L.N., Bharucha, E., Schneider, K. and Kraas, F., 2017. Growing ‘Smart’? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration. Sustainability, 9(12), p.2335 .
- "Annual report 2010–11" (PDF). Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "Pune Metro work hits top gear". Hindustan Times. 2017-12-23. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Accolades for Pune division of Central Railway". The Indian Express. 21 April 2009.
- "Welcome to Central Railways" (in Hindi). Central Railways. Archived from the original on 5 July 2011.
- Manish Umbrajkar (5 March 2009). "2 years on, country's first BRTS remains incomplete". Times of India.
- "Maharashtra State Road Transport". IndiaTransit.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- "Pune Metro to operate at full steam in 2021, says Maha-Metro chief". Hindustan Times. 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Pune Metro rail to be operational by 2021, say officials". The Indian Express. 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Alternate form of public transport is the only option for Pune | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 2013-01-17. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Pune's Metro ride a distant dream | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 2014-06-09. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Pune Metro plan gets green signal from Union cabinet". The Indian Express. 2016-12-08. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Pune metro rail project gets go-ahead from Centre – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Welcome to Pune Metro Rail Project | Project Profile". www.punemetrorail.org. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Hinjewadi to Shivajinagar Metro line gets state nod – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Hinjewadi-Shivajinagar Metro gets Centre funds – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Bids invited for third Metro line in Pune". The Financial Express. 2018-03-17. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- "Centre allocates Rs.2,468 crore for Pune's ring road project". Hindustan Times. 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
- "PMRDA has transformed Pune in three years, says Girish Bapat". Hindustan Times. 2018-04-10. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
- "PCMC grants Rs 6 crore for ring road project". The Times of India. 19 June 2003.
- MAUNDER, D, C PALMER, A ASTROP AND M BABU (1 997). Attitudes and travel behaviour of residents in Pune, India. Transportation Research Board, 76th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., January 12–17, 1997 .
- Safai, Pramod Digambar; Surya Prakasa Rao, Pasumarti; Momin,, Gafur Abulal; Kaushar Ali, Kaushar Ali; Chate, Dilip Motiram; Praveen, Puppala Siva; Sattilingam Devara, Panuganti China (2005). "Variation in the Chemistry of Aerosols in two Different Winter Seasons at Pune and Sinhagad, India" (PDF). Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 5 (1): 115–126.
- Desai, M., Khandelwal, S., Singh, L. and Gite, S. (2016). "Automatic Helmet Detection On Public Roads" (PDF). International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT). 35 (5): 185–188.
- "Pune now officially has more vehicles than people: Here's more!". The Financial Express. 2018-04-06. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
- "Pune now has more vehicles than humans". Zee News. 2018-04-06. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
- "Pune gets nearly 3 lakh new vehicles in a year – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
- "Cycle Track Assessment – Report". parisar.org. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- Byatnal, Amruta (2012-12-09). "Can Pune get back on track?". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Cycle renting scheme on track, with special app – Pune Mirror -". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Bicycle-sharing scheme a hit, moves into top gear in Pune". The Indian Express. 2018-03-05. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Cycle sharing plan comes to JM, FC roads – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "PMC gives green signal for Pune Cycle Plan, 470-km of segregated tracks". Hindustan Times. 2017-11-22. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Pune Cycle Plan". Official Website of the Pune Municipal Corporation.
- "Pune civic body sets up bicycle department – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Pune Metro Rail project: Euro 845 mn funding expected to close by March 2018". The Financial Express. 2017-11-10. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Pune City". St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011.
- "Pune goes global". The Times of India. 13 December 2005. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Express News Service (1 July 2008). "City gears up for its first all-biz class Frankfurt-Pune flight". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Chakan airport gets state nod". Times of India. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Proposed Pune airport plan to get push – Indian Express". archive.indianexpress.com. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "A decade on, it's official: International airport to come up at Purandar, Pune". The Indian Express. 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "Airports Authority Selects Purandar For International Airport Near Pune: Devendra Fadnavis". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- "AAI selects Purandar for greenfield intl airport near Pune: CM". India Today. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
- Warner, Koko; Bohle, Hans-Georg (Editors); Butsch, Carsten (Author) (2008). Megacities Resilience and Social Vulnerability, Section 2: Access to Healthcare in the Fragmented Setting of India’s Fast Growing Agglomerations – a Case Study of Pune (PDF). UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS). p. 70. ISBN 978-3-939923-12-1.
- Kaul, Sanat (May 2006). "Higher Education in India: Seizing the Opportunity (working paper)" (PDF). Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- Dongaonkar, D., Negi, U.R., House, A.I.U. and Marg, C.I.G.K., 2009. International Students in Indian Universities. Europe, 178(206), pp.238–309.
- "Express India". Cities.expressindia.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "As per state government order, Pune Municipal Corporation dissolves education board". The Indian Express. 2017-06-15. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- "Secondary and technical education". Official website of the PMC. 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
- "Govt dissolves education board; schools now under Pune Municipal Corporation's wing - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- "Maharashtra Assembly passes bill allowing private companies to open schools in state, sets guidelines". Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- Joshi, R., Regulatory Requirements for Starting a School in Poona. Centre for Civil Society, CCS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP PAPERS 2004 
- "PMC schools to run junior colleges from 2018-19 - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
- "Free sanitary napkins for girls in civic schools - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
- "Zilla Parishad Pune". www.punezp.org. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
- "CBSE Class XII Results: Pune schools stand tall; Arts students shine again – Pune Mirror -". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
- "High 90% scores & full marks in subjects bring cheer to ICSE schools – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-05-27.
- "List of Deemed Universities". University Grants Commission. Retrieved January 1, 2014.
- "Military Intelligence Training School and Depot". Bcud.unipune.ac.in. Retrieved 2015-05-30.
- "History". Deccan Education Society. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- "ILS Law College Best Law Colleges 2014 India Today Survey". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 2015-05-30.
- "Chap". Sainik Samachar. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009.
- Devayani Shahane (17 June 2003). "Performing arts degree slowly taking centre stage". Times of India. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "India's best B-schools". Business Today. 10 September 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "India's best law schools".
- "Symbiosis Institute of technology"
- "C-DAC: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, DeitY, India".
- "Iitm-Home". Tropmet.res.in. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- N. G. Rathod (1994). The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia. Sarup & Sons. p. 156. ISBN 978-81-85431-52-9.
- "A Japanese paradise in Pune". The Times of India. 4 September 2004. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- "By July, bigger enclosures, battery-operated vehicles for Katraj zoo". The Indian Express. 29 March 2007. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- Deshpande, Devidas. "Theatre producers twist plot for drama bookings". Times of India.
- S. Kumar (2002). Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects, Volume 67. Indian Institute of Architects.
- Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop culture India! : media, arts, and lifestyle. Oxford: ABC-Clio. ISBN 9781851096367.
- Abhijit Atre (19 June 1998). "City's largest open-air theatre gets a roof". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- TNN (25 November 2008). "Sawai Gandharva music fest to start from Dec 11 – Pune – City – The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Prachi Bari. "Diwali Pahat puts Pune in the mood". Indiatimes. Archived from the original on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Pune Religions". Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- Preston, Laurence W. "Shrines and neighbourhood in early nineteenth-century Pune, India. " Journal of Historical Geography 28. 2 (2002): 203-215.
- Kumar, Ravinder (2004). Western India in the Nineteenth century (Repr. ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0415330480.
- Kosambi, Meera (1989). "Glory of Peshwa Pune". Economic and Political Weekly. 248 (5): 247.
- Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1985). "The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 105 (4): 719–724. JSTOR 602730.
- "Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Kantak, M. R. (1991–92). "Urbanization of Pune: How Its Ground Was Prepared". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 51/52: 489–495. JSTOR 42930432.
- Bombay (India : State) (1885). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ... Government Central Press.
- "Photo of Babajan's Samadhi tomb shrine in Pune". Trustmeher.com. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "At Babajan Dargah rests the legacy of an old saint – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
- "The wanderers who found home - Pune Mirror -". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
- "The Bene-Israel and Baghdadi Jews of India: A history of this minority community - Firstpost". www.firstpost.com. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
- M. Whitney Kelting (2 August 2001). Singing to the Jinas: Jain Laywomen, Mandal Singing, and the Negotiations of Jain Devotion. Oxford University Press. pp. 8, 15. ISBN 978-0-19-803211-3.
- Jeffrey, Robin (22 February 1997). "Marathi: Big newspapers are elephants". Economic and Political Weekly. 32, No. 8, ... (22–28 Feb., 1997). JSTOR 4405111.
- "SMT. CLAUDE-LILA PARULEKAR versus M/S. SAKAL PAPERS PVT. LTD. & ORS". www.rishabhdara.com.
- Pal, R. "Smt. Claude-Lila Parulekar vs M/S. Sakal Papers Pvt. Ltd. & Ors on 18 March, 2005". /indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- U. L. BARUAH (3 November 2017). This is All India Radio. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-81-230-2578-0.
- "Vidyavani 107.4 FM : University of Pune's Online Radio Station". vidyavani.unipune.ac.in. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
- Gadekar, M., 2012. Distant participation is a reasonable strategy–A comparative study based on FM channels in Pune. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 2(7), pp.115–124.
- "Pune Basketball". Open Salon. Archived from the original on 25 October 2013.
- "Skateboarding enthusiasts cheer civic body for opening a park in city". Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "India to host England in five match Test series". 15 July 2016.
- "Pump up the adrenaline – Pune Times". Times of India. 23 January 2003.
- "RWITC – The Pune Race Course". Archived from the original on 23 February 2010.
- Pune Warriors India – The Team Archived 17 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "FC Pune City only ISL club to have a team in the inaugural IWL". MyKhel. 2017-01-25. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
- "Topic Galleries". Chicago Tribune.[dead link]
- Sean Gregory (4 August 2011). "'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India". Time.
- "World Trade Centers Association". www.wtca.org. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
- "Commercial Projects in Kharadi Pune | World Trade Center (WTC) Pune". wtcpune.com. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
- "US-India Sister City Relationships". Asia matters for America. Retrieved 2017-04-10.
- "Sister City Program". San José City Hall. Retrieved 2015-10-21.
- "Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Vacoas Phoenix. Municipal Council of Vacoas-Phoenix. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "Sister in progress". Times of India – Pune Times. 30 August 2001.
- "Profile: Mrs. Vandana H. Chavan (Ex Mayor of Pune)". Pune Diary. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
- "Pune, twin cities to get pollution lab". Times of India – Pune Times. 4 September 2001.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pune.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pune.|